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1.
Ann Surg ; 268(2): 357-363, 2018 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28486392

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine the prognostic relevance, clinical characteristics, and 30-day outcomes associated with myocardial injury after noncardiac surgery (MINS) in vascular surgical patients. BACKGROUND: MINS has been independently associated with 30-day mortality after noncardiac surgery. The characteristics and prognostic importance of MINS in vascular surgery patients are poorly described. METHODS: This was an international prospective cohort study of 15,102 noncardiac surgery patients 45 years or older, of whom 502 patients underwent vascular surgery. All patients had fourth-generation plasma troponin T (TnT) concentrations measured during the first 3 postoperative days. MINS was defined as a TnT of 0.03 ng/mL of higher secondary to ischemia. The objectives of the present study were to determine (i) if MINS is prognostically important in vascular surgical patients, (ii) the clinical characteristics of vascular surgery patients with and without MINS, (iii) the 30-day outcomes for vascular surgery patients with and without MINS, and (iv) the proportion of MINS that probably would have gone undetected without routine troponin monitoring. RESULTS: The incidence of MINS in the vascular surgery patients was 19.1% (95% confidence interval (CI), 15.7%-22.6%). 30-day all-cause mortality in the vascular cohort was 12.5% (95% CI 7.3%-20.6%) in patients with MINS compared with 1.5% (95% CI 0.7%-3.2%) in patients without MINS (P < 0.001). MINS was independently associated with 30-day mortality in vascular patients (odds ratio, 9.48; 95% CI, 3.46-25.96). The 30-day mortality was similar in MINS patients with (15.0%; 95% CI, 7.1-29.1) and without an ischemic feature (12.2%; 95% CI, 5.3-25.5, P = 0.76). The proportion of vascular surgery patients who suffered MINS without overt evidence of myocardial ischemia was 74.1% (95% CI, 63.6-82.4). CONCLUSIONS: Approximately 1 in 5 patients experienced MINS after vascular surgery. MINS was independently associated with 30-day mortality. The majority of patients with MINS were asymptomatic and would have gone undetected without routine postoperative troponin measurement.


Assuntos
Isquemia Miocárdica/diagnóstico , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/diagnóstico , Troponina T/sangue , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Vasculares , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Biomarcadores/sangue , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Isquemia Miocárdica/sangue , Isquemia Miocárdica/epidemiologia , Isquemia Miocárdica/etiologia , Razão de Chances , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/sangue , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Prognóstico , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Prospectivos
2.
Eur J Heart Fail ; 19(1): 138-147, 2017 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27790824

RESUMO

AIMS: The effect of combined cytokine and cell therapy in ischaemic cardiomyopathy is unknown. Meta-analyses suggest improved cardiac function with cell therapy. The optimal cell delivery route remains unclear. We investigated whether granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) alone or in combination with intracoronary (i.c.) or intramyocardial (i.m.) injection of autologous bone marrow-derived cells (BMCs) improves cardiac function. METHODS AND RESULTS: Ninety patients with symptomatic ischaemic cardiomyopathy and no further treatment options were enrolled in the randomized, placebo-controlled, single-centre REGENERATE-IHD study. Randomization was to one of three arms: peripheral, i.c., or i.m. In each arm, patients were randomized to active treatment or placebo. All patients, apart from the peripheral placebo group (saline only) received G-CSF for 5 days. The i.c. and i.m. arms received either BMCs or serum (placebo). The primary endpoint was change in LVEF at 1 year assessed by cardiac magnetic resonance imaging/computed tomography. The i.m. BMC group showed a significant improvement in LVEF of 4.99% (95% confidence interval 0.33-9.6%; P = 0.038) at 1 year. This group also showed a reduction in NYHA class at 1 year and NT-proBNP at 6 months. No other group showed a significant change in LVEF. This finding is supported by post-hoc between-group comparisons. CONCLUSION: We have shown that G-CSF combined with autologous i.m. BMCs has a beneficial effect on cardiac function and symptoms. However, this result should be considered preliminary in support of a clinical benefit of i.m. stem cell infusion in 'no option' patients and needs further exploration in a larger study.


Assuntos
Transplante de Medula Óssea/métodos , Cardiomiopatias/terapia , Fator Estimulador de Colônias de Granulócitos/uso terapêutico , Transplante de Células-Tronco/métodos , Idoso , Cardiomiopatias/sangue , Cardiomiopatias/etiologia , Cardiomiopatias/fisiopatologia , Vasos Coronários , Feminino , Humanos , Injeções Intra-Arteriais , Injeções Intramusculares , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Isquemia Miocárdica/complicações , Miocárdio , Peptídeo Natriurético Encefálico/sangue , Fragmentos de Peptídeos/sangue , Volume Sistólico , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Transplante Autólogo , Reino Unido
3.
Interv Cardiol ; 12(2): 133-136, 2017 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29588742

RESUMO

Patients with severe aortic stenosis who require non-cardiac surgery present a difficult clinical problem. The most recent clinical practice guidelines from the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association and the European Society of Cardiology for the perioperative cardiovascular assessment and management of patients undergoing noncardiac surgery were both published in 2014. These guidelines are reviewed in the light of recently published randomised controlled trial data regarding the efficacy of transcatheter aortic valve implantation to treat aortic stenosis.

4.
Circ Cardiovasc Interv ; 8(6): e002206, 2015 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26038482

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PPCI) is the treatment of choice for ST-segment-elevation myocardial infarction. Resources are limited during out of working hours (OWH). Whether PPCI outside working hours is associated with worse outcomes and whether outcomes have improved over time are unknown. METHODS AND RESULTS: We analyzed 11 466 patients undergoing PPCI between 2004 and 2011 at all 8 tertiary cardiac centers in London, United Kingdom. We defined working hours as 9 am to 5 pm (Monday to Friday). We analyzed in-hospital bleeding and all-cause mortality ≤3 years, comparing OWH versus in-working hours. A total of 7494 patients (65.3%) were treated during OWH. Multivariable analyses demonstrated that PPCI during OWH was not a predictor for bleeding (odds ratio, 1.47; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.97-2.24; P=0.071) or 3-year mortality (hazard ratio, 1.11; 95% CI, 0.94-1.32; P=0.20). This was confirmed in propensity-matched analyses. Time-stratified analyses demonstrated that PPCI during OWH was a predictor for bleeding (odds ratio, 2.00; 95% CI, 1.06-3.80; P=0.034) and 3-year mortality during 2005 to 2008 (hazard ratio, 1.23; 95% CI, 1.00-1.50; P=0.050), but this association was lost during 2009 to 2011. During 2005 to 2008, transradial access was predominantly used during in-working hours and PPCI during OWH was predictive of reduced transradial access use (odds ratio, 0.83; 95% CI, 0.71-0.98; P=0.033), but this association was lost during 2009 to 2011. CONCLUSIONS: In this study of unselected patients with ST-segment-elevation myocardial infarction, PPCI during OWH versus in-working hours had comparable bleeding and mortality. Time-stratified analyses demonstrated a reduction in adjusted bleeding and mortality during OWH over time. This may reflect the improved service provision, but the increased adoption of transradial access during OWH may also be contributory.


Assuntos
Hemorragia/etiologia , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea/efeitos adversos , Qualidade da Assistência à Saúde , Idoso , Feminino , Hemorragia/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos Estatísticos , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea/mortalidade , Pontuação de Propensão , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Tempo , Reino Unido/epidemiologia
5.
JAMA Intern Med ; 174(8): 1360-6, 2014 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25055138

RESUMO

IMPORTANCE: Intracoronary pressure wire-derived measurements of fractional flow reserve (FFR) and intravascular ultrasonography (IVUS) provide functional and anatomical information that can be used to guide coronary stent implantation. Although these devices are widely used and recommended by guidelines, limited data exist about their effect on clinical end points. OBJECTIVE: To determine the effect on long-term survival of using FFR and IVUS during percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). DESIGN AND SETTING: Cohort study based on the pan-London (United Kingdom) PCI registry. In total, 64,232 patients are included in this registry covering the London, England, area. PARTICIPANTS: All patients (n = 41,688) who underwent elective or urgent PCI in National Health Service hospitals in London between January 1, 2004, and July 31, 2011, were included. Patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (n = 11,370) were excluded. INTERVENTIONS: Patients underwent PCI guided by angiography (visual lesion assessment) alone, PCI guided by FFR, or IVUS-guided PCI. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES: The primary end point was all-cause mortality at a median of 3.3 years. RESULTS: Fractional flow reserve was used in 2767 patients (6.6%) and IVUS was used in 1831 patients (4.4%). No difference in mortality was observed between patients who underwent angiography-guided PCI compared with patients who underwent FFR-guided PCI (hazard ratio, 0.88; 95% CI, 0.67-1.16; P = .37). Patients who underwent IVUS had a slightly higher adjusted mortality (hazard ratio, 1.39; 95% CI, 1.09-1.78; P = .009) compared with patients who underwent angiography-guided PCI. However, this difference was no longer statistically significant in a propensity score-based analysis (hazard ratio, 1.33; 95% CI, 0.85-2.09; P = .25). The mean (SD) number of implanted stents was lower in the FFR group (1.1 [1.2] stents) compared with the IVUS group (1.6 [1.3]) and the angiography-guided group (1.7 [1.1]) (P < .001). CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: In this large observational study, FFR-guided PCI and IVUS-guided PCI were not associated with improved long-term survival compared with standard angiography-guided PCI. The use of FFR was associated with the implantation of fewer stents.


Assuntos
Angina Estável/terapia , Reserva Fracionada de Fluxo Miocárdico , Mortalidade , Infarto do Miocárdio/terapia , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea/métodos , Stents , Ultrassonografia de Intervenção/métodos , Idoso , Estudos de Coortes , Angiografia Coronária , Feminino , Humanos , Londres/epidemiologia , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infarto do Miocárdio/epidemiologia , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/epidemiologia , Taxa de Sobrevida
6.
Circ Cardiovasc Interv ; 7(4): 456-64, 2014 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24963013

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Compared with transfemoral access, transradial access (TRA) for percutaneous coronary intervention is associated with reduced risk of bleeding and vascular complications. Studies suggest that TRA may reduce mortality in patients with ST-segment-elevation myocardial infarction. However, there are few data on the effect of TRA on mortality, specifically, in patients with non-ST-segment-elevation myocardial infarction. METHODS AND RESULTS: We analyzed 10 095 consecutive patients with non-ST-segment-elevation myocardial infarction treated with percutaneous coronary intervention between 2005 and 2011 in all 8 tertiary cardiac centers in London, United Kingdom. TRA was a predictor for reduced bleeding (odds ratio=0.21; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.08-0.57; P=0.002), access-site complications (odds ratio=0.47; 95% CI: 0.23-0.95; P=0.034), and 1-year mortality (hazard ratio [HR]=0.72; 95% CI: 0.54-0.94; P=0.017). Between 2005 and 2007, TRA did not appear to reduce mortality at 1 year (HR=0.81; 95% CI: 0.51-1.28; P=0.376), whereas between 2008 and 2011, TRA conferred survival benefit at 1 year (HR=0.65; 95% CI: 0.46-0.92; P=0.015). The mortality benefit with TRA at 1 year was not seen at the low-volume centers (HR=0.80; 95% CI: 0.47-1.38; P=0.428) but specifically seen in the high volume radial centers (HR=0.70; 95% CI: 0.51-0.97; P=0.031). In propensity-matched analyses, TRA remained a predictor for survival at 1 year (HR=0.60; 95% CI: 0.42-0.85; P=0.005). Instrumental variable analysis demonstrated that TRA conferred mortality benefit at 1-year with an absolute mortality reduction of 5.8% (P=0.039). CONCLUSIONS: In this analysis of patients with non-ST-segment-elevation myocardial infarction, TRA appears to be a predictor for survival. Furthermore, the evolving learning curve, experience, and expertise may be important factors contributing to the prognostic benefit conferred with TRA.


Assuntos
Artéria Femoral/cirurgia , Infarto do Miocárdio/diagnóstico , Infarto do Miocárdio/cirurgia , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea/métodos , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/prevenção & controle , Artéria Radial/cirurgia , Idoso , Estudos de Coortes , Eletrocardiografia , Feminino , Humanos , Londres , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infarto do Miocárdio/mortalidade , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Análise de Sobrevida , Centros de Atenção Terciária , Resultado do Tratamento , Reino Unido
7.
BMJ Open ; 3(6)2013 Jun 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23811175

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Timely delivery of primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PPCI) is the treatment of choice for ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). Optimum delivery of PPCI requires an integrated network of hospitals, following a multidisciplinary, consultant-led, protocol-driven approach. We investigated whether such a strategy was effective in providing equally effective in-hospital and long-term outcomes for STEMI patients treated by PPCI within normal working hours compared with those treated out-of-hours (OOHs). DESIGN: Observational study. SETTING: Large PPCI centre in London. PARTICIPANTS: 3347 STEMI patients were treated with PPCI between 2004 and 2012. The follow-up median was 3.3 years (IQR: 1.2-4.6 years). PRIMARY AND SECONDARY OUTCOME MEASURES: The primary endpoint was long-term major adverse cardiac events (MACE) with all-cause mortality a secondary endpoint. RESULTS: Of the 3347 STEMI patients, 1299 patients (38.8%) underwent PPCI during a weekday between 08:00 and 18:00 (routine-hours group) and 2048 (61.2%) underwent PPCI on a weekday between 18:00 and 08:00 or a weekend (OOHs group). There were no differences in baseline characteristics between the two groups with comparable door-to-balloon times (in-hours (IHs) 67.8 min vs OOHs 69.6 min, p=0.709), call-to-balloon times (IHs 116.63 vs OOHs 127.15 min, p=0.60) and procedural success. In hospital mortality rates were comparable between the two groups (IHs 3.6% vs OOHs 3.2%) with timing of presentation not predictive of outcome (HR 1.25 (95% CI 0.74 to 2.11). Over the follow-up period there were no significant differences in rates of mortality (IHs 7.4% vs OFHs 7.2%, p=0.442) or MACE (IHs 15.4% vs OFHs 14.1%, p=0.192) between the two groups. After adjustment for confounding variables using multivariate analysis, timing of presentation was not an independent predictor of mortality (HR 1.04 95% CI 0.78 to 1.39). CONCLUSIONS: This large registry study demonstrates that the delivery of PPCI with a multidisciplinary, consultant-led, protocol-driven approach provides safe and effective treatment for patients regardless of the time of presentation.

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