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1.
Atmos Chem Phys Discuss ; 19(15): 10087-10110, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31632450

RESUMO

We have derived values of the Ultraviolet Index (UVI) at solar noon using the Tropospheric Ultraviolet Model (TUV) driven by ozone, temperature and aerosol fields from climate simulations of the first phase of the Chemistry-Climate Model Initiative (CCMI-1). Since clouds remain one of the largest uncertainties in climate projections, we simulated only the clear-sky UVI. We compared the modelled UVI climatologies against present-day climatological values of UVI derived from both satellite data (the OMI-Aura OMUVBd product) and ground-based measurements (from the NDACC network). Depending on the region, relative differences between the UVI obtained from CCMI/TUV calculations and the ground-based measurements ranged between -5.9% and 10.6%. We then calculated the UVI evolution throughout the 21st century for the four Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs 2.6, 4.5, 6.0 and 8.5). Compared to 1960s values, we found an average increase in the UVI in 2100 (of 2-4%) in the tropical belt (30°N-30°S). For the mid-latitudes, we observed a 1.8 to 3.4 % increase in the Southern Hemisphere for RCP 2.6, 4.5 and 6.0, and found a 2.3% decrease in RCP 8.5. Higher increases in UVI are projected in the Northern Hemisphere except for RCP 8.5. At high latitudes, ozone recovery is well identified and induces a complete return of mean UVI levels to 1960 values for RCP 8.5 in the Southern Hemisphere. In the Northern Hemisphere, UVI levels in 2100 are higher by 0.5 to 5.5% for RCP 2.6, 4.5 and 6.0 and they are lower by 7.9% for RCP 8.5. We analysed the impacts of greenhouse gases (GHGs) and ozone-depleting substances (ODSs) on UVI from 1960 by comparing CCMI sensitivity simulations (1960-2100) with fixed GHGs or ODSs at their respective 1960 levels. As expected with ODS fixed at their 1960 levels, there is no large decrease in ozone levels and consequently no sudden increase in UVI levels. With fixed GHG, we observed a delayed return of ozone to 1960 values, with a corresponding pattern of change observed on UVI, and looking at the UVI difference between 2090s values and 1960s values, we found an 8 % increase in the tropical belt during the summer of each hemisphere. Finally we show that, while in the Southern Hemisphere the UVI is mainly driven by total ozone column, in the Northern Hemisphere both total ozone column and aerosol optical depth drive UVI levels, with aerosol optical depth having twice as much influence on the UVI as total ozone column does.

2.
Nat Commun ; 9(1): 206, 2018 01 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29335470

RESUMO

The Montreal Protocol has succeeded in limiting major ozone-depleting substance emissions, and consequently stratospheric ozone concentrations are expected to recover this century. However, there is a large uncertainty in the rate of regional ozone recovery in the Northern Hemisphere. Here we identify a Eurasia-North America dipole mode in the total column ozone over the Northern Hemisphere, showing negative and positive total column ozone anomaly centres over Eurasia and North America, respectively. The positive trend of this mode explains an enhanced total column ozone decline over the Eurasian continent in the past three decades, which is closely related to the polar vortex shift towards Eurasia. Multiple chemistry-climate-model simulations indicate that the positive Eurasia-North America dipole trend in late winter is likely to continue in the near future. Our findings suggest that the anticipated ozone recovery in late winter will be sensitive not only to the ozone-depleting substance decline but also to the polar vortex changes, and could be substantially delayed in some regions of the Northern Hemisphere extratropics.

7.
Faraday Discuss ; 200: 559-578, 2017 08 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28580994

RESUMO

Ozonolysis of alkenes is a key reaction in the atmosphere, playing an important role in determining the oxidising capacity of the atmosphere and acting as a source of compounds that can contribute to local photochemical "smog". The reaction products of the initial step of alkene-ozonolysis are Criegee intermediates (CIs), which have for many decades eluded direct experimental detection because of their very short lifetime. We use an innovative experimental technique, stabilisation of CIs with spin traps and analysis with proton transfer reaction mass spectrometry, to measure the gas phase concentration of a series of CIs formed from the ozonolysis of a range of both biogenic and anthropogenic alkenes in flow tube experiments. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations were used to assess the stability of the CI-spin trap adducts and show that the reaction of the investigated CIs with the spin trap occurs very rapidly except for the large ß-pinene CI. Our measurement method was used successfully to measure all the expected CIs, emphasising that this new technique is applicable to a wide range of CIs with different molecular structures that were previously unidentified experimentally. In addition, for the first time it was possible to study CIs simultaneously in an even more complex reaction system consisting of more than one olefinic precursor. Comparison between our new experimental measurements, calculations of stability of the CI-spin trap adducts and results from numerical modelling, using the master chemical mechanism (MCM), shows that our new method can be used for the quantification of CIs produced in situ in laboratory experiments.

8.
Atmos Chem Phys ; 17(3): 2103-2162, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30147712

RESUMO

Oxidation of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOC) by the nitrate radical (NO3) represents one of the important interactions between anthropogenic emissions related to combustion and natural emissions from the biosphere. This interaction has been recognized for more than 3 decades, during which time a large body of research has emerged from laboratory, field, and modeling studies. NO3-BVOC reactions influence air quality, climate and visibility through regional and global budgets for reactive nitrogen (particularly organic nitrates), ozone, and organic aerosol. Despite its long history of research and the significance of this topic in atmospheric chemistry, a number of important uncertainties remain. These include an incomplete understanding of the rates, mechanisms, and organic aerosol yields for NO3-BVOC reactions, lack of constraints on the role of heterogeneous oxidative processes associated with the NO3 radical, the difficulty of characterizing the spatial distributions of BVOC and NO3 within the poorly mixed nocturnal atmosphere, and the challenge of constructing appropriate boundary layer schemes and non-photochemical mechanisms for use in state-of-the-art chemical transport and chemistry-climate models. This review is the result of a workshop of the same title held at the Georgia Institute of Technology in June 2015. The first half of the review summarizes the current literature on NO3-BVOC chemistry, with a particular focus on recent advances in instrumentation and models, and in organic nitrate and secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation chemistry. Building on this current understanding, the second half of the review outlines impacts of NO3-BVOC chemistry on air quality and climate, and suggests critical research needs to better constrain this interaction to improve the predictive capabilities of atmospheric models.

9.
Faraday Discuss ; 165: 45-73, 2013.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24600996

RESUMO

Carbonyl oxides ("Criegee intermediates"), formed in the ozonolysis of alkenes, are key species in tropospheric oxidation of organic molecules and their decomposition provides a non-photolytic source of OH in the atmosphere (Johnson and Marston, Chem. Soc. Rev., 2008, 37, 699, Harrison et al, Sci, Total Environ., 2006, 360, 5, Gäb et al., Nature, 1985, 316, 535, ref. 1-3). Recently it was shown that small Criegee intermediates, C.I.'s, react far more rapidly with SO2 than typically represented in tropospheric models, (Welz, Science, 2012, 335, 204, ref. 4) which suggested that carbonyl oxides could have a substantial influence on the atmospheric oxidation of SO2. Oxidation of 502 is the main atmospheric source of sulphuric acid (H2SO4), which is a critical contributor to aerosol formation, although questions remain about the fundamental nucleation mechanism (Sipilä et al., Science, 2010, 327, 1243, Metzger et al., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A., 2010 107, 6646, Kirkby et al., Nature, 2011, 476, 429, ref. 5-7). Non-absorbing atmospheric aerosols, by scattering incoming solar radiation and acting as cloud condensation nuclei, have a cooling effect on climate (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science Basis, Cambridge University Press, 2007, ref. 8). Here we explore the effect of the Criegees on atmospheric chemistry, and demonstrate that ozonolysis of alkenes via the reaction of Criegee intermediates potentially has a large impact on atmospheric sulphuric acid concentrations and consequently the first steps in aerosol production. Reactions of Criegee intermediates with SO2 will compete with and in places dominate over the reaction of OH with SO2 (the only other known gas-phase source of H2SO4) in many areas of the Earth's surface. In the case that the products of Criegee intermediate reactions predominantly result in H2SO4 formation, modelled particle nucleation rates can be substantially increased by the improved experimentally obtained estimates of the rate coefficients of Criegee intermediate reactions. Using both regional and global scale modelling, we show that this enhancement is likely to be highly variable spatially with local hot-spots in e.g. urban outflows. This conclusion is however contingent on a number of remaining uncertainties in Criegee intermediate chemistry.


Assuntos
Aerossóis , Atmosfera , Ácidos Sulfúricos/análise , Oxirredução
10.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 14(10): 3425-34, 2012 Mar 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22307582

RESUMO

A temperature and pressure kinetic study for the CH(3)O(2) + ClO reaction has been performed using the turbulent flow technique with a chemical ionisation mass spectrometry detection system. An Arrhenius expression was obtained for the overall rate coefficient of CH(3)O(2) + ClO reaction: k(10)(T) = (1.96(−0.24)(+0.28)) × 10(-11) exp[(-626 ± 35)/T] cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1) where the uncertainty associated with the rate coefficient is given at the one standard deviation level. Over a range of pressure (100-200 Torr) and temperature (298-223 K) no pressure dependence is observed. The smaller rate coefficients measured at lower temperatures compared with both previous low temperature studies are believed to arise through the reduction of secondary chemistry and greater sensitivity in terms of reactant detection (hence much lower initial concentrations were employed). These new data reduce the effectiveness of ozone loss cycles involving reaction of CH(3)O(2) + ClO in the polar stratosphere by around a factor of 1.5 and restrict the importance of the reaction to the tropical and extra-tropical clean marine environments in the troposphere.


Assuntos
Cloro/química , Metano/química , Óxidos/química , Temperatura , Gases/química , Pressão
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