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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33283921

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This longitudinal study assessed the prevalence of dental fear in adulthood and the association with socio-economic, behavioural and clinical variables. Also, the existence of a vicious cycle of dental fear was tested. METHODS: A random sample of adults (n = 535) from the 1982 Pelotas Birth Cohort, Brazil, was selected. Socio-economic data, behavioural characteristics and clinical variables were collected during different cohort waves. Oral health data were collected at ages 15, 24 and 31 years old, using questionnaires and oral examination. Dental fear (the outcome) was assessed by the question: 'Are you afraid of going to the dentist?', with possible responses: dichotomized into 'No' or 'A little/Yes/A lot'. Exposure variables were as follows: dental visit in the last years (at the ages 15 and 31); caries experience (DMFT ≥ mean) at the ages 15 and 31; the trajectory of caries prevalence from 15 to 31 years old; dental pain in the last six months in the two ages evaluated; and self-rated oral health at age 31. Several multivariable Poisson regression models were used to investigate the association between each of the exposure variables and dental fear. RESULTS: Dental fear prevalence was 22.1%, and it was more prevalent among non-white individuals and females. After controlling for potential confounders, dental fear was more likely to be reported by those individuals who had dental pain or a higher prevalence of dental caries at the age 15. Dental fear was also associated with a worse trajectory of dental caries, negative self-rated oral health at age 31 and with not having visited the dentist in the last year (at the age 31). Results supported the proposed vicious cycle of dental fear. CONCLUSIONS: Dental fear in adulthood was related to exposures occurring across the lifecourse. Also, it was possible to observe the occurrence of the vicious cycle of dental fear in the 1982 Pelotas Birth Cohort. Therefore, preventive measures during different periods of the life course are required to prevent dental fear and adulthood.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33368600

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To systematically review observational studies assessing the association between socioeconomic status (SES) and oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) in children, adolescents and adults. METHODS: Electronic searches were performed in the PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, LILACS and Scopus databases for articles published up to September 2020. Two independent reviewers performed the search and critical appraisal of the studies. The inclusion criteria were observational studies that evaluated the effect of SES on the OHRQoL in all age groups using validated methods. Quality assessment was conducted using the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale. Data were extracted for meta-analysis followed by a meta-regression analysis. A random-effects model was used to estimate the pooled calculate prevalence ratio (PR) and respective 95% confidence intervals (CI) for each study. RESULTS: The search strategy retrieved 6114 publications. Some 139 articles met the eligibility criteria and were included in the systematic review. Of those, 75 were included in the general meta-analysis they represented a total sample of 109 269 individuals. People of lower SES had worse OHRQoL (PR 1.30; 95% CI 1.26-1.35). In the meta-analyses of different subgroups, an association was found between low SES and worse OHRQoL in countries of all economic classifications, in all age groups and irrespective of the socioeconomic indicator used. A socioeconomic gradient in OHRQoL was also observed, in which the lower the individuals' socioeconomic position, the poorer their OHRQoL. CONCLUSIONS: Individuals of low SES had poorer OHRQoL, regardless of the country's economic classification, SES indicator and age group. Public policies aiming to reduce social inequalities are necessary for better OHRQoL throughout life.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33135221

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To investigate the influence of oral health conditions, socioeconomic status and dental care utilization on subjective happiness and identify the factors associated with changes in happiness among adolescents. METHODS: Data were collected in 2012 and 2014. Oral health conditions were evaluated by performing clinical examinations; socioeconomic status and dental care utilization were assessed by using a questionnaire. The participants answered the Child Perceptions Questionnaire 11-14 for the evaluation of the impact of these variables on oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL). Happiness was assessed using the Brazilian version of the Subjective Happiness Scale. For longitudinal data analysis, a mixed-effect model of linear regression was used to assess the factors related to happiness and multinomial logistic regression to appraise prospective changes in happiness. RESULTS: A total of 1134 12-year-old adolescents were examined at baseline (response rate: 93%), and 770 were reevaluated after 2 years (retention rate: 68%). The adolescents who lived in households with lower equivalized income and greater overcrowding, had not visited the dentist in the later 6 months, had a higher number of cavitated carious lesions, and reported a higher impact on OHRQoL in 2012 presented lower happiness levels. Additionally, the adolescents with a higher number of decayed, missing or filled teeth and who reported a higher impact on OHRQoL were more likely to belong to the most unfavourable happiness trajectory categories. CONCLUSIONS: The presence of dental caries, socioeconomic conditions, dental care utilization and OHRQoL influence happiness in adolescents. Having more teeth affected by dental caries and worse self-perception in early adolescence can lead to a decrease in happiness.

4.
J Clin Periodontol ; 47(9): 1028-1039, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32558954

RESUMO

AIM: The aim of the present cross-sectional study was to evaluate whether the extent levels of gingival inflammation (GI) in whole mouth or restricted to the anterior region are independently associated with oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) in individuals living in a rural area of southern Brazil. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A probability sample of 688 individuals was submitted to a full-mouth periodontal examination at six sites on each tooth. Extent levels of GI in whole mouth and restricted to anterior region were dichotomously considered when bleeding on probing (BoP) occurred at 20% or more of whole-mouth sites and at 10% or more of anterior region sites, respectively, in individuals with probing depths ≤3 mm, totalling 121 individuals analysed, aged 15-82 years. OHRQoL was assessed using the simplified version of the Oral Health Impact Profile (OHIP14 ) questionnaire. Adjusted multilevel Poisson regression analysis was used with a conceptual hierarchical approach to calculate the rate ratio (RR) of OHIP14 scores. RESULTS: In the adjusted model, higher extent levels of full-mouth GI (RR = 1.23; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.06-1.44; p = .004) and GI restricted to the anterior region (RR = 1.29; 95% CI: 1.11-1.51; p ≤ .001) were significantly associated with poorer OHRQoL. CONCLUSIONS: The extent of GI in whole mouth (≥20% of sites with BoP) and in the anterior region (≥10% of sites with BoP) was independently associated with OHRQoL in individuals living in a rural area.

5.
Community Dent Oral Epidemiol ; 48(5): 440-446, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32562307

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This cross-sectional study assessed the correlation between individual and school-related social environment variables with dental anxiety in Brazilian schoolchildren aged 8-12 years. METHODS: A sample of children from 20 private and public schools (n = 1211) from Pelotas, Brazil, were selected. Socioeconomic data were collected from parents, and data regarding children characteristics were collected using a questionnaire. Dental anxiety (the outcome) was assessed by the following question: 'Are you afraid of going to the dentist?' Dental examinations were performed to assess caries experience (DMFT ≥ 1). The social school environment was assessed by a questionnaire administered to schools' coordinators and considered: type of school, verbal violence between students, presence of gangs at school and cyberbullying episodes. Multilevel Poisson regression was used to investigate the association between school social environment and dental anxiety. RESULTS: The prevalence of dental anxiety was 9.1% (95%CI 7.5-10.8). For the individual variables, anxiety was more prevalent in girls [1.85 (1.21-2.81)], in children with less-educated mothers [1.50 (1.00-2.27)] and in children who never attended to the dentist [2.48 (1.65-3.72)]. For contextual variables, episodes of cyberbullying in school increased the prevalence of dental anxiety by almost 80% [1.78 (1.14-2.78)]. CONCLUSIONS: The school social environment influences dental anxiety. The results suggest that it is important to establish strategies focused on promoting healthier environments and preventing cyberbullying in order to reduce the occurrence of dental anxiety.

6.
Qual Life Res ; 28(9): 2491-2500, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31203563

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Socioeconomic inequalities are recognized as a major problem with people in low socioeconomic groups having worse subjective oral health outcomes, including oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL). However, only a few longitudinal studies assessed the impact of contextual and individual socioeconomic determinants in adolescents' OHRQoL. We estimate the impact of socioeconomic inequalities on adolescents' OHRQoL over a 2-year period. METHODS: This study followed up a random sample of 1134 12-year-old schoolchildren for 2 years in Brazil. OHRQoL was assessed by the Brazilian version of the Child Perceptions Questionnaire for 11- to 14-year-old Children (CPQ11-14) at baseline and follow-up. Participants were clinically examined for dental caries, gingival bleeding, and malocclusion. The schoolchildren's parents answered a questionnaire regarding socioeconomic status, social capital, and adolescents' use of dental service. Socioeconomic contextual variables were collected from official city publications. Multilevel linear regression models fitted the associations between socioeconomic factors and overall CPQ11-14 scores over time. RESULTS: A total of 747, 14-year-old adolescents were reassessed for OHRQoL (follow-up rate of 66%). Adolescents with lower mean income school's neighborhood (P < 0.05), household income (P < 0.05), and maternal schooling (P < 0.05) had higher overall CPQ11-14 scores. Female sex, attending a dentist by toothache, dental caries, and malocclusion were also associated with higher overall CPQ11-14 scores. CONCLUSIONS: Adolescents from low socioeconomic background reported worse OHRQoL at 2-year follow-up compared to those from high socioeconomic background. Actions toward health inequalities need to address socioeconomic factors in adolescence.


Assuntos
Assistência Odontológica/estatística & dados numéricos , Cárie Dentária/diagnóstico , Disparidades nos Níveis de Saúde , Saúde Bucal/estatística & dados numéricos , Qualidade de Vida/psicologia , Classe Social , Adolescente , Brasil , Criança , Estudos de Coortes , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Má Oclusão/diagnóstico , Análise Multinível , Pais , Índice Periodontal , Características de Residência , Instituições Acadêmicas , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Inquéritos e Questionários
7.
Community Dent Oral Epidemiol ; 47(2): 177-184, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30569569

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To explore the pathways through which the socioeconomic inequalities may influence gingival bleeding in adolescents, assessing the direct and indirect effects of material and psychosocial variables. METHODS: This cohort study followed a multistage, random sample of 1134 12-year-old adolescents from 20 public schools of Santa Maria, a city in southern Brazil. The percentage of teeth with gingival bleeding was recorded according to the Community Periodontal Index criteria (scored as healthy or bleeding) at baseline and at 2-year follow-up. Biological (dental plaque, caries, and dental crowding), material (socioeconomic position [SEP] operationalized as family income and parents' education), psychosocial (parents' religiosity, self-rated health, and happiness) and behavioural (use of dental service by adolescents) factors were collected at baseline. Structural equation modelling (SEM) was guided by the adapted Commission on the Social Determinants of Health model linking material, psychosocial, biological, and behaviour variables to health. The SEM was employed to estimate standardized direct, indirect, and total effects of material and psychosocial factors on gingival bleeding at follow-up. RESULTS: A total of 770 14-year-old adolescents were reassessed (follow-up rate of 68%). The lower SEP at baseline had a higher direct effect (standard coefficient [SC] = -0.17, P < 0.01) than a mediated effect on percentage of teeth with gingival bleeding at 2-year follow-up. The lower indirect effect (SC = -0.06, P < 0.01) from SEP to gingival bleeding at follow-up ran through biological factors-dental plaque (baseline and follow-up) and gingival bleeding at baseline. The lower religiosity of the parents as a psychosocial aspect had only a small direct effect (SC = -0.10, P = 0.03) on gingival bleeding at follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: Material factors such as SEP contributed most to explanations on inequalities in adolescents' periodontal health because of their higher direct effect and additional shared (indirect) effect (through biological factors) on gingival bleeding. Religious practice as a psychosocial factor only explained part of percentage of teeth with gingival bleeding at follow-up.


Assuntos
Hemorragia Gengival/epidemiologia , Saúde Bucal , Adolescente , Brasil , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Fatores Socioeconômicos
8.
Int J Paediatr Dent ; 28(2): 207-216, 2018 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28833769

RESUMO

AIM: This two-year cohort study evaluated whether the Early Childhood Oral Health Impact Scale (ECOHIS) is responsive to detect changes related to dental caries. DESIGN: Preschool children were examined in 2010 regarding dental caries, and their parents responded to the ECOHIS. After 2 years, 352 children (response rate = 73.6%) were re-examined and a new ECOHIS was responded. Children were categorized according to caries increment (no new caries, 1-3 surfaces with new lesions, and four or more decayed surfaces). The outcome variables were related to the decline of quality of life as determined via ECOHIS: decline, severe decline, and differences between baseline and follow-up scores. Effect sizes (ES) were calculated, and the associations were evaluated through Poisson regression. RESULTS: ES was small for children with 1-3 new lesions (ES = 0.19) and moderate for children with four or more new carious lesions (ES = 0.61). Children who developed 1-3 new lesions were significantly associated with all outcome variables compared to children with no new lesions, but the associations were stronger for children with four or more new carious lesions. CONCLUSIONS: The ECOHIS is sensitive to the deterioration of quality of life due to caries increments in preschool children.


Assuntos
Cárie Dentária/diagnóstico , Saúde Bucal/estatística & dados numéricos , Qualidade de Vida , Brasil/epidemiologia , Pré-Escolar , Cárie Dentária/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Prevalência , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Inquéritos e Questionários
9.
Caries Res ; 52(1-2): 32-41, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29232677

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of initial noncavitated caries lesions on cavitated caries increment in preschool children. A 2-year cohort study was designed to include the participants of a survey on dental caries performed in 2010. Preschool children (12-59 months old) were examined for dental caries and classified as children with no caries lesions, with only initial lesions, with at least 1 moderate caries lesion, and with extensive lesions. Socioeconomic data were also collected. After 2 years, 466 children were re-examined (follow-up rate of 72.9%) only for cavitated lesions. Association between caries incidence at 2 levels of severity and caries experience and other variables was evaluated using hierarchical Poisson regression analysis. The children with moderate and extensive caries lesions at baseline presented a higher risk of presenting both outcomes than the children with no caries lesions. Nevertheless, the children with only initial lesions had a higher risk of developing at least 1 new cavitated carious lesion, but not for a more severe increment in caries. Subgroup analysis stratified by the children's age showed that the influence of the presence of initial caries lesions on cavitated caries increment was only observed in children aged 12-35 months. In conclusion, although the presence of moderate and extensive lesions at baseline is a significant predictor for cavitated caries increment after 2 years in preschool children at all ages, the presence of only initial caries lesions is also associated, but with less severe caries incidence.


Assuntos
Cárie Dentária/etiologia , Pré-Escolar , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Distribuição de Poisson , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Socioeconômicos
10.
Health Qual Life Outcomes ; 15(1): 182, 2017 Sep 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28931398

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The responsiveness of the Early Childhood Oral Health Impact Scale (ECOHIS) has varied greatly across studies; hence, we hypothesized that this discrepancy could be related to the complexity of dental treatment received. Thus, we aimed to evaluate the responsiveness of the ECOHIS to changes in oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) following dental treatments of varying complexity in preschool children. METHODS: Preschool children aged 3 to 6 years were selected; their parents responded to the ECOHIS at baseline. The parents responded to the ECOHIS again and a global transition question 30 days after the children were treated. The type of treatment received by the children was categorized according to complexity, as follows: 1) non-operative treatment only, 2) restorative treatment, and 3) endodontic treatment and/or tooth extraction. Change scores and effect sizes (ES) were calculated for total scores, as well as considering the different treatment types and global transition question responses. RESULTS: Of the 152 children who completed the study, the ECOHIS yielded large ES for total scores (0.89). The children showed increasing ES values associated with better perception of improvement, assessed by the global transition question. The magnitude of ES after treatment was related to treatment complexity (0.53, 0.92 and 1.43, for children who received non-operative treatment only, restorative treatment, and endodontic treatment and/or tooth extraction, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: Parents whose children required more complex dental treatment are more likely to perceive treatment-related changes to OHRQoL assessed with the ECOHIS.


Assuntos
Assistência Odontológica/normas , Saúde Bucal/normas , Qualidade de Vida , Inquéritos e Questionários/normas , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Assistência Odontológica/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pais , Extração Dentária , Dente não Vital
11.
Community Dent Oral Epidemiol ; 45(5): 427-433, 2017 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28585271

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To compare the performance of partial-mouth periodontal examination (PMPE) protocols with different cut-off points to the full-mouth examination (FME) in the assessment of the prevalence and extent of gingival bleeding in adolescents. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted involving 12-year-old adolescents. Following a systematic two-stage cluster sampling process, 1134 individuals were evaluated. Different PMPE protocols were compared to the FME with six sites per tooth. Sensitivity, specificity, area under the ROC curve (AUC), intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC), relative and absolute biases and the inflation factor were assessed for each PMPE protocol with different cut-off points for the severity of gingival bleeding. RESULTS: The highest AUC values were found for the six-site two-diagonal quadrant (2-4) (0.97), six-site random half-mouth (0.95) and Community Periodontal Index (0.95) protocols. The assessment of three sites [mesiobuccal (MB), buccal (B) and distolingual (DL)] in two diagonal quadrants and the random half-mouth protocol had higher sensitivity and lower specificity than the same protocols with distobuccal (DB) sites. However, the use of DB sites led to better specificity and improved the balance between sensitivity and specificity, except for the two-diagonal quadrant (1-3) protocol. The ≥1 cut-off point led to the most discrepant results from the FME. CONCLUSION: Six-site two-diagonal quadrant (2-4) and random half-mouth assessments perform better in the evaluation of gingival bleeding in adolescents. However, when a faster protocol is needed, a two-diagonal quadrant assessment using only MB, B and DL sites can be used with no important loss of information.


Assuntos
Diagnóstico Bucal/métodos , Hemorragia Gengival/diagnóstico , Hemorragia Gengival/epidemiologia , Índice Periodontal , Adolescente , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Prevalência , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
12.
Braz Dent J ; 27(1): 72-8, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27007350

RESUMO

This study aimed to assess the association between dental caries, socioeconomic individual and contextual factors in 12-years-old children. A representative sample of 1,134 children enrolled in public schools from Santa Maria, RS, Brazil, was obtained from a multistage random sampling. Four calibrated dentists examined participants at schools. Data about dental caries (DMF-T index) and dental plaque (present or absent) were assessed. Children's parents or guardians answered questions regarding their demographics and socioeconomic status. Context variables were also collected from official publications of the city. Data analyses were performed using multilevel logistic regression models. Caries prevalence in this sample (DMF-T≥1) was 49.9% (95%CI: 45.05% - 54.77%), and mean DMF-T was 1.15 (95%CI: 1.01-1.29) with 0.068 standard error. Children of the 3rd and 2nd tertile of income represented by the rich and intermediate categories, showed, respectively, a 50% (OR 0.50: CI95 % 0.35-0.71) and 39% (OR 0.61: CI95% 0.45-0.82) lower chance to present untreated caries compared with the poorest portion of the sample represented by the 1st tertile of income. Regarding the context covariates, children from lower income neighborhood presented a higher chance for having untreated dental caries compared with their counterpart (OR 1.70: CI95% 1.19 to 2.43). Inequalities in the distribution of dental caries continue affecting children from poorer socioeconomic profiles. There is need for planning public interventions for oral health promotion that take into account individual and contextual socioeconomic characteristics.


Assuntos
Cárie Dentária , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
13.
Community Dent Oral Epidemiol ; 44(3): 292-300, 2016 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26892250

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: We aimed to assess the impact of the presence of initial and other stages of dental caries on the impairment of oral health-related quality of life in preschool children (COHRQoL) through a cohort study. METHODS: During an epidemiological survey, 478 children (12-59 months old) were examined for dental caries using the International Caries and Detection Assessment System (ICDAS), and their parents answered the Early Childhood Oral Health Impact Scale (ECOHIS). Children were categorized based on the presence of dental caries as follows: children with no caries lesions, children with only initial lesions (ICDAS scores 1 and 2), children with at least one moderate lesion (ICDAS scores 3 and 4) and children with extensive lesions (ICDAS scores 5 and 6). After 2 years, 352 children were re-examined for the presence of dentine cavitations, and their parents completed a new ECOHIS questionnaire. Multilevel Poisson regression analysis was performed to evaluate the impact of the presence of different stages of caries lesions at the baseline on COHRQoL impairment at the follow-up, considering two outcome variables: worsening and severe worsening of COHRQoL. Relative risk values (RR) and respective 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were calculated. RESULTS: Worsening or severe worsening of the COHRQoL at the follow-up were observed only in children with moderate lesions (RR = 2.00; 95% CI = 1.30-3.08 and RR = 2.38; 95% CI = 1.31-4.34, respectively) or children with extensive lesions (RR = 1.59; 95% CI = 1.10-2.30 for worsening and RR = 1.88; 95% CI = 1.13-3.12 for severe worsening). On the other hand, the presence of only initial caries lesions was not a significant predictor of COHRQoL impairment. CONCLUSIONS: The presence of only initial caries lesions does not impair COHRQoL of preschool children; however, moderate and extensive lesions are risk factors for worsening of the COHRQoL.


Assuntos
Cárie Dentária/epidemiologia , Qualidade de Vida , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Cárie Dentária/diagnóstico , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Fatores de Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários
14.
Braz. dent. j ; 27(1): 72-78, Jan.-Feb. 2016. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: lil-777142

RESUMO

Abstract This study aimed to assess the association between dental caries, socioeconomic individual and contextual factors in 12-years-old children. A representative sample of 1,134 children enrolled in public schools from Santa Maria, RS, Brazil, was obtained from a multistage random sampling. Four calibrated dentists examined participants at schools. Data about dental caries (DMF-T index) and dental plaque (present or absent) were assessed. Children's parents or guardians answered questions regarding their demographics and socioeconomic status. Context variables were also collected from official publications of the city. Data analyses were performed using multilevel logistic regression models. Caries prevalence in this sample (DMF-T≥1) was 49.9% (95%CI: 45.05% - 54.77%), and mean DMF-T was 1.15 (95%CI: 1.01-1.29) with 0.068 standard error. Children of the 3rd and 2nd tertile of income represented by the rich and intermediate categories, showed, respectively, a 50% (OR 0.50: CI95 % 0.35-0.71) and 39% (OR 0.61: CI95% 0.45-0.82) lower chance to present untreated caries compared with the poorest portion of the sample represented by the 1st tertile of income. Regarding the context covariates, children from lower income neighborhood presented a higher chance for having untreated dental caries compared with their counterpart (OR 1.70: CI95% 1.19 to 2.43). Inequalities in the distribution of dental caries continue affecting children from poorer socioeconomic profiles. There is need for planning public interventions for oral health promotion that take into account individual and contextual socioeconomic characteristics.


Resumo Esta pesquisa teve como objetivo avaliar a associação entre cárie dental e fatores socioeconômicos individuais e contextuais em crianças de 12 anos de idade. Uma amostra representativa de 1.134 crianças matriculadas em escolas públicas de Santa Maria, RS, foi obtida a partir de uma amostragem aleatória em duplo estágio. Quatro dentistas calibrados examinaram os participantes nas escolas. Foram avaliados dados sobre cárie dentária (índice CPO-D) e placa dentária (presente ou ausente). Os pais ou responsáveis pelos adolescentes responderam questionários sobre status socioeconômico e sociodemográficos. Variáveis contextuais também foram coletadas através de publicações oficiais do município. Os dados foram analisados utilizando-se modelos multiníveis de regressão logística. A prevalência de cárie da amostra (CPO-D≥1) foi 49.9% (95%IC: 45.05% - 54.77), e a média de CPO-D foi de 1.15 (95%IC: 1.01-1.29) com 0.068 de erro padrão. As crianças do 3º e 2º tercil de renda representado pelas categorias ricas e intermediárias apresentaram respectivamente 50% (OR 0,50: IC95% 0,35-0,71) e 39% (OR 0,61: IC95% 0,45-0,82) menor chance de apresentarem cárie não tratada em comparação com a porção mais pobre da amostra representada pelo 1º tercil de renda. Em relação à variável contextual "renda média do bairro", crianças que viviam em bairros com menor renda apresentaram uma chance 70% (OR 1,70: IC95% 1,19-2,43) maior de ter cárie dentária não tratada, quando comparadas com aquelas que viviam em bairros de maior renda. Desigualdades na distribuição da cárie dentária continuam afetando as crianças dos perfis socioeconômicos mais pobres. Os resultados mostram a necessidade de planejamento de intervenções públicas que visem a promoção da saúde bucal que levem em conta as características socioeconômicas individuais e contextuais.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Criança , Cárie Dentária , Fatores Socioeconômicos
15.
Int J Paediatr Dent ; 26(2): 116-24, 2016 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25923059

RESUMO

AIM: To investigate the risk of sound surfaces, and initial and moderate caries lesions to progress to dentine cavitation in preschool children. DESIGN: A cohort study was designed with 639 children (12-59 months old) who had been examined by visual inspection during a survey in 2010. After 2 years, 469 children were re-examined regarding the presence of dentine cavitations. The probability of progression was calculated for sound and carious (initial and moderate lesions) surfaces. Relative risk of progression and 95% confidence intervals for each condition compared with sound surfaces were calculated using multilevel Poisson regression analysis. Association with explanatory variables, including caries experience of the children, was also investigated. RESULTS: The higher the initial score attributed to the dental surface, the more likely was the progression. Moreover, children with severe lesions at baseline had higher risk of having a sound surface or a non-cavitated caries lesion progressing to cavitation when compared with caries-free children; however, this increased risk was not observed in children with only initial caries lesions. CONCLUSIONS: Initial caries lesions present a low frequency of progression. Moreover, sound surfaces and initial caries lesions in children already presenting cavitations are more likely to progress to more severe conditions.


Assuntos
Cárie Dentária/patologia , Brasil , Pré-Escolar , Esmalte Dentário/patologia , Dentina/patologia , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Fatores de Risco , Dente Decíduo
16.
Caries Res ; 49(5): 548-56, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26381388

RESUMO

AIM: Although children spend most of their time involved in activities related to school, few studies have focused on the association between school social environment and oral health. This cross-sectional study assessed individual and school-related social environment correlates of dental caries in Brazilian schoolchildren aged 8-12 years. METHODS: A sample of children from 20 private and public schools (n=1,211) was selected. Socio-economic data were collected from parents, and data regarding children characteristics were collected from children using a questionnaire. Dental examinations were performed to assess the presence of dental plaque: dental caries experience (DMFT≥1) and dental caries severity (mean dmf-t/DMF-T). The social school environment was assessed by a questionnaire administered to school coordinators. Multilevel Poisson regression was used to investigate the association between school social environment and dental caries prevalence and experience. RESULTS: The dental caries prevalence was 32.4% (95% confidence interval: 29.7-35.2) and the mean dmf-t/DMF-T was 1.84 (standard deviation: 2.2). Multilevel models showed that the mean dmf-t/DMF-T and DMFT≥1 were associated with lower maternal schooling and higher levels of dental plaque. For contextual variables, schools offering after-hours sports activities were associated with a lower prevalence of dental caries and a lower mean of dmf-t/DMF-T, while the occurrence of violence and theft episodes was positively associated with dental caries. CONCLUSIONS: The school social environment has an influence on dental caries in children. The results suggest that strategies focused on the promotion of healthier environments should be stimulated to reduce inequalities in dental caries.


Assuntos
Índice CPO , Cárie Dentária/epidemiologia , Saúde Bucal , Instituições Acadêmicas , Meio Social , Brasil/epidemiologia , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Placa Dentária/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Análise Multinível , Prevalência , Análise de Regressão , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Inquéritos e Questionários
17.
Braz. dent. j ; 25(6): 546-553, Nov-Dec/2014. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: lil-732247

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of toothache, associated factors and impact of this condition on the Child Oral Health Related Quality of Life (COHRQoL) in preschoolers. The study was carried out in Santa Maria, Brazil, during the National Children's Vaccination Day, and 534 children aged 0 to 5 years were included. Clinical variables included dental caries and dental trauma. A questionnaire was responded by the parents and provided information about several socioeconomic indicators, dental service use and toothache. Toothache was collected by the question: "Has your child ever had a toothache - Yes or no?". Data on COHRQoL were assessed using the Brazilian version of the Early Childhood Oral Health Impact Scale (ECOHIS). Multivariable Logistic regression models were performed to assess the association between the predictor variables and outcomes. The prevalence of toothache was 10.11% (95% CI: 7.55% - 12.68%). Older children had a higher chance of presenting dental pain (OR 2.72; 95% CI: 1.01 - 7.56), as well as children with caries experience (OR 3.43; 95% CI: 1.81 - 6.52). Moreover, children who had not visited the dental service in the last 6 months were less likely to present toothache (OR 0.51; 95% CI: 0.28 - 0.95). The presence of dental pain negatively affects the COHRQoL; those with toothache presented a higher chance of having higher impact on the total scores of ECOHIS (OR 4.18; 95% CI: 1.76 - 9.95) than those without toothache. Similar observation was found for the child section of the questionnaire (OR 5.54; 95% CI: 2.15 - 14.24). Toothache negatively affects COHRQoL and is associated with caries experience, age and use of dental service.


O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a prevalência de dor dentaria, os fatores associados e seu impacto na qualidade de vida relacionada a saúde bucal de crianças pré-escolares. Esse estudo foi realizado em Santa Maria, Brasil, durante o dia nacional de vacinação infantil, e 534 crianças de 0 a 5 anos foram incluídas. As variáveis clinicas incluídas foram carie dental e traumatismo dentário. Um questionário foi respondido pelos pais, fornecendo informações sobre as condições socioeconômicas, uso de serviços odontológicos e dor dentaria. Dor de dente foi coletada através da pergunta: "Seu filho já teve dor de dente - Sim ou Não?". Os dados sobre qualidade de vida relacionada a saúde bucal foram obtidos através da versão brasileira do questionário "Early Childhood Oral Health Impact Scale" (ECOHIS). Modelos multivariáveis de regressão logística foram utilizados para avaliar a associação entre as variáveis preditoras e os desfechos. A prevalência de dor dentaria foi 10,11% (95% IC: 7,55% - 12,68%). Crianças mais velhas apresentaram uma maior chance de ter tido dor dentaria (OR 2,72; 95% IC: 1,01 - 7,56), assim como crianças com experiência de carie (OR 3,43; 95% IC: 1,81 - 6,52). Além disso, as crianças que não tinham visitado o dentista nos últimos 6 meses foram menos propensas a apresentar dor dentária (OR 0,51; 95% IC: 0,28 - 0,95). A presença de dor dentária afeta negativamente a qualidade de vida relacionada a saúde bucal das crianças; aquelas que tiveram dor de dente apresentaram uma maior chance de ter piores impactos nos escores totais do ECOHIS (OR 4,18; 95% IC: 1,76 - 9,95) quando comparadas àquelas que não tiveram dor dentária. O mesmo se pode observar para a seção do questionário correspondente aos impactos na criança (OR 5,54; 95% IC: 2,15 - 14,24. Dor dentaria afeta negativamente a qualidade de vida relacionada a saúde bucal e esta associada com experiência de carie, idade e uso de serviços odontológicos.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/análise , Benzenoacetamidas , Ácidos Hidroxâmicos/análise , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/síntese química , Fenômenos Químicos , Química , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Ácidos Hidroxâmicos/síntese química , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética
18.
J Periodontol ; 85(11): 1557-65, 2014 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24942231

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Child oral health-related quality of life (COHRQoL) has been increasingly assessed. However, the full relationship between gingivitis and COHRQoL has been assessed by only a small number of studies. This study aims to assess the association between gingival bleeding and how a child perceives its OHRQoL. METHODS: This cross-sectional study used multistage random sampling to enroll 1,134 12-year-old schoolchildren from Santa Maria, a southern city in Brazil. Participants were examined for gingival bleeding according to the community periodontal index criteria, a full-mouth clinical examination of six sites per tooth. COHRQoL was assessed by the Brazilian version of the Child Perceptions Questionnaire for 11- to 14-Year-Old Children (CPQ11-14), and data on socioeconomic status were collected. Multilevel Poisson regression models fitted the association of gingivitis with overall and domain-specific CPQ11-14 scores. RESULTS: In general, children with bleeding in ≥15% of sites had higher total CPQ11-14 scores and domain-specific scores than their counterparts. This association persisted after adjustment for other potential confounders. The presence and extent of gingival bleeding was associated mainly with emotional limitation domains of the CPQ11-14; those with extended levels of gingivitis had a 1.20 times higher mean score than those with low-level/no gingival bleeding (rate ratio = 1.20; 95% confidence interval = 1.10 to 1.31). CONCLUSION: The present results indicate that the presence of extensive levels of gingivitis might be negatively associated with how children perceive their oral health and their daily life.


Assuntos
Gengivite/psicologia , Saúde Bucal , Qualidade de Vida , Criança , Saúde da Criança , Estudos Transversais , Índice CPO , Cárie Dentária/psicologia , Escolaridade , Feminino , Hemorragia Gengival/psicologia , Humanos , Renda , Masculino , Má Oclusão/psicologia , Mães/educação , Índice Periodontal , Fatores Sexuais , Classe Social , Traumatismos Dentários/psicologia
19.
Braz Dent J ; 25(6): 546-53, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25590204

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of toothache, associated factors and impact of this condition on the Child Oral Health Related Quality of Life (COHRQoL) in preschoolers. The study was carried out in Santa Maria, Brazil, during the National Children's Vaccination Day, and 534 children aged 0 to 5 years were included. Clinical variables included dental caries and dental trauma. A questionnaire was responded by the parents and provided information about several socioeconomic indicators, dental service use and toothache. Toothache was collected by the question: "Has your child ever had a toothache - Yes or no?". Data on COHRQoL were assessed using the Brazilian version of the Early Childhood Oral Health Impact Scale (ECOHIS). Multivariable Logistic regression models were performed to assess the association between the predictor variables and outcomes. The prevalence of toothache was 10.11% (95% CI: 7.55% - 12.68%). Older children had a higher chance of presenting dental pain (OR 2.72; 95% CI: 1.01 - 7.56), as well as children with caries experience (OR 3.43; 95% CI: 1.81 - 6.52). Moreover, children who had not visited the dental service in the last 6 months were less likely to present toothache (OR 0.51; 95% CI: 0.28 - 0.95). The presence of dental pain negatively affects the COHRQoL; those with toothache presented a higher chance of having higher impact on the total scores of ECOHIS (OR 4.18; 95% CI: 1.76 - 9.95) than those without toothache. Similar observation was found for the child section of the questionnaire (OR 5.54; 95% CI: 2.15 - 14.24). Toothache negatively affects COHRQoL and is associated with caries experience, age and use of dental service.


Assuntos
Saúde Bucal , Qualidade de Vida , Odontalgia/epidemiologia , Brasil/epidemiologia , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Assistência Odontológica para Crianças/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Inquéritos e Questionários
20.
BMC Oral Health ; 13: 49, 2013 Oct 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24090355

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In epidemiological surveys, a good reliability among the examiners regarding the caries detection method is essential. However, training and calibrating those examiners is an arduous task because it involves several patients who are examined many times. To facilitate this step, we aimed to propose a laboratory methodology to simulate the examinations performed to detect caries lesions using the International Caries Detection and Assessment System (ICDAS) in epidemiological surveys. METHODS: A benchmark examiner conducted all training sessions. A total of 67 exfoliated primary teeth, varying from sound to extensive cavitated, were set in seven arch models to simulate complete mouths in primary dentition. Sixteen examiners (graduate students) evaluated all surfaces of the teeth under illumination using buccal mirrors and ball-ended probe in two occasions, using only coronal primary caries scores of the ICDAS. As reference standard, two different examiners assessed the proximal surfaces by direct visual inspection, classifying them in sound, with non-cavitated or with cavitated lesions. After, teeth were sectioned in the bucco-lingual direction, and the examiners assessed the sections in stereomicroscope, classifying the occlusal and smooth surfaces according to lesion depth. Inter-examiner reproducibility was evaluated using weighted kappa. Sensitivities and specificities were calculated at two thresholds: all lesions and advanced lesions (cavitated lesions in proximal surfaces and lesions reaching the dentine in occlusal and smooth surfaces). RESULTS: Regarding the reproducibility, the mean (range) of kappa values was 0.781 (0.529-0.927) for occlusal surfaces, 0.568 (0.191-0.881) for smooth surfaces, and 0.844 (0.698-0.971) for proximal surfaces. Considering all lesions, sensitivity and specificity mean values were respectively 0.724 and 0.844 for occlusal, 0.635 and 0.943 for smooth and 0.658 and 0.927 for proximal surfaces. For detecting advanced lesions, sensitivities and specificities were 0.563 and 0.920 for occlusal, 0.670 and 0.985 for smooth, and 0.838 and 0.985 for proximal surfaces. CONCLUSION: The methodology purposed for training and calibration of several examiners designated for epidemiological surveys of dental caries in preschool children using the ICDAS is feasible, permitting the assessment of reliability and accuracy of the examiners previously to the survey's development.


Assuntos
Cárie Dentária/diagnóstico , Inquéritos de Saúde Bucal , Modelos Dentários , Educação em Odontologia/métodos , Pessoal de Laboratório/educação , Pré-Escolar , Testes de Atividade de Cárie Dentária , Estudos de Viabilidade , Humanos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Dente Decíduo
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