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1.
Oral Dis ; 2020 Feb 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32011077

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: We reported the alveolar bone histology prior to dental extractions in cancer patients, who received bone targeting agents. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Fifty-four patients were included. Patients underwent extractions and bone biopsies were taken. RESULTS: Extractions were performed due to pain, swelling, purulence, fistula and numbness, not responding to treatment, in 40 patients (Group A); extractions due to asymptomatic, non-restorable teeth, were performed in 14 patients (Group B). Complete alveolar jaw bone histological necrosis was observed in 28 of 40 (70%) patients of Group A and none of Group B (P<0.001). The development of clinical osteonecrosis (MRON) was assessed in 44 patients; 10 patients, who were also treated with Low Level Laser Treatments-LLLT, were excluded from this analysis, as the alternative therapies were a confounding factor. Twelve patients, with alveolar bone histological necrosis prior to extraction, developed MRONJ compared to 2 patients with vital or mixed vital/non-vital bone (P<0.0007). BTAs>1 year and concurrent targeted therapy were also significantly associated with MRONJ (P=0.016 and P=0.050). CONCLUSION: Pain, swelling, purulence, fistula and numbness were significantly associated with complete bone histological necrosis prior to extractions and increased MRONJ development. Research is justified to explore whether histological necrosis represents an early stage of osteonecrosis.

2.
Anticancer Res ; 40(1): 305-313, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31892581

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cancer-associated thrombosis (CAT), the second leading cause of death in patients with cancer can be treated with low molecular weight heparin (LMWH) according to guidelines. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A multicenter prospective observational study was carried out to record anti-thrombotic treatment practice, assess thrombosis recurrence and bleeding, and identify potential risk factors. Adult patients from 18 Oncology Departments throughout Greece were followed-up for 12 months. RESULTS: A total of 120 patients with CAT receiving anticoagulant treatment were enrolled (35% incidental); 85% were treated for more than 6 months, 95.8% were treated with tinzaparin and smaller percentages with other agents. Thrombosis recurred in three patients and there was minor bleeding in four patients. Bleeding was associated with high body mass index (>35 kg/m2), trauma history, renal insufficiency and bevacizumab use. CONCLUSION: Incidental thrombosis contributes significantly to CAT burden. Long-term use of LMWH seems to be effective and safe. Several risk factors associated with bleeding should be considered during anti-coagulation therapy planning.


Assuntos
Neoplasias/complicações , Trombose/etiologia , Trombose/terapia , Feminino , Hemorragia/etiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/patologia , Fatores de Risco
3.
J BUON ; 24(5): 1776-1784, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31786837

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Primary squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the ovary is rare. Most cases arise from a cystic teratoma or less frequently from Brenner tumor or endometriosis. We reviewed 36 cases of primary ovarian SCC reported in the literature including a case diagnosed and treated in our institution. METHODS: Data was collected by using the key-words "primary squamous cell carcinoma" and "ovary" on Google Scholar and PubMed in April 2018. All reviewed cases were analyzed according to diagnosis, surgical approach, adjuvant therapy and outcome. RESULTS: To date 23 articles presenting 36 cases of primary ovarian SCC are reported. Nine patients had stage I, 8 stage II, 11 stage III and 5 stage IV disease, whereas 3 patients had in situ carcinoma. All patients underwent surgery (mainly hysterectomy with bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy). Adjuvant therapy was reported in 24 patients, 15 of which received chemotherapy, 6 radiotherapy and 3 a combination of both. Chemotherapy regimens were similar to the ones used in ovarian carcinoma (more often platinum plus paclitaxel). Follow-up period was in general short and survival varied between 9 days and 14 years, depending on the stage at diagnosis. CONCLUSIONS: Primary ovarian SCC is a rare entity with poor prognosis, compared to serous carcinoma. Treatment is usually extrapolated from classical ovarian carcinoma algorithms, including surgical management combined with adjuvant chemotherapy with or without radiotherapy. Further investigations are needed to define optimal treatment, such as chemotherapy regimens and the role of radiotherapy and lymph node dissection.

4.
Cancer Immunol Immunother ; 68(11): 1733-1745, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31598757

RESUMO

Tumors and their surrounding area represent spatially organized "ecosystems", where tumor cells and the immune contextures of the different compartments are in a dynamic interplay, with potential clinical impact. Here, we aimed to investigate the prognostic significance of peritumoral tertiary lymphoid structures (TLS) either alone or jointly with the intratumoral densities and spatial distribution of CD8 + and CD163 + cells in breast cancer (BCa) patients. TLS were identified peritumorally, within the area distancing up to 5 mm from the infiltrative tumor border, counted and further characterized as adjacent or distal, in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tumor tissue samples from a cohort of 167 patients, with histologically confirmed invasive ductal BCa. TLS and tumor-infiltrating immune cells were determined by H&E and immunohistochemistry. Clinical follow-up was available for 112 of these patients. Patients with peritumoral TLS exhibited worse disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS) as compared to patients lacking TLS. Moreover, the density of peritumoral TLS was found to be crucial for prognosis, since patients with abundant TLS exhibited the worst DFS and OS. By combining the density of adjacent TLS (aTLS) with our recently published intratumoral signatures based on the differential distribution of CD8 + and CD163 + in the tumor center and invasive margin, we created two improved immune signatures with superior prognostic strength and higher patient population coverage. Our observations strengthen the notion for the fundamental role of the dynamic interplay between the immune cells within the tumor microenvironment (center/invasive margin) and the tumor surrounding area (peritumoral TLS) on the clinical outcome of BCa patients.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores/análise , Neoplasias da Mama/imunologia , Linfócitos do Interstício Tumoral/imunologia , Estruturas Linfoides Terciárias/imunologia , Microambiente Tumoral/imunologia , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Taxa de Sobrevida , Estruturas Linfoides Terciárias/patologia
5.
Oral Oncol ; 2019 Jul 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31300270

RESUMO

Immunotherapy (IO) with anti-PD1 inhibitors is available for the treatment of recurrent/metastatic squamous cell carcinomas of the head and neck (SCCHD) since 2016. Both nivolumab and pembrolizumab were tested in phase 3 randomized trials in adults progressing on or after platinum-based therapy and were found to confer an overall survival benefit compared to investigator's choice. However, very limited data exist concerning IO use in rare subtypes of head and neck carcinoma, like salivary gland carcinoma. We retrospectively collected clinical data of all patients diagnosed with rare subtypes of head and neck carcinoma, who were treated with immune checkpoint inhibitors in our department during the last 5 years. We analyzed safety and efficacy of these therapies. We identified six patients who received nivolumab for recurrent or metastatic head and neck carcinomas, between 31 and 57 years old. All patients had received at least one line of platinum-chemotherapy, as well as radiation therapy. Treatment was administered every 2 weeks, at a dose of 3 mg per kilogram of body weight. Number of nivolumab cycles varied between 2 and 18. Progression-free survival varied from 1 to 12 months and overall survival from 4 to 24 months. Tolerance was very good, except for one case of diabetes and hypothyroidism requiring medication. There is currently insufficient evidence regarding the optimal treatment of the rare non-squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck. Our case series supports a role for immunotherapy in these patients. However, larger collaborative studies are needed to evaluate this treatment.

6.
Oncotarget ; 10(41): 4161-4168, 2019 Jun 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31289614

RESUMO

Background: Cabazitaxel is a second-generation taxane approved for use in patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) previously treated with docetaxel. Early access programmes were established to allow eligible patients with mCRPC access to cabazitaxel before regulatory approval. Materials and Methods: The primary objective was to allow access to cabazitaxel before commercial availability for patients with mCRPC whose disease had progressed during or after chemotherapy with docetaxel; the secondary objective was overall safety. Patients received cabazitaxel 25 mg/m2 on Day 1 of a 21-day cycle, with daily oral 10 mg prednisone/prednisolone. G-CSF was administered per ASCO guidelines. Results: In total, 1432 patients received cabazitaxel across 41 countries between 2010 and 2014 (median 6.0 treatment cycles [range 1-49]). The most frequently occurring treatment-emergent adverse events (TEAEs) possibly related to treatment were diarrhoea (33.3%), fatigue (25.4%) and anaemia (23.7%); the most frequently occurring possibly related Grade 3/4 TEAEs were neutropenia (18.7%) and febrile neutropenia (6.9%). G-CSF was administered in ≥ 1 cycle in 64% of patients (10.1% therapeutic use; 57.8% prophylactic use; 9.7% both uses). Conclusion: The safety profile of cabazitaxel in this pooled analysis of two cabazitaxel early access programmes was manageable and consistent with previous Phase III trials (TROPIC, PROSELICA).

7.
J BUON ; 24(2): 770-778, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31128035

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Ewing Sarcoma/Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor (ES/PNET) is a malignant small round cell tumor belonging to the Ewing Sarcoma Family of Tumors. It occurs more commonly in children and young adults. Its localization in the adrenal gland is extremely rare. We reviewed 35 cases of ES/PNET of the adrenal gland reported in the literature and presented our case. METHODS: Data were collected by searching for ES/PNET and adrenal gland key words on Google Scholar and PubMed in March 2018, including a case diagnosed in our department. We analyzed all reviewed cases for diagnosis, surgical and systemic therapy and outcome. RESULTS: To date 24 articles presenting cases of ES/PNET of the adrenal gland are reported in the literature. We included in our review 35 cases previously described and one new case. Histologically all cases consisted of sheets of small round cells. Immunohistochemistry was also performed in all cases. Most cases stained positive for CD99 and negative for lymphocytic markers. Markers of epithelial differentiation displayed variable results. In all cases tested, characteristic translocations were displayed supporting the diagnosis. All patients but four were treated surgically and the majority received adjuvant therapy. Only very few cases received neoadjuvant chemotherapy. CONCLUSIONS: Primary ES/PNET of the adrenal gland is a rare tumor, showing specific morphological, immunohistochemical and cytogenetic characteristics. Treatment consists of surgery, chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Further investigations paired with long term follow-up are necessary to define prognosis for this rare entity.


Assuntos
Antígeno 12E7/genética , Neoplasias das Glândulas Suprarrenais/epidemiologia , Tumores Neuroectodérmicos Primitivos Periféricos/epidemiologia , Sarcoma de Ewing/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Neoplasias das Glândulas Suprarrenais/genética , Neoplasias das Glândulas Suprarrenais/patologia , Neoplasias das Glândulas Suprarrenais/terapia , Glândulas Suprarrenais/patologia , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/genética , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Tumores Neuroectodérmicos Primitivos Periféricos/genética , Tumores Neuroectodérmicos Primitivos Periféricos/patologia , Tumores Neuroectodérmicos Primitivos Periféricos/terapia , Prognóstico , Sarcoma de Ewing/genética , Sarcoma de Ewing/patologia , Sarcoma de Ewing/terapia , Adulto Jovem
8.
BMC Cancer ; 19(1): 88, 2019 Jan 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30658600

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The "EMERGE" study, aimed to capture real-life management patterns and outcomes in metastatic breast cancer (MBC) in Greece, also accounting for hormone (HR) and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) status. METHODS: "EMERGE" was a multicenter, retrospective cohort study of adult MBC patients diagnosed between 01-Janaury-2010 and 30-June-2012, either de novo or having progressed from a non-metastatic state. Patient data, including treatment patterns and outcomes, were mainly abstracted through medical chart review. RESULTS: 386 patients were enrolled by 16 hospital-based oncologists between 12-March-2013 and 31-March-2015. The median look-back period was 29.1 months. At MBC diagnosis, 56.1% of the patients were HR+/HER2-, 16.6% HR+/HER2+, 14.5% HR-/HER2-, and 12.8% HR-/HER2+. In the first line setting, chemotherapy, targeted therapy and endocrine therapy were received by 76.7, 52.4, and 28.3% of the overall population, and by 66.5/36.2/42.0%, 80.4/80.4/28.6%, 88.4/90.7/0.0, and 95.6%/56.5/6.5% of the HR+/HER2-, HR+/HER2+, HR-/HER2+, HR-/HER2- subpopulations, respectively. In the overall population, the disease progression incidence rate was 0.57 [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.48-0.67] per person-year; median progression-free survival (PFS) was 22.4 (95% CI: 20.4-24.7) and overall survival (OS) was 45.0 (95% CI: 40.9-55.0) months. Median PFS was 24.6 (95% CI: 21.3-27.9) in HR+/HER2-, 19.7 (95% CI: 12.9-25.9) in HR+/HER2+, 23.0 (95% CI: 16.6-29.7) in HR-/HER2+ and 18.3 (95% CI: 10.0-24.7) months in HR-/HER2- subpopulations. A multivariable Cox proportional hazards model, adjusted among other factors for age and duration of diagnosis, HR and HER2 status, demonstrated that in the overall population PFS was better among those receiving first line endocrine therapy (hazard ratio: 0.70; 95%CI: 0.51-0.95; p = 0.024). CONCLUSIONS: "EMERGE" demonstrates differences between HR/HER2 subtypes in clinical outcomes and divergence from evidence-based guideline recommendations for MBC management, especially as it pertains to the HR+/HER2- patients in which chemotherapy was favored over endocrine therapy in the first line setting. STUDY REGISTRATION: The study has been registered on the electronic Registry of Non-Interventional Studies (RNIS) posted on the website of the Hellenic Association of Pharmaceutical Companies (SFEE): https://www.dilon.sfee.gr/studiesp_d.php?meleti_id=NIS-OGR-XXX-2012/1.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/terapia , /estatística & dados numéricos , Idoso , Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Feminino , Grécia/epidemiologia , Humanos , Incidência , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Metástase Neoplásica , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Retrospectivos
9.
Curr Pharm Biotechnol ; 19(13): 1064-1075, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30417787

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Current chemotherapy regimens for the treatment of colorectal cancer (CRC) include oxaliplatin, irinotecan, and fluorouracil along with leucovorin. Cytotoxicity involves the induction of programmed cell death. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to assess the molecular effects of doxorubicin (a 14-OH derivative of the natural product daunorubicin) and common chemotherapeutic drugs (used in the clinical practice to treat CRC) on the expression of the most prominent members of the BCL2 family, namely BCL2, BAX, BCLX, and MCL1. Moreover, we sought to define the role of BCL2L12, another member of the BCL2 family, the apoptotic role of which is ambiguous. METHODS: The MTT cell proliferation assay was used to determine the IC50 of each chemotherapeutic drug at 72 hours of treatment of Caco-2 and DLD-1 colorectal adenocarcinoma cell lines. Real-time PCR was used to quantify the antiapoptotic BCL2-α, BLCX-L, and MCL1-L transcripts, the proapoptotic BAX, BLCX-S, BLCX-ES, MCL1-S, and MCL1-ES transcripts, and BCL2L12 expression in relation to GAPDH mRNA levels. RESULTS: We constructed growth curves of Caco-2 and DLD-1 cells and determined the IC50 of each drug at 72 hours of treatment. Significant alterations in the expression levels of the studied BCL2 family genes and/or particular transcripts were observed. CONCLUSION: The intrinsic apoptotic pathway is activated during treatment of CRC cells with common chemotherapeutic drugs. Moreover, BCL2L12 mRNA expression increases progressively during treatment, similarly to the expression of other BCL2 family genes favoring apoptosis and/or particular proapoptotic transcripts, thus suggesting a proapoptotic role for BCL2L12 in chemotherapy-treated CRC cells.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Doxorrubicina/farmacologia , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas Musculares/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-bcl-2/genética , Apoptose/genética , Células CACO-2 , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Humanos , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo
10.
Anticancer Res ; 38(11): 6565-6569, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30396987

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: Subcutaneous (s.c.) trastuzumab was introduced in the (neo)adjuvant setting, based on the non-inferiority results and patient preference. In the advanced setting, preliminary safety data have only been reported. We conducted an observational study of s.c. trastuzumab in combination with i.v. pertuzumab and docetaxel in the first-line setting of human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-positive advanced breast cancer. PATIENTS AND METHODS: In this single-institution study, patients received 600 mg s.c. trastuzumab in combination with 840 mg pertuzumab for the first cycle and 420 mg for the following cycles, and 75-100 mg/m2 docetaxel, followed by maintenance with s.c. trastuzumab and pertuzumab until disease progression or unacceptable toxicity. Endpoints were efficacy and safety. RESULTS: Forty patients were enrolled. The median number of cycles with docetaxel was six, while the median number of maintenance cycles was 21. With a median follow-up of 37 months, median progression-free survival and overall survival were 24 and 35 months. CONCLUSION: Subcutaneous trastuzumab in combination with pertuzumab and docetaxel is well tolerated and effective in HER2-positive advanced breast cancer.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/administração & dosagem , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/administração & dosagem , Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , Taxoides/administração & dosagem , Trastuzumab/administração & dosagem , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/uso terapêutico , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias da Mama/metabolismo , Docetaxel , Esquema de Medicação , Feminino , Humanos , Injeções Subcutâneas , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Receptor ErbB-2/metabolismo , Análise de Sobrevida , Taxoides/uso terapêutico , Trastuzumab/uso terapêutico , Resultado do Tratamento
11.
Br J Cancer ; 119(12): 1477-1486, 2018 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30374124

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Bladder cancer (BlCa) heterogeneity and the lack of personalised prognosis lead to patients' highly variable treatment outcomes. Here, we have analysed the utility of the GAS5 tumour-suppressor lncRNA in improving BlCa prognosis. METHODS: GAS5 was quantified in a screening cohort of 176 patients. Hedegaard et al. (2016) (n = 476) and TCGA provisional (n = 413) were used as validation cohorts. Survival analysis was performed using recurrence and progression for NMIBC, or death for MIBC. Internal validation was performed by bootstrap analysis, and decision curve analysis was used to evaluate the clinical benefit on disease prognosis. RESULTS: GAS5 levels were significantly downregulated in BlCa and associated with invasive high-grade tumours, and high EORTC-risk NMIBC patients. GAS5 loss was strongly and independently correlated with higher risk for NMIBC early relapse (HR = 2.680, p = 0.011) and progression (HR = 6.362, p = 0.035). Hedegaard et al. and TCGA validation cohorts' analysis clearly confirmed the association of GAS5 loss with NMIBC worse prognosis. Finally, multivariate models incorporating GAS5 with disease established markers resulted in higher clinical benefit for NMIBC prognosis. CONCLUSIONS: GAS5 loss is associated with adverse outcome of NMIBC and results in improved positive prediction of NMIBC patients at higher risk for short-term relapse and progression, supporting personalised prognosis and treatment decisions.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais/análise , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/genética , RNA Longo não Codificante/análise , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/genética , Idoso , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Prognóstico , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/mortalidade
12.
Clin Biochem ; 60: 24-32, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30063890

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: MicroRNA-331 (miR-331) has shown regulatory activity against several genes whose expression has been claimed to be deregulated in breast tumors, including that of epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2). Herein, the clinical value of miR-331 expression was investigated by analyzing its levels in breast benign and malignant tumors. METHODS: The expression levels of miR-331 were quantified via real-time PCR in 130 malignant and 66 benign breast tissue specimens collected after surgical resection of primary tumors. The generated data were analyzed by applying several statistical tests in order to examine the relationship of miR-331 expression with various established clinicopathological features and survival data of patients. RESULTS: Our data showed that miR-331 was overexpressed in malignant breast tumors compared to their benign counterparts both overall (P = 0.026) and individually when the subgroups of fibroadenoma and invasive ductal carcinoma were analyzed with each other (P = 0.001). ROC curve analysis confirmed the diagnostic value of these variations, providing an AUC value equal to 0.597 (P = 0.026) and 0.663 (P = 0.001), respectively. Furthermore, miR-331 levels were elevated (P = 0.026) in ductal cancerous specimens compared to the lobular ones but failed to correlate with other clinicopathological features or survival data of the breast cancer patients. CONCLUSIONS: Our results provide evidence that miR-331 levels might provide valuable information regarding the differential diagnosis of benign and malignant breast tumors but present no prognostic value for breast cancer.


Assuntos
Adenofibroma/genética , Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , MicroRNAs/genética , Adenofibroma/diagnóstico , Adenofibroma/patologia , Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Carcinoma Ductal de Mama/diagnóstico , Carcinoma Ductal de Mama/genética , Carcinoma Ductal de Mama/patologia , Carcinoma Lobular/diagnóstico , Carcinoma Lobular/genética , Carcinoma Lobular/patologia , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Feminino , Humanos , Prognóstico , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real
13.
In Vivo ; 32(3): 653-657, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29695574

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: During recent years, a survival advantage was reported for first-line treatment of advanced pancreatic cancer with two new regimens, FOLFIRINOX and gemcitabine/nab-paclitaxel, over gemcitabine monotherapy. Gemcitabine/nab-paclitaxel administration on days 1, 8 and 15 of a 4-week cycle is associated with some practical disadvantages. We adopted a biweekly regimen with the same dose density. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients with Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status 0-2 diagnosed with advanced histologically or cytologically confirmed pancreatic cancer and no prior treatment were included in the study. Study combination included 1.5 g/m2 gemcitabine and 175 mg/m2 nab-paclitaxel given every 2 weeks. Survival analysis was performed using the Kaplan-Meier method. RESULTS: Forty-six patients were treated with this regimen. Adverse events were similar to those of the original regimen. Median progression-free and overall survival were 5 and 10 months, respectively. CONCLUSION: Biweekly gemcitabine/nab-paclitaxel seems to have a similar safety and efficacy profile as the original regimen.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/patologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Albuminas/administração & dosagem , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/efeitos adversos , Desoxicitidina/administração & dosagem , Desoxicitidina/análogos & derivados , Esquema de Medicação , Feminino , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Metástase Neoplásica , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Paclitaxel/administração & dosagem , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/mortalidade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento
14.
Clin Exp Med ; 18(2): 203-213, 2018 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29435805

RESUMO

Novel molecular markers that address the heterogeneity of breast cancer (BC) and provide meaningful prognostic information for BC patients are needed. Kallikrein-related peptidase 6 (KLK6) is aberrantly expressed and functionally implicated in BC and, like other members of the KLK family, may prove a useful molecular tool for clinical management. Our objective was to assess, for the first time, the clinical relevance of KLK6 mRNA expression in BC. Total RNA was isolated from 165 breast tumors, as well as 100 adjacent non-cancerous tumor specimens. After cDNA synthesis, and following quality control, quantitative real-time PCR for KLK6 expression analysis took place. Receiver operating characteristic curves were constructed in order to assess the ability of KLK6 mRNA expression levels to differentiate between molecular BC subtypes. Survival analyses, using DFS as endpoint, were performed at the univariate and multivariate levels. Publicly available BC databases and online survival analysis tools were used to validate our findings. A significant downregulation of KLK6 mRNA expression was observed in BC tissue sections compared to the non-cancerous component (P < 0.001). The expression of KLK6 is positively associated with tumor grade (P = 0.038) and is overexpressed in TNBC and HER2-positive tumors (P < 0.001). Aberrant KLK6 expression predicts the clinical outcome of BC patients in terms of DFS, independently of currently used prognostic markers (HR = 7.11, 95% CI = 1.19-42.45). The differential expression of KLK6 and its association with unfavorable outcome in BC patients was validated via in silico analyses. Although an independent external cohort is necessary to confirm our findings, we proved for the first time that KLK6 can provide independent prognostic information for BC patients.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Regulação para Baixo , Calicreínas/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Feminino , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Gradação de Tumores , Prognóstico , Análise de Sobrevida
16.
J Immunother Cancer ; 5: 39, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28428887

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Tumor immune cell infiltrates are essential in hindering cancer progression and may complement the TNM classification. CD8+ and CD163+ cells have prognostic impact in breast cancer but their spatial heterogeneity has not been extensively explored in this type of cancer. Here, their potential as prognostic biomarkers was evaluated, depending on their combined densities in the tumor center (TC) and the tumor invasive margin (IM). METHODS: CD8+ and CD163+ cells were quantified by immunohistochemistry of formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tumor tissue samples from a cohort totaling 162 patients with histologically-confirmed primary invasive non-metastatic ductal breast cancer diagnosed between 2000 and 2015. Clinical follow-up (median 6.9 years) was available for 97 of these patients. RESULTS: Differential densities of CD8+ and CD163+ cells in the combined TC and IM compartments (i.e., high(H)/low(L), respectively for CD8+ cells and the reverse L/H combination for CD163+ cells) were found to have significant prognostic value for survival, and allowed better patient stratification than TNM stage, tumor size, lymph node invasion and histological grade. The combined evaluation of CD8+ and CD163+ cell densities jointly in TC and IM further improves prediction of clinical outcomes based on disease-free and overall survival. Patients having the favorable immune signatures had favorable clinical outcomes despite poor clinicopathological parameters. CONCLUSIONS: Given the important roles of CD8+ and CD163+ cells in regulating opposing immune circuits, adding an assessment of their differential densities to the prognostic biomarker armamentarium in breast cancer would be valuable. Larger validation studies are necessary to confirm these findings. TRIAL REGISTRATIONS: Study code: IRB-ID 6079/448/10-6-13 Date of approval: 10/06/2013 Retrospective study (2000-2010) First patient prospectively enrolled 14/2/2014.


Assuntos
Antígenos CD/imunologia , Antígenos de Diferenciação Mielomonocítica/imunologia , Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Mama/imunologia , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/imunologia , Receptores de Superfície Celular/imunologia , Adulto , Idoso , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico
17.
Oncotarget ; 7(40): 66192-66201, 2016 Oct 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27589688

RESUMO

GP2 is a HER2-derived, HLA-A2+ restricted peptide. Phase I studies showed GP2 administered with GM-CSF to be safe and immunogenic. Here we report the primary analysis of a prospective, randomized, multicenter phase II adjuvant trial conducted to determine the vaccine's efficacy. The trial enrolled HLA-A2+, clinically disease-free, node-positive and high-risk node-negative breast cancer patients with tumors expressing HER2 (immunohistochemistry[IHC] 1+-3+). Patients were randomized to GP2+GM-CSF versus GM-CSF alone. Disease-free survival (DFS) was analyzed in intention-to-treat (ITT) and per-treatment cohorts; pre-specified subgroup analyses were performed for patients with IHC 3+ or FISH+ disease. The trial enrolled 180 patients; 89 received GP2+GM-CSF and 91 received GM-CSF alone. The groups were well-matched for clinicopathologic characteristics. Toxicities have been minimal. The Kaplan-Meier estimated 5-year DFS rate in the ITT analyses was 88% (95% CI:78-94%) in vaccinated vs. 81% (95% CI:69-89%) (P = 0.43) in control patients after a 34 month median follow-up. In the per-treatment analysis, the estimated 5-year DFS rates were 94% (95% CI:83-98%) and 85% (73-92%) (P = 0.17). In IHC 3+/FISH+ patients, the estimated 5-year DFS rate was 94% (82-98%) in vaccinated patients (n = 51) vs. 89% (71-96%) in control patients (n = 50), (P = 0.86) in the ITT analyses and 100% vs. 89% (71-96%) in vaccinated vs. control patients in the per-treatment analyses (P = 0.08). While the overall ITT analysis did not demonstrate benefit to vaccination, this trial confirmed that the GP2 vaccine is safe and suggests that vaccination may have clinical activity, particularly in patients with HER2 overexpression who received the full vaccine series (ie per-treatment group).


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/prevenção & controle , Vacinas Anticâncer/uso terapêutico , Fator Estimulador de Colônias de Granulócitos e Macrófagos/administração & dosagem , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/prevenção & controle , Fragmentos de Peptídeos/imunologia , Receptor ErbB-2/imunologia , Vacinas de Subunidades/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Idoso , Neoplasias da Mama/imunologia , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/imunologia , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/patologia , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Método Simples-Cego , Taxa de Sobrevida , Vacinação
18.
Oncol Lett ; 12(6): 4635-4642, 2016 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28101218

RESUMO

Data concerning bevacizumab plus pemetrexed plus carboplatin as first-line treatment for patients with non-squamous non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) with or without brain metastases (BM) are lacking. The present study analyzed the efficacy and safety of this combination as induction therapy, followed by maintenance therapy with bevacizumab plus pemetrexed in non-squamous NSCLC patients with or without BM. Treatment-naïve patients with advanced non-squamous NSCLC and an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status score of 0-2 were eligible. Treatment consisted of carboplatin (area under the curve of 5), pemetrexed (500 mg/m2) and bevacizumab (15 mg/kg) every 3 weeks for 6 cycles. Responders and patients with stable disease received maintenance therapy with bevacizumab plus pemetrexed until disease progression, which was evaluated every 3 cycles, or unacceptable toxicity. Kaplan-Meier median progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) times were the primary endpoints, and safety was the secondary endpoint. In total, 39 patients, aged 44-78 years (median, 60 years), were treated; 11 (28.2%) of whom presented with BM. The majority of patients (56.4%) completed 6 cycles of induction therapy, and 26 patients continued on to maintenance therapy. The median PFS time was 8.2 months [95% confidence interval (CI), 7.05-9.35] and the median OS time was 14.0 months (95% CI, 8.46-19.54). Median PFS and OS times did not differ significantly between patients with or without BM (log rank (Mantel-Cox): PFS, P=0.748 and OS, P=0.447). The majority of patients (76.9%) did not experience adverse events during treatment. Overall, bevacizumab plus pemetrexed plus carboplatin as induction therapy, followed by bevacizumab plus pemetrexed as maintenance therapy was effective and well tolerated in advanced NSCLC, whether brain metastases were present or not.

19.
Breast Cancer Res Treat ; 152(2): 323-36, 2015 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26099606

RESUMO

Examining for new BC biomarkers has proven that kallikrein-related peptidase (KLK) family members represent promising serum and/or tissue molecular tools for early diagnosis, effective prognosis, and treatment monitoring of patients. The aim of this study was to investigate, the previously unexplored, prognostic significance of KLK8 in BC. KLK8 mRNA expression was quantitatively analyzed in 150 cancerous and 100 corresponding normal breast tissue specimens via a SYBR Green-based Real-Time PCR methodology. Expression data and patients' clinicopathological parameters were used for extensive biostatistical analyses, including internal validation. KLK8 mRNA expression was significantly downregulated in the cancerous tissue part relative to the non-cancerous counterpart (P < 0.001), in the majority of the paired breast tissue samples. KLK8 expression was associated with advanced TNM stage (P = 0.019) and positive nodal status involvement (P = 0.044). Triple negative (TNBC) and HER2 overexpressing tumors exhibited higher KLK8 expression levels (P < 0.001), compared to Luminal A and B molecular subtypes. Kaplan-Meier survival curve analysis revealed that BC patients with high KLK8 expression had significantly shorter disease-free survival (DFS) intervals (P < 0.001) compared to those belonging in the KLK8-low expression group. Cox univariate analysis confirmed the association between KLK8 expression, analyzed as a continuous variable, and poor patients' outcome (Hazard ratio [HR] = 3.28, P < 0.001). Most importantly, multivariate analysis showed that KLK8 expression is a strong and independent predictor of adverse DFS in BC ([HR] = 2.74; P = 0.002). Our results show that KLK8 mRNA expression is associated with aggressive tumor characteristics and it can serve as a novel independent biomarker of unfavorable prognosis for BC patients.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/mortalidade , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Calicreínas/genética , RNA Mensageiro , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Biomarcadores Tumorais , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Neoplasias da Mama/terapia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Humanos , Calicreínas/metabolismo , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Metástase Linfática , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Gradação de Tumores , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Prognóstico , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/genética , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/mortalidade , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/patologia
20.
Int J Endocrinol ; 2015: 765406, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25699081

RESUMO

Objective. This study investigated whether thyroid hormone (TH) levels are correlated to cell proliferation (Ki67), in euthyroid breast cancer patients. Design and Methods. 86 newly diagnosed breast cancer patients with estrogen receptor (ER) positive tumors, who referred for surgery, were included in the study. Results. FT3, FT4, and TSH were within normal range. No correlation was seen between Ki67 and FT3 (r = -0.17, P = 0.15), FT4 (r = -0.13, P = 0.25), or TSH (r = -0.10, P = 0.39) in all patients studied. However, subgroup analysis showed that, in HER2(+) patients, a negative correlation existed between FT3 levels and Ki67 (r = -0.60 and P = 0.004) but not between Ki67 and FT4 (r = 0.04 and P = 0.85) or TSH (r = -0.23 and P = 0.30). In HER2(-) patients, there was no significant correlation between Ki67 and FT3 (r = -0.06, P = 0.67), FT4 (r = -0.15, P = 0.26), or TSH (r = -0.09, P = 0.49). Phospho-p44/total p44 ERK levels were found to be increased by 2-fold in HER2(+) versus HER2(-) tumors. No difference was detected in phospho-p42/total p42 ERK levels. Conclusions. TH profile is not altered in patients with newly diagnosed breast cancer. However, FT3 levels, even within normal range, are negatively correlated with cell proliferation in HER2(+) breast cancer tumors. This response may be due to the interaction between ERK and TH signaling.

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