Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 118
Filtrar
Mais filtros










Base de dados
Intervalo de ano de publicação
1.
Oncogene ; 2020 Feb 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32051554

RESUMO

TAFRO syndrome, a clinical subtype of idiopathic multicentric Castleman disease (iMCD), consists of a constellation of symptoms/signs including thrombocytopenia, anasarca, fever, reticulin fibrosis/renal dysfunction, and organomegaly. The etiology of iMCD-TAFRO and the basis for cytokine hypersecretion commonly seen in iMCD-TAFRO patients has not been elucidated. Here, we identified a somatic MEK2P128L mutation and a germline RUNX1G60C mutation in two patients with iMCD-TAFRO, respectively. The MEK2P128L mutation, which has been identified previously in solid tumor and histiocytosis patients, caused hyperactivated MAP kinase signaling, conferred IL-3 hypersensitivity and sensitized the cells to various MEK inhibitors. The RUNX1G60C mutation abolished the transcriptional activity of wild-type RUNX1 and functioned as a dominant negative form of RUNX1, resulting in enhanced self-renewal activity in hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells. Interestingly, ERK was heavily activated in both patients, highlighting a potential role for activation of MAPK signaling in iMCD-TAFRO pathogenesis and a rationale for exploring inhibition of the MAPK pathway as a therapy for iMCD-TAFRO. Moreover, these data suggest that iMCD-TAFRO might share pathogenetic features with clonal inflammatory disorders bearing MEK and RUNX1 mutations such as histiocytoses and myeloid neoplasms.

2.
Clin Cancer Res ; 2020 Jan 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31911548

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Patterns of resistance to first-line osimertinib are not well-established and have primarily been evaluated using plasma assays which cannot detect histologic transformation and have differential sensitivity for copy number changes and chromosomal rearrangements. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: To characterize mechanisms of resistance to osimertinib, patients with metastatic EGFR-mutant lung cancers who received osimertinib at Memorial Sloan Kettering and had next-generation sequencing performed on tumor tissue before osimertinib initiation and after progression were identified. RESULTS: Among 62 patients who met eligibility critieria, histologic transformation, primarily squamous transformation, was identified in 15% of first-line osimertinib cases and 14% of later-line cases. Nineteen percent (5/27) of patients treated with first-line osimertinib had off-target genetic resistance (2 MET amplification, 1 KRAS mutation, 1 RET fusion, and 1 BRAF fusion) whereas 4% (1/27) had an acquired EGFR mutation (EGFR G724S). Patients with squamous transformation exhibited considerable genomic complexity; acquired PIK3CA mutation, chromosome 3q amplification and FGF amplification were all seen. Patients with transformation had shorter time on osimertinib and shorter survival compared to patients with on-target resistance. Initial EGFR sensitizing mutation, time on osimertinib treatment and line of therapy also influenced resistance mechanism that emerged. The compound mutation EGFR S768 + V769L and the mutation MET H1094Y were identified and validated as resistance mechanisms with potential treatment options. CONCLUSION: Histologic transformation and other off-target molecular alterations are frequent early emerging resistance mechanisms to osimertinib and are associated with poor clinical outcomes.

4.
J Mol Diagn ; 2019 Dec 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31881335

RESUMO

Clinical testing for MLH1 promoter hypermethylation status is important in the workup of patients with MLH1-deficient colorectal and uterine carcinomas when evaluating patients for Lynch syndrome. Current assays use single gene-based methods to assess promoter hypermethylation. Herein, we describe the development and report the performance of a clinical assay for MLH1 promoter hypermethylation using the Infinium methylationEPIC (850k) bead-array platform. Using four cytosine-guanine dinucleotide (CpG) sites within the MLH1 gene promoter, a qualitative MLH1 promoter hypermethylation assay was developed and validated using 63 gastrointestinal and uterine carcinoma samples of known hypermethylation status based on a pyrosequencing reference test. The array-based method achieves clinically robust and reproducible results at an analytical sensitivity level of 8%. Of importance, the 850k array contains probes targeting >850,000 additional CpG sites across the genome, covering sites in most known genes as well as important enhancer regions provided by the Encyclopedia of DNA Elements and Functional Annoation of The Mammalian Genome projects. Thus, the testing modality presented may also be applied to determine the methylation status of other clinically relevant genes or regulatory regions, potentially providing a single laboratory testing workflow for all clinical methylation assays. Furthermore, the concomitant acquisition of genome-wide methylation information provides a workflow that seamlessly enables wider translational epigenetic research.

5.
Nat Med ; 25(12): 1839-1842, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31768065

RESUMO

Histiocytoses are clonal hematopoietic disorders frequently driven by mutations mapping to the BRAF and MEK1 and MEK2 kinases. Currently, however, the developmental origins of histiocytoses in patients are not well understood, and clinically meaningful therapeutic targets outside of BRAF and MEK are undefined. In this study, we uncovered activating mutations in CSF1R and rearrangements in RET and ALK that conferred dramatic responses to selective inhibition of RET (selpercatinib) and crizotinib, respectively, in patients with histiocytosis.


Assuntos
Quinase do Linfoma Anaplásico/genética , Histiocitose/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-ret/genética , Receptores de Fator Estimulador das Colônias de Granulócitos e Macrófagos/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Aminopiridinas/farmacologia , Benzotiazóis/farmacologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Genoma Humano , Neoplasias Hematológicas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Hematológicas/genética , Neoplasias Hematológicas/patologia , Histiocitose/tratamento farmacológico , Histiocitose/patologia , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Mutação , Ácidos Picolínicos/farmacologia , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/farmacologia , Pirazóis/farmacologia , Piridinas/farmacologia , Pirróis/farmacologia , Receptores Proteína Tirosina Quinases/genética , Gêmeos Monozigóticos , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma , Adulto Jovem
6.
Leukemia ; 2019 Oct 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31628430

RESUMO

RAS-pathway mutations are recurrent events in myeloid malignancies. However, there is limited data on the significance of RAS-pathway mutations in patients with myelofibrosis (MF). We analyzed next-generation sequencing data of 16 genes, including RAS-pathway genes, from 723 patients with primary and secondary MF across three international centers and evaluated their significance. N/KRAS variants were present in 6% of patients and were typically sub-clonal (median VAF = 20%) relative to other genes variants. RAS variants were associated with advanced MF features including leukocytosis (p = 0.02), high somatic mutation burden (p < 0.01) and the presence of established "molecular high-risk" (MHR) mutations. MF patients with N/KRAS mutations had shorter 3-year overall survival (OS) (34% vs 58%, p < 0.001) and higher incidence of acute myeloid leukemia at 3 years (18% vs 11%, p = 0.03). In a multivariate Cox model, RAS mutations were associated with decreased OS (HR 1.93, p < 0.001). We created a novel score to predict OS incorporating RAS mutations, and it predicted OS across training and validation cohorts. Patients with intermediate risk/high-risk DIPSS with RAS mutations who received ruxolitinib had a nonsignificant longer 2-year OS relative to those who did not receive ruxolitinib. These data demonstrate the importance of identifying RAS mutations in MF patients.

7.
Am J Surg Pathol ; 43(11): 1445-1461, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31600176

RESUMO

TFEB is overexpressed in TFEB-rearranged renal cell carcinomas as well as in renal tumors with amplifications of TFEB at 6p21.1. As recent literature suggests that renal tumors with 6p21.1 amplification behave more aggressively than those with rearrangements of TFEB, we compared relative TFEB gene expression in these tumors. This study included 37 TFEB-altered tumors: 15 6p21.1-amplified and 22 TFEB-rearranged (including 5 cases from The Cancer Genome Atlas data set). TFEB status was verified using a combination of fluorescent in situ hybridization (n=27) or comprehensive molecular profiling (n=13) and digital droplet polymerase chain reaction was used to quantify TFEB mRNA expression in 6p21.1-amplified (n=9) and TFEB-rearranged renal tumors (n=19). These results were correlated with TFEB immunohistochemistry. TFEB-altered tumors had higher TFEB expression when normalized to B2M (mean: 168.9%, n=28), compared with non-TFEB-altered controls (mean: 7%, n=18, P=0.005). Interestingly, TFEB expression in tumors with rearrangements (mean: 224.7%, n=19) was higher compared with 6p21.1-amplified tumors (mean: 51.2%, n=9; P=0.06). Of note, classic biphasic morphology was only seen in TFEB-rearranged tumors and when present correlated with 6.8-fold higher TFEB expression (P=0.00004). Our results suggest that 6p21.1 amplified renal tumors show increased TFEB gene expression but not as much as t(6;11) renal tumors. These findings correlate with the less consistent/diffuse expression of downstream markers of TFEB activation (cathepsin K, melan A, HMB45) seen in the amplified neoplasms. This suggests that the aggressive biological behavior of 6p21.1 amplified renal tumors might be secondary to other genes at the 6p21.1 locus that are co-amplified, such as VEGFA and CCND3, or other genetic alterations.

8.
Am J Hematol ; 94(12): 1364-1373, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31571261

RESUMO

Minimal residual disease (MRD) tracking, by next generation sequencing of immunoglobulin sequences, is moving towards clinical implementation in multiple myeloma. However, there is only sparse information available to address whether clonal sequences remain stable for tracking over time, and to what extent light chain sequences are sufficiently unique for tracking. Here, we analyzed immunoglobulin repertoires from 905 plasma cell myeloma and healthy control samples, focusing on the third complementarity determining region (CDR3). Clonal heavy and/or light chain expression was identified in all patients at baseline, with one or more subclones related to the main clone in 3.2%. In 45 patients with 101 sequential samples, the dominant clonal CDR3 sequences remained identical over time, despite differential clonal evolution by whole exome sequencing in 49% of patients. The low frequency of subclonal CDR3 variants, and absence of evolution over time in active multiple myeloma, indicates that tumor cells at this stage are not under selective pressure to undergo antibody affinity maturation. Next, we establish somatic hypermutation and non-templated insertions as the most important determinants of light chain clonal uniqueness, identifying a potentially trackable sequence in the majority of patients. Taken together, we show that dominant clonal sequences identified at baseline are reliable biomarkers for long-term tracking of the malignant clone, including both IGH and the majority of light chain clones.

9.
Clin Cancer Res ; 25(23): 7113-7125, 2019 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31471310

RESUMO

PURPOSE: In patients with >1 non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC), the distinction between separate primary lung carcinomas (SPLCs) and intrapulmonary metastases (IPMs) is a common diagnostic dilemma with critical staging implications. Here, we compared the performance of comprehensive next-generation sequencing (NGS) with standard histopathologic approaches for distinguishing NSCLC clonal relationships in clinical practice. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: We queried 4,119 NSCLCs analyzed by 341-468 gene MSK-IMPACT NGS assay for patients with >1 surgically resected tumor profiled by NGS. Tumor relatedness predicted by prospective histopathologic assessment was contrasted with comparative genomic profiling by subsequent NGS. RESULTS: Sixty patients with NGS performed on >1 NSCLCs were identified, yielding 76 tumor pairs. NGS classified tumor pairs into 51 definite SPLCs (median, 14; up to 72 unique somatic mutations per pair), and 25 IPMs (24 definite, one high probability; median, 5; up to 16 shared somatic mutations per pair). Prospective histologic prediction was discordant with NGS in 17 cases (22%), particularly in the prediction of IPMs (44% discordant). Retrospective review highlighted several histologic challenges, including morphologic progression in some IPMs. We subsampled MSK-IMPACT data to model the performance of less comprehensive assays, and identified several clinicopathologic differences between NGS-defined tumor pairs, including increased risk of subsequent recurrence for IPMs. CONCLUSIONS: Comprehensive NGS allows unambiguous delineation of clonal relationship among NSCLCs. In comparison, standard histopathologic approach is adequate in most cases, but has notable limitations in the recognition of IPMs. Our results support the adoption of broad panel NGS to supplement histology for robust discrimination of NSCLC clonal relationships in clinical practice.

11.
Mod Pathol ; 2019 Aug 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31383964

RESUMO

We have encountered pancreatic tumors with unique histologic features, which do not conform to any of the known tumors of the pancreas or other anatomical sites. We aimed to define their clinicopathologic features and whether they are characterized by recurrent molecular signatures. Eight cases were identified; studied histologically and by immunohistochemistry. Selected cases were also subjected to whole-exome sequencing (WES; n = 4), RNA-sequencing (n = 6), Archer FusionPlex assay (n = 5), methylation profiling using the Illumina MethylationEPIC (850k) array platform (n = 6), and TERT promoter sequencing (n = 5). Six neoplasms occurred in females. The mean age was 43 years (range: 26-75). Five occurred in the head/neck of the pancreas. All patients were treated surgically; none received neoadjuvant/adjuvant therapy. All patients are free of disease after 53 months of median follow-up (range: 8-94). The tumors were well-circumscribed, and the median size was 1.8 cm (range: 1.3-5.8). Microscopically, the unencapsulated tumors had a geographic pattern of epithelioid cell nests alternating with spindle cell fascicles. Some areas showed dense fibrosis, in which enmeshed tumor cells imparted a slit-like pattern. The predominant epithelioid cells had scant cytoplasm and round-oval nuclei with open chromatin. The spindle cells displayed irregular, hyperchromatic nuclei. Mitoses were rare. No lymph node metastases were identified. All tumors were positive for vimentin, CD99 and cytokeratin (patchy), while negative for markers of solid pseudopapillary neoplasm, neuroendocrine, acinar, myogenic/rhabdoid, vascular, melanocytic, or lymphoid differentiation, gastrointestinal stromal tumor as well as MUC4. Whole-exome sequencing revealed no recurrent somatic mutations or amplifications/homozygous deletions in any known oncogenes or tumor suppressor genes. RNA-sequencing and the Archer FusionPlex assay did not detect any recurrent likely pathogenic gene fusions. Single sample gene set enrichment analysis revealed that these tumors display a likely mesenchymal transcriptomic program. Unsupervised analysis (t-SNE) of their methylation profiles against a set of different mesenchymal neoplasms demonstrated a distinct methylation pattern. Here, we describe pancreatic neoplasms with unique morphologic/immunophenotypic features and a distinct methylation pattern, along with a lack of abnormalities in any of key genetic drivers, supporting that these neoplasms represent a novel entity with an indolent clinical course. Given their mesenchymal transcriptomic features, we propose the designation of "sclerosing epithelioid mesenchymal neoplasm" of the pancreas.

12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31395597

RESUMO

Clonal heterogeneity and evolution of mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) remain unclear despite the progress in our understanding of its biology. Here, we report a 71-yr-old male patient with an aggressive MCL and depict the clonal evolution from initial diagnosis of typical MCL to relapsed blastoid MCL. During the course of the disease, the patient was diagnosed with classic Hodgkin lymphoma (CHL) and received a CHL therapeutic regimen. Molecular analysis by next-generation sequencing of both MCL and CHL demonstrated clonally related CHL with characteristic immunophenotype and PDL1/2 gains. Moreover, our data illustrate the clonal heterogeneity and acquisition of additional genetic aberrations including a rare fusion of SEC22B-NOTCH2 in the process of clonal evolution. Evidence obtained from our comprehensive immunophenotypic and genetic studies indicates that MCL and CHL can originate from a common precursor by divergent clonal evolution, which may pose a therapeutic challenge.

13.
Cancer ; 125(24): 4380-4387, 2019 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31469421

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mutations in human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2; also known as ERBB2) are found in approximately 2% of lung adenocarcinomas. The frequency and clinical course of brain metastases in this oncogenic subset are ill defined. METHODS: Baseline and subsequent development of brain metastases was evaluated in consecutive patients with HER2-mutant (n = 98), epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-mutant (n = 200), and KRAS-mutant lung cancers (n = 200). RESULTS: At metastatic diagnosis, the odds ratio (ORs) for brain metastases was similar for patients whose tumors harbored HER2 mutations (19%) in comparison with patients with KRAS mutations (24%; OR for HER2 vs KRAS, 0.7; P = .33) but lower compared to patients with EGFR mutations (31%; OR for HER2 vs EGFR, 0.5; P = .03). Patients with lung cancer and HER2 mutations developed more brain metastases on treatment than patients with KRAS mutations (28% vs 8%; hazard ratio [HR], 5.2; P < .001) and trended more than patients with EGFR mutations (28% vs 16%; HR, 1.7; P = .06). Patients with HER2 YVMA mutations also developed more brain metastases on treatment than patients with KRAS mutations (HR, 5.9; P < .001). The median overall survival (OS) was shorter for patients with HER2-mutant (1.6 years; P < .001) or KRAS-mutant lung cancers (1.1 years; P < .001) than patients with EGFR-mutant lung cancers (3.0 years). Brain metastases occurred in 47% of patients with HER2-mutant lung cancers, which imparted shorter OS (HR, 2.7; P < .001). CONCLUSIONS: These data provide a framework for brain imaging surveillance in patients with HER2-mutant lung cancers and underpin the need to develop HER2-targeted agents with central nervous system activity.

14.
Acta Oncol ; 58(11): 1634-1639, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31347936

RESUMO

Background: Plasma cfDNA evaluation at acquired resistance to targeted therapies in lung cancer is routine, however, reports of extended clinical application and pitfalls in laboratory practice are still limited. In this study we describe our experience with cfDNA testing using EGFR T790M as a prototype.Methods: Patients with metastatic EGFR-mutant NSCLC patients who underwent plasma EGFR T790M testing at acquired resistance to EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors (EGFR-TKI) from January 2016 through August 2017 were identified. Molecular laboratory records were reviewed to assess performance of testing by digital PCR, concordance between plasma and tissue testing, turnaround time (TAT), plasma T790M variant allele frequency (VAF), and its correlations with metastatic sites and clinical outcomes.Results: 177 patients underwent T790M cfDNA testing during this period. Plasma T790M was positive in 32% of patients. The median TAT was shorter for plasma T790M compared to tissue PCR (9 vs. 15 days, p < .0001), and led to osimertinib use in 84% of positive patients. In 52 patients with plasma and tissue T790M evaluation, the concordance was 77%. Plasma T790M VAF did not correlate with time to osimertinib discontinuation (p = .4). Plasma T790M status correlated with a higher number of metastatic sites (4 vs. 3, p < .001) and bone metastases (p = .0002).Conclusion: Plasma EGFR T790M testing had shorter TAT compared to tissue testing, however, it was longer than anticipated. Test sensitivity is higher in patients with osseous metastases and with higher metastatic burden suggesting a more limited role for early detection. T790M VAF was not associated with clinical outcomes.

16.
J Thorac Oncol ; 14(10): 1784-1793, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31228622

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: EGFR-mutant lung cancers are clinically and genomically heterogeneous with concurrent RB transcriptional corepressor 1 (RB1)/tumor protein p53 (TP53) alterations identifying a subset at increased risk for small cell transformation. The genomic alterations that induce lineage plasticity are unknown. METHODS: Patients with EGFR/RB1/TP53-mutant lung cancers, identified by next-generation sequencing from 2014 to 2018, were compared to patients with untreated, metastatic EGFR-mutant lung cancers without both RB1 and TP53 alterations. Time to EGFR-tyrosine kinase inhibitor discontinuation, overall survival, SCLC transformation rate, and genomic alterations were evaluated. RESULTS: Patients with EGFR/RB1/TP53-mutant lung cancers represented 5% (43 of 863) of EGFR-mutant lung cancers but were uniquely at risk for transformation (7 of 39, 18%), with no transformations in EGFR-mutant lung cancers without baseline TP53 and RB1 alterations. Irrespective of transformation, patients with EGFR/TP53/RB1-mutant lung cancers had a shorter time to discontinuation than EGFR/TP53- and EGFR-mutant -only cancers (9.5 versus 12.3 versus 36.6 months, respectively, p = 2 × 10-9). The triple-mutant population had a higher incidence of whole-genome doubling compared to NSCLC and SCLC at large (80% versus 34%, p < 5 × 10-9 versus 51%, p < 0.002, respectively) and further enrichment in triple-mutant cancers with eventual small cell histology (seven of seven pre-transformed plus four of four baseline SCLC versus 23 of 32 never transformed, respectively, p = 0.05). Activation-induced cytidine deaminase/apolipoprotein B mRNA editing enzyme, catalytic polypeptide-like mutation signature was also enriched in triple-mutant lung cancers that transformed (false discovery rate = 0.03). CONCLUSIONS: EGFR/TP53/RB1-mutant lung cancers are at unique risk of histologic transformation, with 25% presenting with de novo SCLC or eventual small cell transformation. Triple-mutant lung cancers are enriched in whole-genome doubling and Activation-induced cytidine deaminase/apolipoprotein B mRNA editing enzyme, catalytic polypeptide-like hypermutation which may represent early genomic determinants of lineage plasticity.

17.
Am Soc Clin Oncol Educ Book ; 39: 531-542, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31099633

RESUMO

Over the last decade, the treatment of patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) has become reliant on tissue and/or blood biomarkers to help guide treatment decisions. There are now multiple biomarker-defined patient subgroups, with evidence showing that treatment with targeted therapies has superior clinical outcomes when compared with traditional cytotoxic chemotherapy. However, rapid change in the field of precision oncology brings with it the challenge of translating recommendations into clinical practice. In this review, we discuss the major guidelines recommending biomarker testing in NSCLC, as well the logistical challenges to applying these guidelines to patients with NSCLC both in the United States and worldwide. The techniques commonly used for biomarker testing will be discussed, both for tissue- and blood-based biomarkers. Finally, we discuss the challenge of interpreting the results of biomarker testing and using these results to guide treatment decisions.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Pulmonares/diagnóstico , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/epidemiologia , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/etiologia , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/terapia , Tomada de Decisão Clínica , Gerenciamento Clínico , Genômica/métodos , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/etiologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/terapia , Técnicas de Diagnóstico Molecular , Metástase Neoplásica , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto
18.
Mod Pathol ; 32(9): 1344-1358, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30996253

RESUMO

Amplifications of JAK2, PD-L1, and PD-L2 at 9p24.1 lead to constitutive expression of PD-L1. This, coupled with JAK2-activation dependent upregulation of PD-L1 and adaptive/induced expression leads to higher tumor PD-L1 expression and immune evasion. Renal tumors were therefore evaluated for 9p24.1 amplifications. A combination of next generation sequencing-based copy number analysis, fluorescence in situ hybridization for JAK2/INSL6 and PD-L1/PD-L2 and immunohistochemistry for phospho-STAT3 (downstream target of JAK2), PD-L1, PD-L2, and PD-1 was performed. In this study we interrogated a "Discovery" cohort of 593 renal tumors, a "Validation" cohort of 398 high-grade renal tumors, The Cancer Genome Atlas (879 cases) and other public datasets (846 cases). 9p24.1 amplifications were significantly enriched in renal tumors with sarcomatoid transformation (5.95%, 15/252) when compared to all histologic subtypes in the combined "Discovery", "Validation" and public datasets (16/2636, 0.6%, p < 0.00001). Specifically, 9p24.1 amplifications amongst sarcomatoid tumors in public datasets, the "Discovery" and "Validation" cohorts were 7.7% (6/92), 15.1% (5/33), and 3.1% (4/127), respectively. Herein, we describe 13 cases and amplification status for these was characterized using next generation sequencing (n = 9) and/or fluorescence in situ hybridization (n = 10). Correlation with PD-L1 immunohistochemistry (n = 10) revealed constitutive expression (mean H-score: 222/300, n = 10). Analysis of outcomes based on PD-L1 expression in tumor cells performed on 282 cases ("Validation" cohort) did not reveal a significant prognostic effect and was likely reflective of advanced disease. A high incidence of constitutive PD-L1 expression in tumor cells in the "Validation" cohort (H-Score ≥250/300) was noted amongst 83 rhabdoid (6%) and 127 sarcomatoid renal tumors (7.1%). This suggests additional mechanisms of constitutive expression other than amplification events. Importantly, two patients with 9p24.1-amplified sarcomatoid renal tumors showed significant response to immunotherapy. In summary, a subset of renal tumors with sarcomatoid transformation exhibits constitutive PD-L1 overexpression and these patients should be evaluated for enhanced response to immunotherapy.

19.
Clin Cancer Res ; 25(15): 4712-4722, 2019 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31028088

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Targeted next-generation sequencing of DNA has become more widely used in the management of patients with lung adenocarcinoma; however, no clear mitogenic driver alteration is found in some cases. We evaluated the incremental benefit of targeted RNA sequencing (RNAseq) in the identification of gene fusions and MET exon 14 (METex14) alterations in DNA sequencing (DNAseq) driver-negative lung cancers. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Lung cancers driver negative by MSK-IMPACT underwent further analysis using a custom RNAseq panel (MSK-Fusion). Tumor mutation burden (TMB) was assessed as a potential prioritization criterion for targeted RNAseq. RESULTS: As part of prospective clinical genomic testing, we profiled 2,522 lung adenocarcinomas using MSK-IMPACT, which identified 195 (7.7%) fusions and 119 (4.7%) METex14 alterations. Among 275 driver-negative cases with available tissue, 254 (92%) had sufficient material for RNAseq. A previously undetected alteration was identified in 14% (36/254) of cases, 33 of which were actionable (27 in-frame fusions, 6 METex14). Of these 33 patients, 10 then received matched targeted therapy, which achieved clinical benefit in 8 (80%). In the 32% (81/254) of DNAseq driver-negative cases with low TMB [0-5 mutations/Megabase (mut/Mb)], 25 (31%) were positive for previously undetected gene fusions on RNAseq, whereas, in 151 cases with TMB >5 mut/Mb, only 7% were positive for fusions (P < 0.0001). CONCLUSIONS: Targeted RNAseq assays should be used in all cases that appear driver negative by DNAseq assays to ensure comprehensive detection of actionable gene rearrangements. Furthermore, we observed a significant enrichment for fusions in DNAseq driver-negative samples with low TMB, supporting the prioritization of such cases for additional RNAseq.See related commentary by Davies and Aisner, p. 4586.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma de Pulmão , Neoplasias Pulmonares , Humanos , Mitógenos , Mutação , Estudos Prospectivos , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Análise de Sequência de RNA
20.
PLoS One ; 14(3): e0211600, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30901326

RESUMO

Tracking of clonal immunoglobulin V(D)J rearrangement sequences by next generation sequencing is highly sensitive for minimal residual disease in multiple myeloma. However, previous studies have found variable rates of V(D)J sequence identification at baseline, which could limit tracking. Here, we aimed to define the factors influencing the identification of clonal V(D)J sequences. Bone marrow mononuclear cells from 177 myeloma patients underwent V(D)J sequencing by the LymphoTrack assays (Invivoscribe). As a molecular control for tumor cell content, we sequenced the samples using our in-house myeloma panel myTYPE. V(D)J sequence clonality was identified in 81% of samples overall, as compared with 95% in samples where tumor-derived DNA was detectable by myTYPE. Clonality was detected more frequently in patients with lambda-restricted disease, mainly because of increased detection of kappa gene rearrangements. Finally, we describe how the tumor cell content of bone marrow aspirates decrease gradually in sequential pulls because of hemodilution: From the initial pull used for aspirate smear, to the final pull that is commonly used for research. In conclusion, baseline clonality detection rates of 95% or higher are feasible in multiple myeloma. Optimal performance depends on the use of good quality aspirates and/or subsequent tumor cell enrichment.


Assuntos
Mieloma Múltiplo/diagnóstico , Mieloma Múltiplo/genética , Neoplasia Residual/diagnóstico , Neoplasia Residual/genética , Recombinação V(D)J , Idoso , Células da Medula Óssea/metabolismo , Feminino , Humanos , Cadeias Pesadas de Imunoglobulinas/genética , Cadeias kappa de Imunoglobulina/genética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise de Sequência de DNA
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA