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2.
Environ Sci Technol ; 50(17): 9416-23, 2016 09 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27479733

RESUMO

Exposure to air pollution is a major risk factor globally and particularly in Asia. A large portion of air pollutants result from residential combustion of solid biomass and coal fuel for cooking and heating. This study presents a regional modeling sensitivity analysis to estimate the impact of residential emissions from cooking and heating activities on the burden of disease at a provincial level in China. Model surface PM2.5 fields are shown to compare well when evaluated against surface air quality measurements. Scenarios run without residential sector and residential heating emissions are used in conjunction with the Global Burden of Disease 2013 framework to calculate the proportion of deaths and disability adjusted life years attributable to PM2.5 exposure from residential emissions. Overall, we estimate that 341 000 (306 000-370 000; 95% confidence interval) premature deaths in China are attributable to residential combustion emissions, approximately a third of the deaths attributable to all ambient PM2.5 pollution, with 159 000 (142 000-172 000) and 182 000 (163 000-197 000) premature deaths from heating and cooking emissions, respectively. Our findings emphasize the need to mitigate emissions from both residential heating and cooking sources to reduce the health impacts of ambient air pollution in China.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Calefação , Poluição do Ar , China , Culinária , Humanos
3.
Environ Sci Technol ; 50(15): 8353-61, 2016 08 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27351357

RESUMO

Residential combustion of solid fuel is a major source of air pollution. In regions where space heating and cooking occur at the same time and using the same stoves and fuels, evaluating air-pollution patterns for household-energy-use scenarios with and without heating is essential to energy intervention design and estimation of its population health impacts as well as the development of residential emission inventories and air-quality models. We measured continuous and 48 h integrated indoor PM2.5 concentrations over 221 and 203 household-days and outdoor PM2.5 concentrations on a subset of those days (in summer and winter, respectively) in 204 households in the eastern Tibetan Plateau that burned biomass in traditional stoves and open fires. Using continuous indoor PM2.5 concentrations, we estimated mean daily hours of combustion activity, which increased from 5.4 h per day (95% CI: 5.0, 5.8) in summer to 8.9 h per day (95% CI: 8.1, 9.7) in winter, and effective air-exchange rates, which decreased from 18 ± 9 h(-1) in summer to 15 ± 7 h(-1) in winter. Indoor geometric-mean 48 h PM2.5 concentrations were over two times higher in winter (252 µg/m(3); 95% CI: 215, 295) than in summer (101 µg/m(3); 95%: 91, 112), whereas outdoor PM2.5 levels had little seasonal variability.


Assuntos
Calefação , Material Particulado , Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados , Culinária , Monitoramento Ambiental , Estações do Ano , Tibet
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