Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 404
Filtrar
1.
Environ Int ; 163: 107213, 2022 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35364416

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Dioxins and polychlorobiphenyls (PCBs) are persistent organic pollutants that have demonstrated endocrine disrupting properties. Several of these chemicals are carcinogenic and positive associations have been suggested with breast cancer risk. In general population, diet represents the main source of exposure. METHODS: Associations between dietary intake of 17 dioxins and 35 PCBs and breast cancer were evaluated in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort from nine European countries using multivariable Cox regressions. The present study included 318,607 women (mean ± SD age: 50.7 ± 9.7) with 13,241 incident invasive breast cancers and a median follow-up of 14.9 years (IQR = 13.5-16.4). Dietary intake of dioxins and PCBs was assessed combining EPIC food consumption data with food contamination data provided by the European Food Safety Authority. RESULTS: Exposure to dioxins, dioxins + Dioxin-Like-PCBs, Dioxin-Like-PCBs (DL-PCBs), and Non-Dioxin-Like-PCBs (NDL-PCBs) estimated from reported dietary intakes were not associated with breast cancer incidence, with the following hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals for an increment of 1 SD: HRdioxins = 1.00 (0.98 to 1.02), HRdioxins+DL-PCB = 1.01 (0.98 to 1.03), HRDL-PCB = 1.01 (0.98 to 1.03), and HRNDL-PCB = 1.01 (0.99 to 1.03). Results remained unchanged when analyzing intakes as quintile groups, as well as when analyses were run separately per country, or separating breast cancer cases based on estrogen receptor status or after further adjustments on main contributing food groups to PCBs and dioxins intake and nutritional factors. CONCLUSIONS: This large European prospective study does not support the hypothesis of an association between dietary intake of dioxins and PCBs and breast cancer risk.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama , Dioxinas , Bifenilos Policlorados , Adulto , Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Dioxinas/efeitos adversos , Dioxinas/análise , Ingestão de Alimentos , Feminino , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Bifenilos Policlorados/efeitos adversos , Bifenilos Policlorados/análise , Estudos Prospectivos
2.
Int J Cancer ; 2022 Apr 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35366005

RESUMO

Previous studies have suggested that components of one-carbon metabolism, particularly circulating vitamin B6, have an etiological role in renal cell carcinoma (RCC). Vitamin B6 is a cofactor in the transsulfuration pathway. We sought to holistically investigate the role of the transsulfuration pathway in RCC risk. We conducted a nested case-control study (455 RCC cases and 455 matched controls) within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study. Plasma samples from the baseline visit were analyzed for metabolites of the transsulfuration pathway, including pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP, the biologically active form of vitamin B6), homocysteine, serine, cystathionine, and cysteine, in addition to folate. Bayesian conditional logistic regression was used to estimate associations of metabolites with RCC risk as well as interactions with established RCC risk factors. Circulating PLP and cysteine were inversely associated with RCC risk, and these associations were not attenuated after adjustment for other transsulfuration metabolites (odds ratio (OR) and 90% credible interval (CrI) per 1 SD increase in log concentration: 0.76 [0.66, 0.87]; 0.81 [0.66, 0.96], respectively). A comparison of joint metabolite profiles suggested substantially greater RCC risk for the profile representative of low overall transsulfuration function compared to high function (OR 2.70 [90% CrI 1.26, 5.70]). We found some statistical evidence of interactions of cysteine with body mass index, and PLP and homocysteine with smoking status, on their associations with RCC risk. In conclusion, we found evidence suggesting that the transsulfuration pathway may play a role in metabolic dysregulation leading to RCC development.

3.
J Alzheimers Dis ; 86(4): 1751-1762, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35253747

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Dementia prevention can be addressed if the intervention is applied early. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to develop and validate competing risk models to predict the late risk of dementia based on variables assessed in middle age in a southern European population. METHODS: We conducted a prospective observational study of the EPIC-Spain cohort that included 25,015 participants. Dementia cases were identified from electronic health records and validated by neurologists. Data were gathered on sociodemographic characteristics and cardiovascular risk factors. To stratify dementia risk, Fine and Gray competing risk prediction models were constructed for the entire sample and for over-55-year-olds. Risk scores were calculated for low (the 30% of the sample with the lowest risk), moderate (> 30% -60%), and high (> 60% -100%) risk. RESULTS: The 755 cases of dementia identified represented a cumulative incidence of 3.1% throughout the study period. The AUC of the model for over-55-year-olds was much higher (80.8%) than the overall AUC (68.5%) in the first 15 years of follow-up and remained that way in the subsequent follow-up. The weight of the competing risk of death was greater than that of dementia and especially when the entire population was included. CONCLUSION: This study presents the first dementia risk score calculated in a southern European population in mid-life and followed up for 20 years. The score makes it feasible to achieve the early identification of individuals in a southern European population who could be targeted for the prevention of dementia based on the intensive control of risk factors.


Assuntos
Demência , Demência/epidemiologia , Demência/etiologia , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Humanos , Incidência , Fatores de Risco , Espanha/epidemiologia
4.
Front Nutr ; 9: 827307, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35284440

RESUMO

Background: Current evidence suggests that egg composition might have potential neuroprotective effects. Our aim was to determine the association between egg consumption and the risk of dementia in a Mediterranean population. Methods: This study was carried out in 3 centers from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)-Spain Dementia Cohort, i.e., 25,015 participants aged 30-70 years, recruited in 1992-1996, and followed up for a mean of 21.5 years. Results: A total of 774 incident dementia cases were diagnosed and validated, of which 518 were Alzheimer's disease (AD). Data on egg consumption were estimated using a validated dietary history questionnaire at recruitment. Cox proportional hazards models, adjusted for confounders, were used in the analyses. No association was observed between egg consumption and either total dementia [hazard ratio between extreme quartiles (HRQ4vs.Q1: 1.05; 95% CI 0.85-1.31; p-trend = 0.93)] or AD (HRQ4vs.Q1 0.93; 95% CI 0.72-1.21; p-trend = 0.50) risks. After dividing the population by adherence to the relative Mediterranean diet (rMED) score, a borderline inverse association was found between egg intake and both total dementia (HRQ4vs.Q1: 0.52; 95% CI 0.30-0.90; p-trend = 0.10) and AD (HRQ4vs.Q1: 0.52; 95% CI 0.27-1.01; p-trend = 0.13) risks within participants with low adherence to rMED score. However, no association was observed in participants with medium and high adherence to rMED score. Conclusion: This prospective study suggests that egg consumption is associated with a reduced risk of dementia, and specifically of AD, in the adult population with low adherence to rMED score; whereas it has no impact in subjects with moderate and high MD adherence.

5.
Br J Cancer ; 126(9): 1301-1309, 2022 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35031764

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: CA125 is the best available yet insufficiently sensitive biomarker for early detection of ovarian cancer. There is a need to identify novel biomarkers, which individually or in combination with CA125 can achieve adequate sensitivity and specificity for the detection of earlier-stage ovarian cancer. METHODS: In the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort, we measured serum levels of 92 preselected proteins for 91 women who had blood sampled ≤18 months prior to ovarian cancer diagnosis, and 182 matched controls. We evaluated the discriminatory performance of the proteins as potential early diagnostic biomarkers of ovarian cancer. RESULTS: Nine of the 92 markers; CA125, HE4, FOLR1, KLK11, WISP1, MDK, CXCL13, MSLN and ADAM8 showed an area under the ROC curve (AUC) of ≥0.70 for discriminating between women diagnosed with ovarian cancer and women who remained cancer-free. All, except ADAM8, had shown at least equal discrimination in previous case-control comparisons. The discrimination of the biomarkers, however, was low for the lag-time of >9-18 months and paired combinations of CA125 with any of the 8 markers did not improve discrimination compared to CA125 alone. CONCLUSION: Using pre-diagnostic serum samples, this study identified markers with good discrimination for the lag-time of 0-9 months. However, the discrimination was low in blood samples collected more than 9 months prior to diagnosis, and none of the markers showed major improvement in discrimination when added to CA125.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais , Neoplasias Ovarianas , Proteínas ADAM/metabolismo , Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Proteínas Sanguíneas , Antígeno Ca-125 , Carcinoma Epitelial do Ovário , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Detecção Precoce de Câncer , Feminino , Receptor 1 de Folato , Humanos , Proteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Neoplasias Ovarianas/metabolismo , Curva ROC
6.
Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis ; 32(1): 80-89, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34696945

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: This study aimed to expand the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) nutrient database (ENDB) by adding amino acid (AA) values, using the U.S. nutrient database (USNDB). Additionally, we aimed to evaluate these new protein and AA intake estimates from the EPIC dietary questionnaires (DQ) and 24-h dietary recalls (24-HDR) using different matching procedures. METHODS AND RESULTS: Dietary energy, protein and AA intakes were assessed via DQ and 24-HDR by matching with the USNDB food composition table. Energy and protein intakes calculated using USNDB matching were compared with those calculated using ENDB, that uses country specific food composition tables. Pearson correlations, Cohen's weighted kappa statistic and Bland-Altman plots were used to compare data resulting from USNDB matching with our reference from ENDB matching. Very high correlations were found when comparing daily energy (r = 0.99) and dietary protein intakes (r = 0.97) assessed via USNDB with those obtained via ENDB (matching for DQ and 24-HDR). Significant positive correlations were also found with energy and protein intakes acquired via 24-HDRs in the EPIC calibration sample. CONCLUSION: Very high correlations between total energy and protein intake obtained via the USDA matching and those available in ENDB suggest accuracy in the food matching. Individual AA have been included in the extended EPIC Nutrient database that will allow important analyses on AA disease prospective associations in the EPIC study.


Assuntos
Dieta , Neoplasias , Aminoácidos , Ingestão de Energia , Humanos , Estado Nutricional , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Inquéritos e Questionários
7.
Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol ; 20(4): 864-873.e13, 2022 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33901663

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Evidence regarding the association of dietary exposures with colorectal cancer (CRC) risk is not consistent with a few exceptions. Therefore, we conducted a diet-wide association study (DWAS) in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) to evaluate the associations between several dietary exposures with CRC risk. METHODS: The association of 92 food and nutrient intakes with CRC risk was assessed in 386,792 participants, 5069 of whom developed incident CRC. Correction for multiple comparisons was performed using the false discovery rate, and emerging associations were examined in the Netherlands Cohort Study (NLCS). Multiplicative gene-nutrient interactions were also tested in EPIC based on known CRC-associated loci. RESULTS: In EPIC, alcohol, liquor/spirits, wine, beer/cider, soft drinks, and pork were positively associated with CRC, whereas milk, cheese, calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, potassium, riboflavin, vitamin B6, beta carotene, fruit, fiber, nonwhite bread, banana, and total protein intakes were inversely associated. Of these 20 associations, 13 were replicated in the NLCS, for which a meta-analysis was performed, namely alcohol (summary hazard ratio [HR] per 1-SD increment in intake: 1.07; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.04-1.09), liquor/spirits (HR per 1-SD increment in intake, 1.04; 95% CI, 1.02-1.06), wine (HR per 1-SD increment in intake, 1.04; 95% CI, 1.02-1.07), beer/cider (HR per 1-SD increment in intake, 1.06; 95% CI, 1.04-1.08), milk (HR per 1-SD increment in intake, 0.95; 95% CI, 0.93-0.98), cheese (HR per 1-SD increment in intake, 0.96; 95% CI, 0.94-0.99), calcium (HR per 1-SD increment in intake, 0.93; 95% CI, 0.90-0.95), phosphorus (HR per 1-SD increment in intake, 0.92; 95% CI, 0.90-0.95), magnesium (HR per 1-SD increment in intake, 0.95; 95% CI, 0.92-0.98), potassium (HR per 1-SD increment in intake, 0.96; 95% CI, 0.94-0.99), riboflavin (HR per 1-SD increment in intake, 0.94; 95% CI, 0.92-0.97), beta carotene (HR per 1-SD increment in intake, 0.96; 95% CI, 0.93-0.98), and total protein (HR per 1-SD increment in intake, 0.94; 95% CI, 0.92-0.97). None of the gene-nutrient interactions were significant after adjustment for multiple comparisons. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings confirm a positive association for alcohol and an inverse association for dairy products and calcium with CRC risk, and also suggest a lower risk at higher dietary intakes of phosphorus, magnesium, potassium, riboflavin, beta carotene, and total protein.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais , Dieta , Estudos de Coortes , Neoplasias Colorretais/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/etiologia , Humanos , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco
8.
Eur J Nutr ; 61(1): 101-114, 2022 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34213605

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Excess iron is involved in the development of non-communicable diseases such as cancer, type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular conditions. We aimed to describe the prevalence of excess iron and its determinants in healthy European adults. METHODS: Sociodemographic, lifestyle, iron status, dietary information, and HFE genotyping were obtained from controls from the nested case-control study EPIC-EurGast study. High sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) was measured to address possible systemic inflammation. Descriptive and multivariate analyses were used to assess iron status and its determinants. RESULTS: Out of the 828 participants (median age: 58.7 years), 43% were females. Median serum ferritin and prevalence of excess iron were 143.7 µg/L and 35.2% in males, respectively, and 77 µg/L and 20% in females, both increasing with latitude across Europe. Prevalence of HFE C282Y mutation was significantly higher in Northern and Central Europe (~ 11%) than in the South (5%). Overweight/obesity, age, and daily alcohol and heme iron intake were independent determinants for iron status, with sex differences even after excluding participants with hsCRP > 5 mg/L. Obese males showed a greater consumption of alcohol, total and red meat, and heme iron, compared with those normal weight. CONCLUSION: Obesity, higher alcohol and heme iron consumption were the main risk factors for excess iron in males while only age was associated with iron overload in females. Weight control and promoting healthy lifestyle may help prevent iron overload, especially in obese people. Further research is needed to clarify determinants of excess iron in the healthy adult population, helping to reduce the associated comorbidities.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Hemocromatose , Sobrecarga de Ferro , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Ferritinas , Hemocromatose/epidemiologia , Hemocromatose/genética , Proteína da Hemocromatose/genética , Antígenos de Histocompatibilidade Classe I , Humanos , Ferro , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
9.
BMC Med ; 19(1): 312, 2021 12 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34886862

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Metabolomics is a promising molecular tool for identifying novel etiological pathways leading to cancer. In an earlier prospective study among pre- and postmenopausal women not using exogenous hormones, we observed a higher risk of breast cancer associated with higher blood concentrations of one metabolite (acetylcarnitine) and a lower risk associated with higher blood concentrations of seven others (arginine, asparagine, phosphatidylcholines (PCs) aa C36:3, ae C34:2, ae C36:2, ae C36:3, and ae C38:2). METHODS: To identify determinants of these breast cancer-related metabolites, we conducted a cross-sectional analysis to identify their lifestyle and anthropometric correlates in 2358 women, who were previously included as controls in case-control studies nested within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition cohort and not using exogenous hormones at blood collection. Associations of each metabolite concentration with 42 variables were assessed using linear regression models in a discovery set of 1572 participants. Significant associations were evaluated in a validation set (n = 786). RESULTS: For the metabolites previously associated with a lower risk of breast cancer, concentrations of PCs ae C34:2, C36:2, C36:3, and C38:2 were negatively associated with adiposity and positively associated with total and saturated fat intakes. PC ae C36:2 was also negatively associated with alcohol consumption and positively associated with two scores reflecting adherence to a healthy lifestyle. Asparagine concentration was negatively associated with adiposity. Arginine and PC aa C36:3 concentrations were not associated to any of the factors examined. For the metabolite previously associated with a higher risk of breast cancer, acetylcarnitine, a positive association with age was observed. CONCLUSIONS: These associations may indicate possible mechanisms underlying associations between lifestyle and anthropometric factors, and risk of breast cancer. Further research is needed to identify potential non-lifestyle correlates of the metabolites investigated.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama , Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco
10.
Cancers (Basel) ; 13(21)2021 Oct 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34771444

RESUMO

The aim was to assess the effect of adherence to the Mediterranean Diet, measured with five different indexes, on the risk of gastric cancer. Data come from the multicase-control study MCC-Spain, which included 354 gastric cancer cases and 3040 controls with data on diet. We used five indexes to evaluate adherence to the Mediterranean diet and assess the association between each pattern with the risk of gastric cancer, using multivariate logistic regression. The analyses were performed for the whole set of gastric cancer cases, by anatomical location (cardia and non-cardia) and by histological type (intestinal and diffuse). According to the used index, a high adherence protects one from gastric cancer (between 48% (aOR = 0.52; CI 95% = 0.28-0.94) and 75% (aOR = 0.25; CI 95% = 0.12-0.52)), from non-cardia (between 48% (aOR = 0.52; CI 95% = 0.36-0.75) and 65% (aOR = 0.35; CI 95% = 0.23-0.52)), and from the intestinal type (between 41% (aOR = 0.59; CI 95% = 0.36-0.95) and 72% (aOR = 0.28; CI 95% = 0.16-0.50)), but not from the diffuse type. In conclusion, high adherence to a Mediterranean diet pattern is a protective factor for the risk of gastric cancer, with greater adherence leading to greater protection.

11.
Rev Esp Salud Publica ; 952021 Nov 02.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34725319

RESUMO

Traditionally, epidemiological surveillance has focused on infectious diseases, but the concept of Public Health surveillance, introduced in Spain with the Law 33/2011, is broader and includes chronic diseases. Health strategies for these diseases need epidemiological information to improve understanding of socio-health needs and to facilitate the efficient management of resources. The European Union defines rare diseases (RD) as those that, being life-threatening or chronically debilitating, have a prevalence of less than 5 cases per 10,000 inhabitants. The RD Strategy of the National Health System, approved in 2009 and updated in 2014, recommends the development of regional registries of rare diseases (RAER), in addition to a national registry. The REpIER and Spain-RDR projects of the Institute of Health Carlos III (ISCIII) promoted the creation and regulation of 94% of the RAER. After more than 10 years of initiatives and work to improve the knowledge of RD's epidemiology in Spain, it was possible to implement the Spanish Registry of Rare Diseases (ReeR) in 2015, becoming one of the first population surveillance systems for chronic diseases of state scope. The ReeR procedures manual is the result of consensus between the RAER, the Ministry of Health, the ISCIII and the patient associations. The participatory methodology used for the implementation and launching of ReeR is considered an added value. The information system implemented will allow improving knowledge about the prevalence and distribution of RD in Spain.


Tradicionalmente la vigilancia epidemiológica se ha centrado en enfermedades transmisibles, pero el concepto de vigilancia en Salud Pública, incorporado en España con la Ley 33/2011, es más amplio e incluye las enfermedades crónicas. Las estrategias de salud para estas enfermedades necesitan disponer de información epidemiológica para mejorar el conocimiento de las necesidades sociosanitarias y facilitar la gestión eficiente de recursos. La Unión Europea define las enfermedades raras (ER) como aquellas que, con peligro de muerte o invalidez crónica, presentan una prevalencia inferior a 5 casos por cada 10.000 habitantes. La Estrategia en ER del Sistema Nacional de Salud, aprobada en 2009 y actualizada en 2014, recomienda desarrollar registros autonómicos de enfermedades raras (RAER) y uno estatal. Los proyectos REpIER y Spain-RDR del Instituto de Salud Carlos III (ISCIII) impulsaron la creación y regulación del 94% de los RAER; y tras más de 10 años de iniciativas y trabajos para mejorar el conocimiento de la epidemiología de las ER en España, se logró implementar el Registro Estatal de Enfermedades Raras (ReeR) en 2015, convirtiéndose en uno de los primeros sistemas de vigilancia poblacional de enfermedades crónicas de ámbito estatal. El manual de procedimientos del ReeR es el resultado del consenso entre los RAER, Ministerio de Sanidad, ISCIII y asociaciones de pacientes. La metodología participativa empleada para la implementación y puesta en funcionamiento del ReeR es considerada un valor añadido. El sistema de información implementado va a permitir mejorar el conocimiento sobre la prevalencia y distribución de las ER en España.


Assuntos
Doenças Raras , Consenso , União Europeia , Humanos , Doenças Raras/epidemiologia , Sistema de Registros , Espanha/epidemiologia
12.
JNCI Cancer Spectr ; 5(6)2021 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34805742

RESUMO

Background: Observational studies have consistently reported that postmenopausal hormone therapy use is associated with lower colon cancer risk, but epidemiologic studies examining the associations between circulating concentrations of endogenous estrogens and colorectal cancer have reported inconsistent results. Methods: We investigated the associations between circulating concentrations of estrone, estradiol, free estradiol, testosterone, free testosterone, androstenedione, dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), progesterone, and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) with colon cancer risk in a nested case-control study of 1028 postmenopausal European women (512 colon cancer cases, 516 matched controls) who were noncurrent users of exogenous hormones at blood collection. Multivariable conditional logistic regression models were used to compute odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals to evaluate the association between circulating sex hormones and colon cancer risk. We also conducted a dose-response meta-analysis of prospective studies of circulating estrone and estradiol with colorectal, colon, and rectal cancer risk in postmenopausal women. All statistical tests were 2-sided. Results: In the multivariable model, a nonstatistically significantly positive relationship was found between circulating estrone and colon cancer risk (odds ratio per log2 1-unit increment = 1.17 [95% confidence interval = 1.00 to 1.38]; odds ratioquartile4-quartile1 = 1.33 [95% confidence interval = 0.89 to 1.97], P trend = .20). Circulating concentrations of estradiol, free estradiol, testosterone, free testosterone, androstenedione, DHEA, progesterone, and SHBG were not associated with colon cancer risk. In the dose-response meta-analysis, no clear evidence of associations were found between circulating estradiol and estrone concentrations with colorectal, colon, and rectal cancer risk. Conclusion: Our observational and meta-analysis results do not support an association between circulating concentrations of endogenous sex hormones and colon or rectal cancer in postmenopausal women.


Assuntos
Neoplasias do Colo/etiologia , Hormônios Esteroides Gonadais/sangue , Pós-Menopausa/sangue , Neoplasias Retais/etiologia , Androstenodiona/sangue , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Intervalos de Confiança , Sulfato de Desidroepiandrosterona/sangue , Estradiol/sangue , Estrogênios/sangue , Estrona/sangue , Europa (Continente) , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Razão de Chances , Progesterona/sangue , Estudos Prospectivos , Globulina de Ligação a Hormônio Sexual/análise , Testosterona/sangue
13.
PLoS Med ; 18(10): e1003834, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34662340

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Food biodiversity, encompassing the variety of plants, animals, and other organisms consumed as food and drink, has intrinsic potential to underpin diverse, nutritious diets and improve Earth system resilience. Dietary species richness (DSR), which is recommended as a crosscutting measure of food biodiversity, has been positively associated with the micronutrient adequacy of diets in women and young children in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). However, the relationships between DSR and major health outcomes have yet to be assessed in any population. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We examined the associations between DSR and subsequent total and cause-specific mortality among 451,390 adults enrolled in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study (1992 to 2014, median follow-up: 17 years), free of cancer, diabetes, heart attack, or stroke at baseline. Usual dietary intakes were assessed at recruitment with country-specific dietary questionnaires (DQs). DSR of an individual's yearly diet was calculated based on the absolute number of unique biological species in each (composite) food and drink. Associations were assessed by fitting multivariable-adjusted Cox proportional hazards regression models. In the EPIC cohort, 2 crops (common wheat and potato) and 2 animal species (cow and pig) accounted for approximately 45% of self-reported total dietary energy intake [median (P10-P90): 68 (40 to 83) species consumed per year]. Overall, higher DSR was inversely associated with all-cause mortality rate. Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) comparing total mortality in the second, third, fourth, and fifth (highest) quintiles (Qs) of DSR to the first (lowest) Q indicate significant inverse associations, after stratification by sex, age, and study center and adjustment for smoking status, educational level, marital status, physical activity, alcohol intake, and total energy intake, Mediterranean diet score, red and processed meat intake, and fiber intake [HR (95% CI): 0.91 (0.88 to 0.94), 0.80 (0.76 to 0.83), 0.69 (0.66 to 0.72), and 0.63 (0.59 to 0.66), respectively; PWald < 0.001 for trend]. Absolute death rates among participants in the highest and lowest fifth of DSR were 65.4 and 69.3 cases/10,000 person-years, respectively. Significant inverse associations were also observed between DSR and deaths due to cancer, heart disease, digestive disease, and respiratory disease. An important study limitation is that our findings were based on an observational cohort using self-reported dietary data obtained through single baseline food frequency questionnaires (FFQs); thus, exposure misclassification and residual confounding cannot be ruled out. CONCLUSIONS: In this large Pan-European cohort, higher DSR was inversely associated with total and cause-specific mortality, independent of sociodemographic, lifestyle, and other known dietary risk factors. Our findings support the potential of food (species) biodiversity as a guiding principle of sustainable dietary recommendations and food-based dietary guidelines.


Assuntos
Biodiversidade , Causas de Morte , Alimentos , Mortalidade , Adulto , Bebidas , Dieta , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multivariada , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Prospectivos
14.
Metabolites ; 11(9)2021 Sep 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34564446

RESUMO

Pooling metabolomics data across studies is often desirable to increase the statistical power of the analysis. However, this can raise methodological challenges as several preanalytical and analytical factors could introduce differences in measured concentrations and variability between datasets. Specifically, different studies may use variable sample types (e.g., serum versus plasma) collected, treated, and stored according to different protocols, and assayed in different laboratories using different instruments. To address these issues, a new pipeline was developed to normalize and pool metabolomics data through a set of sequential steps: (i) exclusions of the least informative observations and metabolites and removal of outliers; imputation of missing data; (ii) identification of the main sources of variability through principal component partial R-square (PC-PR2) analysis; (iii) application of linear mixed models to remove unwanted variability, including samples' originating study and batch, and preserve biological variations while accounting for potential differences in the residual variances across studies. This pipeline was applied to targeted metabolomics data acquired using Biocrates AbsoluteIDQ kits in eight case-control studies nested within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort. Comprehensive examination of metabolomics measurements indicated that the pipeline improved the comparability of data across the studies. Our pipeline can be adapted to normalize other molecular data, including biomarkers as well as proteomics data, and could be used for pooling molecular datasets, for example in international consortia, to limit biases introduced by inter-study variability. This versatility of the pipeline makes our work of potential interest to molecular epidemiologists.

15.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 30(12): 2179-2187, 2021 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34548327

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Evidence is accumulating that immune cells play a prominent role in pancreatic cancer etiology but prospective investigations are missing. METHODS: We conducted a nested case-control study within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study with 502 pairs of incident pancreatic cancer cases and matched controls. Relative counts of circulating immune cells (neutrophils and lymphocyte sublineages: total CD3+, CD8+, CD4+, and FOXP3+ regulatory T cells (Tregs) relative to nucleated cells, (white blood cells) were measured by qRT-PCR. ORs with 95% confidence intervals were estimated using logistic regressions, modeling relative counts of immune cells on a continuous scale. RESULTS: Neither relative counts of immune cell types taken individually, nor mutually adjusted for each other were associated with pancreatic cancer risks. However, in subgroup analyses by strata of lag-time, higher relative counts of Tregs and lower relative counts of CD8+ were significantly associated with an increased pancreatic cancer risks in participants diagnosed within the first 5 years of follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: These results might reflect reverse causation, due to higher relative counts of Tregs and lower counts of CD8+ cells among individuals with more advanced stages of latent pancreatic cancer, who are closer to the point of developing clinical manifest disease. IMPACT: We have shown, for the first time, that increased relative counts of regulatory T cells and lower relative counts of CD8+, cytotoxic T cells may be associated with pancreatic cancer risk or relatively late-stage tumor development.See related commentary by Michaud and Kelsey, p. 2176.


Assuntos
Epigênese Genética/imunologia , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/imunologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Biomarcadores Tumorais/sangue , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Causalidade , Feminino , Humanos , Contagem de Linfócitos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neutrófilos/metabolismo , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/epidemiologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Linfócitos T Reguladores/metabolismo
16.
NPJ Parkinsons Dis ; 7(1): 73, 2021 Aug 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34400650

RESUMO

The lack of knowledge about the onset and progression of Parkinson's disease (PD) hampers its early diagnosis and treatment. Metabolomics might shed light on the PD imprint seeking a broader view of the biochemical remodeling induced by this disease in an early and pre-symptomatic stage and unveiling potential biomarkers. To achieve this goal, we took advantage of the great potential of the European Prospective Study on Nutrition and Cancer (EPIC) cohort to apply metabolomics searching for early diagnostic PD markers. This cohort consisted of healthy volunteers that were followed for around 15 years until June 2011 to ascertain incident PD. For this untargeted metabolomics-based study, baseline preclinical plasma samples of 39 randomly selected individuals that developed PD (Pre-PD group) and the corresponding control group were analyzed using a multiplatform approach. Data were statistically analyzed and exposed alterations in 33 metabolites levels, including significantly lower levels of free fatty acids (FFAs) in the preclinical samples from PD subjects. These results were then validated by adopting a targeted HPLC-QqQ-MS approach. After integrating all the metabolites affected, our finding revealed alterations in FFAs metabolism, mitochondrial dysfunction, oxidative stress, and gut-brain axis dysregulation long before the development of PD hallmarks. Although the biological purpose of these events is still unknown, the remodeled metabolic pathways highlighted in this work might be considered worthy prognostic biomarkers of early prodromal PD. The findings revealed by this work are of inestimable value since this is the first study conducted with samples collected many years before the disease development.

17.
Int J Cancer ; 149(9): 1659-1669, 2021 11 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34196970

RESUMO

Dysregulation of tryptophan metabolism has been linked to colorectal tumorigenesis; however, epidemiological studies investigating tryptophan metabolites in relation to colorectal cancer risk are limited. We studied associations of plasma tryptophan, serotonin and kynurenine with colon cancer risk in two studies with cancer patients and controls, and in one prospective cohort: ColoCare Study (110 patients/153 controls), the Colorectal Cancer Study of Austria (CORSA; 46 patients/390 controls) and the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC; 456 matched case-control pairs). Logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for colon cancer risk. Tryptophan was inversely associated with colon cancer risk in ColoCare (OR per 1-SD = 0.44; 95% CI, 0.31-0.64) and EPIC (OR per 1-SD = 0.86; 95% CI, 0.74-0.99). Comparing detectable vs nondetectable levels, serotonin was positively associated with colon cancer in CORSA (OR = 6.39; 95% CI, 3.61-11.3) and EPIC (OR = 2.03; 95% CI, 1.20-3.40). Kynurenine was inversely associated with colon cancer in ColoCare (OR per 1-SD = 0.74; 95% CI, 0.55-0.98), positively associated in CORSA (OR per 1-SD = 1.79; 95% CI, 1.27-2.52), while no association was observed in EPIC. The kynurenine-to-tryptophan ratio was positively associated with colon cancer in ColoCare (OR per 1-SD = 1.38; 95% CI, 1.03-1.84) and CORSA (OR per 1-SD = 1.44; 95% CI, 1.06-1.96), but not in EPIC. These results suggest that higher plasma tryptophan may be associated with lower colon cancer risk, while increased serotonin may be associated with a higher risk of colon cancer. The kynurenine-to-tryptophan ratio may also reflect altered tryptophan catabolism during colon cancer development.


Assuntos
Neoplasias do Colo/sangue , Cinurenina/sangue , Serotonina/sangue , Triptofano/sangue , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Neoplasias do Colo/diagnóstico , Neoplasias do Colo/metabolismo , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Triptofano/metabolismo
18.
Nutrients ; 13(7)2021 Jun 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34206846

RESUMO

Diet may influence the development of inflammatory bowel disease through the modulation of inflammation. We investigated whether the inflammatory potential of the diet is associated with the risk of Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC) in the Spanish cohort of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC-Spain). The study included 32,633 participants aged 29-69 years. The inflammatory potential of the diet was measured by using an inflammatory score of the diet (ISD) based on a baseline dietary history questionnaire. Cox regression was used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). During 21 years (674,547 person-years) of follow-up, 32 and 57 participants developed CD and UC, respectively. In multivariable analysis, a one-standard deviation (SD) increment in the ISD (two-unit increase) was associated with a higher risk of CD (HR of 1.71; 95% CI: 1.05-2.80; p = 0.031). By contrast, ISD was not associated with UC (HR for one-SD increment of 0.89; 95% CI: 0.66-1.19; p = 0.436). Our results suggest that consuming a more pro-inflammatory diet may contribute to the risk of CD, supporting that a healthy diet might be beneficial in its prevention. Further, larger studies are needed to verify these findings.


Assuntos
Colite Ulcerativa/epidemiologia , Doença de Crohn/epidemiologia , Dieta , Neoplasias/complicações , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Inflamação , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Avaliação Nutricional , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Prospectivos , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Espanha , Inquéritos e Questionários
19.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 114(4): 1408-1417, 2021 10 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34258619

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Epidemiological studies have suggested positive associations for iron and red meat intake with risk of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). Inherited pathogenic variants in genes involved in the hepcidin-regulating iron metabolism pathway are known to cause iron overload and hemochromatosis. OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to determine whether common genetic variation in the hepcidin-regulating iron metabolism pathway is associated with PDAC. METHODS: We conducted a pathway analysis of the hepcidin-regulating genes using single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) summary statistics generated from 4 genome-wide association studies in 2 large consortium studies using the summary data-based adaptive rank truncated product method. Our population consisted of 9253 PDAC cases and 12,525 controls of European descent. Our analysis included 11 hepcidin-regulating genes [bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP2), bone morphogenetic protein 6 (BMP6), ferritin heavy chain 1 (FTH1), ferritin light chain (FTL), hepcidin (HAMP), homeostatic iron regulator (HFE), hemojuvelin (HJV), nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (NRF2), ferroportin 1 (SLC40A1), transferrin receptor 1 (TFR1), and transferrin receptor 2 (TFR2)] and their surrounding genomic regions (±20 kb) for a total of 412 SNPs. RESULTS: The hepcidin-regulating gene pathway was significantly associated with PDAC (P = 0.002), with the HJV, TFR2, TFR1, BMP6, and HAMP genes contributing the most to the association. CONCLUSIONS: Our results support that genetic susceptibility related to the hepcidin-regulating gene pathway is associated with PDAC risk and suggest a potential role of iron metabolism in pancreatic carcinogenesis. Further studies are needed to evaluate effect modification by intake of iron-rich foods on this association.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma/metabolismo , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/fisiologia , Hepcidinas/metabolismo , Ferro/metabolismo , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/metabolismo , Idoso , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Genótipo , Hepcidinas/genética , Humanos , Desequilíbrio de Ligação , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único
20.
Int J Epidemiol ; 2021 Jul 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34259837

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Findings and limitations of previous studies on persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and pancreatic cancer risk support conducting further research in prospective cohorts. METHODS: We conducted a prospective case-control study nested within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort. Participants were 513 pancreatic cancer cases and 1020 matched controls. Concentrations of 22 POPs were measured in plasma collected at baseline. RESULTS: Some associations were observed at higher concentrations of p, p'-DDT, trans-nonachlor, ß-hexachlorocyclohexane and the sum of six organochlorine pesticides and of 16 POPs. The odds ratio (OR) for the upper quartile of trans-nonachlor was 1.55 (95% confidence interval 1.06-2.26; P for trend = 0.025). Associations were stronger in the groups predefined as most valid (participants having fasted >6 h, with microscopic diagnostic confirmation, normal weight, and never smokers), and as most relevant (follow-up ≥10 years). Among participants having fasted >6 h, the ORs were relevant for 10 of 11 exposures. Higher ORs were also observed among cases with microscopic confirmation than in cases with a clinical diagnosis, and among normal-weight participants than in the rest of participants. Among participants with a follow-up ≥10 years, estimates were higher than in participants with a shorter follow-up (for trans-nonachlor: OR = 2.14, 1.01 to 4.53, P for trend = 0.035). Overall, trans-nonachlor, three PCBs and the two sums of POPs were the exposures most clearly associated with pancreatic cancer risk. CONCLUSIONS: Individually or in combination, most of the 22 POPs analysed did not or only moderately increased the risk of pancreatic cancer.

SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...