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1.
Cardiovasc Ultrasound ; 19(1): 31, 2021 Aug 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34429107

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular complications of severe acute respiratory distress syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV2) are known to be associated with poor outcome. A small number of case series and reports have described cases of myocarditis and ischaemic events, however, knowledge on the aetiology of acute cardiac failure in SARS-CoV2 remains limited. We describe the occurrence and risk stratification imaging correlates of 'takotsubo' stress cardiomyopathy presenting in a patient with Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) in the intensive care unit. An intubated 53-year old patient with COVID19 suffered acute haemodynamic collapse in the intensive care unit, and was thus investigated with transthoracic echocardiography (TTE), 12-lead electrocardiograms (ECG) and serial troponins and blood tests, and eventually coronary angiography due to clinical suspicion of ischaemic aetiology. Echocardiography revealed a reduced ejection fraction, with evident extensive apical akinesia spanning multiple coronary territories. Troponins and NT-proBNP were elevated, and ECG revealed ST elevation: coronary angiography was thus performed. This revealed no significant coronary stenosis. Repeat echocardiography performed within the following week revealed a substantial recovery of ejection fraction and wall motion abnormalities. Despite requirement of a prolonged ICU stay, the patient now remains clinically stable, and is on spontaneous breathing. CONCLUSION: This case report presents a case of takotsubo stress cardiomyopathy occurring in a critically unwell patient with COVID19 in the intensive care setting. Stress cardiomyopathy may be an acute cardiovascular complication of COVID-19 infection. In the COVID19 critical care setting, urgent bedside echocardiography is an important tool for initial clinical assessment of patients suffering haemodynamic compromise.


Assuntos
COVID-19/epidemiologia , Angiografia Coronária/métodos , Ecocardiografia/métodos , Eletrocardiografia/métodos , Cardiomiopatia de Takotsubo/diagnóstico , Comorbidade , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Cardiomiopatia de Takotsubo/epidemiologia
2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33987659

RESUMO

AIMS: Existing evidence suggests links between brain and cardiovascular health. We investigated associations between cognitive performance and cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) phenotypes in the UK Biobank, considering a range of potential confounders. METHODS AND RESULTS: We studied 29 763 participants with CMR and cognitive testing, specifically, fluid intelligence (FI, 13 verbal-numeric reasoning questions), and reaction time (RT, a timed pairs matching exercise); both were considered continuous variables for modelling. We included the following CMR metrics: left and right ventricular (LV and RV) volumes in end-diastole and end-systole, LV/RV ejection fractions, LV/RV stroke volumes, LV mass, and aortic distensibility. Multivariable linear regression models were used to estimate the association of each CMR measure with FI and RT, adjusting for age, sex, smoking, education, deprivation, diabetes, hypertension, high cholesterol, prior myocardial infarction, alcohol intake, and exercise level. We report standardized beta-coefficients, 95% confidence intervals, and P-values adjusted for multiple testing. In this predominantly healthy cohort (average age 63.0 ± 7.5 years), better cognitive performance (higher FI, lower RT) was associated with larger LV/RV volumes, higher LV/RV stroke volumes, greater LV mass, and greater aortic distensibility in fully adjusted models. There was some evidence of non-linearity in the relationship between FI and LV end-systolic volume, with reversal of the direction of association at very high volumes. Associations were consistent for men and women and in different ages. CONCLUSION: Better cognitive performance is associated with CMR measures likely representing a healthier cardiovascular phenotype. These relationships remained significant after adjustment for a range of cardiometabolic, lifestyle, and demographic factors, suggesting possible involvement of alternative disease mechanisms.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33991094

RESUMO

AIMS: The rising prevalence of obesity and its associated comorbidities represent a growing public health issue; in particular, obesity is known to be a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Despite the evidence behind the efficacy of orlistat in achieving weight loss in patients with obesity, no study thus far has quantified its long-term effect on cardiovascular outcomes. The purpose of this study is to explore long-term cardiovascular outcomes after orlistat therapy. METHODS AND RESULTS: A propensity-score matched cohort study was conducted on the nation-wide electronic primary and integrated secondary healthcare records of the Clinical Practice Research Datalink (CPRD). The 36 876 patients with obesity in the CPRD database who had completed a course of orlistat during follow-up were matched on a 1:1 basis with equal numbers of controls who had not taken orlistat. Patients were followed up for a median of 6 years for the occurrence of the primary composite endpoint of major adverse cardiovascular events (fatal or non-fatal myocardial infarction or ischaemic stroke), and a number of secondary endpoints including primary endpoint components individually, the occurrence of new-onset heart failure, coronary revascularization, new chronic kidney disease stage III+ (CKD3+), and all-cause mortality. During the median study follow-up of 6 years, the occurrence of major adverse cardiovascular events was lower in the orlistat cohort [hazard ratio (HR) 0.74; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.66-0.83, P < 0.001]. Patients who took orlistat experienced lower rates of myocardial infarction (HR 0.77; 95% CI 0.66-0.88, P < 0.001) and ischaemic stroke (HR 0.68; 95% CI 0.56 to -0.84, P < 0.001) as well as new-onset heart failure (HR 0.79; 95% CI 0.67-0.94, P = 0.007). There was no differences in revascularization rates (HR 1.12; 95% CI 0.91-1.38, P = 0.27), but a lower rate of both CKD3+ development (HR 0.78; 95% CI 0.73-0.83, P < 0.001) and mortality (HR 0.39, 95% CI 0.36 to -0.41, P < 0.001) was observed. CONCLUSION: In this nation-wide, propensity-score matched study, orlistat was associated with lower rates of overall major adverse cardiovascular events, new-onset heart failure, renal failure, and mortality. This study adds to current evidence on the known improvements in cardiovascular risk factor profiles of orlistat treatment by suggesting a potential role in primary prevention.

4.
Clin Neurol Neurosurg ; 203: 106560, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33618173

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The proinflammatory state and metabolic changes associated with obesity contribute to cerebrovascular disease. Bariatric surgery can achieve a reliable reduction in body weight and improved metabolic profile in obese patients. However, its impact on cerebrovascular morbidity remains unexplored. This study investigates the effect of bariatric surgery on long-term risk of major cerebrovascular events. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study was designed. Data was extracted from the Clinical Practice Research Datalink. 4212 bariatric surgery patients were compared to 4212 age, sex, and BMI-matched controls. The primary composite endpoint was occurrence of any major adverse cerebrovascular event. Secondary endpoints included composite endpoints of ischaemic events, haemorrhagic events, individual components of the primary endpoint alone and all-cause mortality. An adjusted Cox proportional hazards model was implemented to analyse time to event data. RESULTS: Mean follow-up length was 11.4 years. The primary endpoint occurred in 73 patients. The bariatric surgery group had significantly lower adjusted major cerebrovascular event rates (HR 0.352, 95 %CI 0.195-0.637). Bariatric surgery was associated with lower rates of ischaemic events (HR 0.315, 95 %CI 0.156-0.635), particularly from transient ischaemic attacks (HR 0.364, 95 %CI 0.171-0.775). There was no difference in the rate of haemorrhagic events (HR 0.442, 95 %CI 0.147-1.330) or acute ischaemic stroke (HR 0.221, 95 %CI 0.046-1.054). In total 229 patients died during follow-up. Overall, all-cause mortality was significantly lower in the bariatric surgery group (HR 0.352, 95 %CI 0.195-0.637). CONCLUSIONS: This study identifies an association between bariatric surgery and lower long-term risk of major adverse cerebrovascular events in patients with obesity.

5.
Circulation ; 143(7): 673-684, 2021 Feb 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33587659

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Female sex is an independent risk factor for stroke and systemic embolic events in patients with atrial fibrillation. This study aimed to examine the efficacy and safety profile of edoxaban in women versus men. METHODS: The ENGAGE AF-TIMI 48 trial (Effective Anticoagulation with Factor Xa Next Generation in Atrial Fibrillation-Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction 48) randomly assigned 21 105 patients (8040 women) with atrial fibrillation and CHADS2 score ≥2 either to a higher-dose edoxaban regimen, a lower-dose edoxaban regimen, or warfarin. The primary end points of the trial were the composite of stroke or systemic embolic events (efficacy), and International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis-defined major bleeding (safety). RESULTS: In comparison with men, women were older, had lower body weight, were more likely to have hypertension and renal dysfunction, but less likely to smoke, drink alcohol, or have diabetes or coronary artery disease. Pretreatment endogenous factor Xa activity was significantly higher in women than in men (92.5% versus 86.1%, P<0.001). Treatment with edoxaban in women resulted in greater peak edoxaban concentration and inhibition of endogenous factor Xa in comparison with men, resulting in similar endogenous factor Xa activity between the sexes 2 to 4 hours after dose. Treatment with higher-dose edoxaban regimen (versus warfarin) resulted in similar reduction in the risk of stroke/systemic embolic events (women: hazard ratio [HR], 0.87 [0.69-1.11], men: HR, 0.87 [0.71-1.06]; P-interaction=0.97) and major bleeding (women: HR, 0.74 [0.59-0.92], men: HR, 0.84 [0.72-0.99]; P-interaction=0.34) in women and men. However, women assigned to higher-dose edoxaban regimen experienced greater reductions in hemorrhagic stroke (HR, 0.30 [95% CI, 0.15-0.59] versus HR, 0.70 [95% CI, 0.46-1.06]), intracranial bleeding (HR, 0.20 [95% CI, 0.10-0.39] versus HR, 0.63 [95% CI, 0.44-0.89]), and life-threatening or fatal bleeding (HR, 0.25 [95% CI, 0.15-0.42] versus HR, 0.72 [95% CI, 0.54-0.96]) than men (each P-interaction<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Despite many differences in baseline characteristics between women and men and higher baseline endogenous factor Xa levels in women, the intensity of anticoagulation achieved with edoxaban between the sexes was similar. Treatment with higher-dose edoxaban regimen resulted in an even greater reduction in hemorrhagic stroke and several serious bleeding outcomes in women than in men, whereas the efficacy profile was similar between sexes.

6.
Obes Surg ; 31(5): 1994-2001, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33537948

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although bariatric surgery has been shown to reduce weight loss and obesity-related conditions, an improvement in depression remains unclear. The aim of this study was to determine whether bariatric surgery is associated with a resolution of depression, and the prevention of its onset. METHOD: Patients with a BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2 who had undergone bariatric surgery were identified from the Clinical Practice Research Datalink (CPRD), matched 5:1 to controls. Cox regression analysis was used to determine the risk of developing de novo depression. Kaplan-Meier analysis compared the proportion of patients with no further consultations related to depression between the two groups. RESULTS: In total, 3534 patients who underwent surgery, of which 2018 (57%) had pre-existing depression, were matched to 15,480 controls. Cox proportional hazard modelling demonstrated surgery was associated with a HR of 1.50 (95% CI 1.32-1.71, p < 0.005) for developing de novo depression. For those with pre-existing depression, by 5 years, just over 20% of post-surgical patients had no further depression episodes compared with 17% of controls. CONCLUSION: In individuals with a history of depression, bariatric surgery is associated with an improvement in mental health. On the contrary, the finding of increased de novo diagnoses of depression following surgery indicates the need for further study of the mechanisms by which bariatric surgery is associated with depression in this subset of patients.


Assuntos
Cirurgia Bariátrica , Obesidade Mórbida , Depressão/epidemiologia , Humanos , Obesidade , Obesidade Mórbida/cirurgia , Perda de Peso
7.
Langenbecks Arch Surg ; 406(4): 1029-1036, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33433660

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Patients with obesity are at high risk of suffering from arterial and venous peripheral vascular disease (PVD). Bariatric surgery is an effective strategy to achieve weight reduction for patients with obesity. The long-term impact of bariatric surgery on obesity-related morbidity is subject to increasing research interest. This study aimed to ascertain the impact of bariatric surgery on the long-term occurrence of PVD in patients with obesity. METHODS: The study population was extracted from the Clinical Practice Research Datalink, a nation-wide database containing primary and secondary care records of consenting patients. The intervention cohort was 2959 patients who had undergone bariatric surgery during follow-up; their controls were 2959 propensity-score-matched counterparts. The primary endpoint was development of any PVD: arterial or venous. Secondary endpoints were incident peripheral arterial disease alone, incident peripheral venous disease alone. RESULTS: Three hundred forty-six patients suffered a primary endpoint during follow-up. Bariatric surgery did not improve peripheral vascular disease rates as a whole, but it was associated with significantly lower event rates of arterial disease (HR = 0.560, 95%CI 0.327-0.959, p = 0.035) but higher event rates of venous disease (HR = 1.685, 95%CI 1.256-2.262, p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Bariatric surgery was associated with significantly reduced long-term occurrence of arterial disease but increased occurrence of venous disease in patients with obesity.


Assuntos
Cirurgia Bariátrica , Obesidade Mórbida , Doenças Vasculares Periféricas , Cirurgia Bariátrica/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Incidência , Obesidade/complicações , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Obesidade/cirurgia , Obesidade Mórbida/complicações , Obesidade Mórbida/epidemiologia , Obesidade Mórbida/cirurgia , Doenças Vasculares Periféricas/epidemiologia , Doenças Vasculares Periféricas/etiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos
8.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 10(2): e016835, 2021 01 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33432843

RESUMO

Background Evidence-based therapies are generally underused for cardiovascular risk reduction; however, less is known about contemporary patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. Methods and Results Pharmacy and medical claims data from within Anthem were queried for patients with established atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Using an index date of April 18, 2018, we evaluated the proportion of patients with a prescription claim for any of the 3 evidence-based therapies on, or covering, the index date ±30 days: high-intensity statin, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor or angiotensin receptor blocker, and sodium glucose cotransporter-2 inhibitor or glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist. The potential benefit of achieving 100% adoption of all 3 evidence-based therapies was simulated using pooled treatment estimates from clinical trials. Of the 155 958 patients in the sample, 24.7% were using a high-intensity statin, 53.1% were using an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor or angiotensin receptor blocker, and 9.9% were using either an sodium glucose cotransporter-2 inhibitor or glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists. Overall, only 2.7% of the population were covered by prescriptions for all 3 evidence-based therapies, and 37.4% were on none of them. Over a 12-month period, 70.6% of patients saw a cardiologist, while only 18% saw an endocrinologist. Increasing the use of evidence-based therapies to 100% over 3 years of treatment could be expected to reduce 4546 major atherosclerotic cardiovascular events (myocardial infarction, stroke, or cardiovascular death) in eligible but untreated patients. Conclusions Alarming gaps exist in the contemporary use of evidence-based therapies in this large population of insured patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. These data provide a call to action for patients, providers, industry, regulators, professional societies, and payers to close these gaps in care.


Assuntos
Fármacos Cardiovasculares , Doença da Artéria Coronariana , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Mau Uso de Serviços de Saúde , Hipoglicemiantes , Lacunas da Prática Profissional , Fármacos Cardiovasculares/classificação , Fármacos Cardiovasculares/uso terapêutico , Comorbidade , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/complicações , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/mortalidade , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/terapia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/terapia , Revisão de Uso de Medicamentos/métodos , Revisão de Uso de Medicamentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Mau Uso de Serviços de Saúde/prevenção & controle , Mau Uso de Serviços de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Necessidades e Demandas de Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Hipoglicemiantes/classificação , Hipoglicemiantes/uso terapêutico , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Lacunas da Prática Profissional/normas , Lacunas da Prática Profissional/estatística & dados numéricos , Encaminhamento e Consulta/estatística & dados numéricos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
9.
J Diabetes ; 13(8): 640-647, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33377309

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The rising rates of obesity, along with its associated morbidities, represent an important global health threat. Atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) is among the most common and hazardous obesity-related morbidity, and it is especially prevalent among those who suffer from type 2 diabetes (T2DM). Bariatric surgery (BS) is known to help with effective weight management and reduce the burden of cardiovascular risk factors, especially T2DM. METHODS: A nested propensity-matched cohort study was carried out using the Clinical Practice Research Datalink. The cohort included 1186 patients with no past history of ASCVD, 593 of whom underwent BS and 593 propensity-score matched controls, followed up for a mean of 42.7 months. The primary end point was the incidence of new ASCVD; defined as new coronary artery disease (CAD), cerebrovascular disease (CeVD), peripheral arterial disease (PAD), or miscellaneous atherosclerotic disease; secondary end points included primary end point components alone and all-cause mortality. RESULTS: Patients who underwent BS had significantly lower rates of new ASCVD (hazard ratio [HR] 0.53, confidence interval [CI] 0.30-0.95, P = 0.032. There were no significant differences in rates of CAD, CeVD, and PAD individually across cohorts, but a lower rate of all-cause mortality was observed in the BS cohort (HR 0.36, CI 0.19-0.71, P = 0.003). CONCLUSIONS: BS was associated with improved ASCVD outcomes and lower mortality in patients with obesity and T2DM. This study provides evidence for increased awareness of potential benefits of BS in the management of obesity by highlighting a potential role in primary prevention for ASCVD.

10.
Front Cardiovasc Med ; 7: 138, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32766285

RESUMO

Background: Cardiometabolic morbidity and medications, specifically Angiotensin Converting Enzyme inhibitors (ACEi) and Angiotensin Receptor Blockers (ARBs), have been linked with adverse outcomes from coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). This study aims to investigate, factors associated with COVID-19 positivity in hospital for 1,436 UK Biobank participants; compared with individuals who tested negative, and with the untested, presumed negative, rest of the cohort. Methods: We studied 7,099 participants from the UK Biobank who had been tested for COVID-19 in hospital. We considered the following exposures: age, sex, ethnicity, body mass index (BMI), diabetes, hypertension, hypercholesterolaemia, ACEi/ARB use, prior myocardial infarction (MI), and smoking. We undertook comparisons between (1) COVID-19 positive and COVID-19 negative tested participants; and (2) COVID-19 tested positive and the remaining participants (tested negative plus untested, n = 494,838). Logistic regression models were used to investigate univariate and mutually adjusted associations. Results: Among participants tested for COVID-19, Black, Asian, and Minority ethnic (BAME) ethnicity, male sex, and higher BMI were independently associated with a positive result. BAME ethnicity, male sex, greater BMI, diabetes, hypertension, and smoking were independently associated with COVID-19 positivity compared to the remaining cohort (test negatives plus untested). However, similar associations were observed when comparing those who tested negative for COVID-19 with the untested cohort; suggesting that these factors associate with general hospitalization rather than specifically with COVID-19. Conclusions: Among participants tested for COVID-19 with presumed moderate to severe symptoms in a hospital setting, BAME ethnicity, male sex, and higher BMI are associated with a positive result. Other cardiometabolic morbidities confer increased risk of hospitalization, without specificity for COVID-19. ACE/ARB use did not associate with COVID-19 status.

11.
J R Coll Physicians Edinb ; 50(1): 60-66, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32539043

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Previous research has demonstrated that medical students have insufficient knowledge of critical appraisal, a fundamental aspect of evidence-based medicine. We aimed to enhance medical students' critical appraisal skills using an innovative mixed-methods programme. METHODS: We designed a 2-day, mixed-methods, national teaching programme, including an interactive lecture and workshop, quiz and viva-style examination. Course efficacy was assessed using pre- and post-course confidence questionnaires and a quiz adapted from the validated Berlin Questionnaire. Data were analysed primarily using Wilcoxon Signed Ranks test. RESULTS: Fifty-nine participants from 17 medical schools completed the programme. Pre- and post-course scores demonstrated significant improvement in confidence (median score 5 vs 8; p < 0.001) and quiz performance (median score 9 vs 13; p < 0.001). CONCLUSION: Our study demonstrates the efficacy of a novel mixed-methods programme in teaching medical students about critical appraisal. Implementation of our approach within the undergraduate curriculum should enhance the uptake of these fundamental skills.

12.
Eur Heart J ; 41(28): 2660-2667, 2020 07 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32188981

RESUMO

AIMS: This study aims to evaluate the long-term effect of bariatric surgery on cardiovascular outcomes of patients with obesity. METHODS AND RESULTS: A nested cohort study was carried out within the Clinical Practice Research Datalink. The study cohort included the 3701 patients on the database who had undergone bariatric surgery and 3701 age, gender, and body mass index-matched controls. The primary endpoint was the composite of fatal or non-fatal myocardial infarction and fatal or non-fatal ischaemic stroke. Secondary endpoints included fatal or non-fatal myocardial infarction alone, fatal or non-fatal ischaemic stroke alone, incident heart failure, and mortality. The median follow-up achieved was 11.2 years. Patients who had undergone bariatric surgery had a significantly lower occurrence of major adverse cardiovascular events [hazard ratio (HR) 0.410, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.274-0.615; P < 0.001]. This was mainly driven by a reduction in myocardial infarction (HR 0.412, 95% CI 0.280-0.606; P < 0.001) and not in acute ischaemic stroke (HR 0.536, 95% CI 0.164-1.748; P = 0.301). A reduction was also observed in new diagnoses of heart failure (HR 0.403, 95% CI 0.181-0.897; P = 0.026) and mortality (HR 0.254, 95% CI 0.183-0.353; P < 0.001). CONCLUSION: The results of this large, nationwide cohort study support the association of bariatric surgery with lower long-term risk of major cardiovascular events and incident heart failure in patients with obesity.


Assuntos
Cirurgia Bariátrica , Isquemia Encefálica , Acidente Vascular Cerebral , Estudos de Coortes , Humanos , Obesidade , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/epidemiologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/etiologia
14.
Ann Surg ; 2019 Dec 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31855876

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of bariatric surgery on long-term risk of VTEs in a large cohort of patients with obesity. BACKGROUND: Obesity is a well-established risk factor for VTEs, such as pulmonary embolism and deep vein thrombosis. The rising prevalence of obesity and its associated co-morbidities, including VTE, represent a growing public health issue. METHODS: A nested, retrospective matched cohort study was designed and conducted on prospectively collected national electronic healthcare records data from the Clinical Practice Research Datalink. Eight thousand, one hundred twelve patients were included in the study: the 4056 patients on the database who had undergone bariatric surgery, and equal numbers of age, sex, and body mass index matched controls. The primary endpoint was the occurrence of VTEs; secondary endpoints were the occurrence of deep vein thrombosis alone, pulmonary embolism alone. RESULTS: Patients were followed up for a median of 10.7 years. The bariatric surgery cohort had a significantly lower occurrence of the primary outcome [hazard ratio (HR) 0.601; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.430-0.841, P = 0.003]; mainly driven by a reduction in deep vein thrombosis (HR 0.523; 95% CI 0.349-0.783, P = 0·002) and not in pulmonary embolism (HR 0.882; 95% CI 0.511-1.521, P = 0.651). CONCLUSIONS: The results of this nation-wide study set out to characterize the impact of bariatric surgery on long-term risk of thromboembolic events outline a significant reduction in thromboembolic events, driven by a reduction in deep vein thrombosis.

15.
Ther Adv Chronic Dis ; 10: 2040622319884819, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31700595

RESUMO

Despite its commonality in routine clinical practice, the approach to a diagnosis of atherosclerotic coronary artery disease remains complex and, in part, contentious. The traditional dogma linking ischaemia to hard clinical outcomes has been questioned and reframed over the years; rather than being a predictor of hard clinical outcomes, the degree of ischaemia may simply be a marker of atherosclerotic disease burden. A renewed interest in the imaging of plaque burden has spawned the contemporary role of CT imaging for not only diagnosis and prognosis, but also for dictating downstream management. As the technology develops and evidence expands, decisions on investigative modalities remain centred around patient factors, local availability, test performance and cost. This review summarizes the available methods for diagnosis in the symptomatic patient and provides an overview of the current evidence behind functional and anatomical approaches.

17.
J Affect Disord ; 258: 11-24, 2019 11 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31382100

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Depression and anxiety are prevalent psychiatric disorders that carry significant morbidity. Pharmacological and psychosocial interventions are used to manage these conditions, but their efficacy is limited. Recent interest into the use of psychedelic-assisted therapy using ayahuasca, psilocybin or lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) may be a promising alternative for patients unresponsive to traditional treatments. This review aims to determine the efficacy and tolerability of psychedelics in the management of resistant depression. METHODS: Clinical trials investigating psychedelics in patients with depression and/or anxiety were searched via MEDLINE, EMBASE and PsychINFO. Efficacy was assessed by measuring symptom improvement from baseline, and tolerability was evaluated by noting the incidence and type of adverse effects reported. Risk of bias was assessed. RESULTS: Seven studies, with 130 patients, were analysed in this review. Three were conducted in patients with depression, two in patients with anxiety and two in patients with both. In a supportive setting, ayahuasca, psilocybin, and LSD consistently produced immediate and significant anti-depressant and anxiolytic effects that were endured for several months. Psychedelics were well-tolerated. The most common adverse effects were transient anxiety, short-lived headaches, nausea and mild increases in heart rate and blood pressure. LIMITATIONS: At present, the number of studies on this subject is very limited; and the number of participating patients within these is also limited as the treatment under investigations is a relatively novel concept. CONCLUSIONS: Though further evidence is required, psychedelics appear to be effective in significantly reducing symptoms of depression and anxiety and are well-tolerated.


Assuntos
Transtornos de Ansiedade/tratamento farmacológico , Transtorno Depressivo/tratamento farmacológico , Alucinógenos/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Dietilamida do Ácido Lisérgico/uso terapêutico , Psilocibina/uso terapêutico
18.
Clin Obes ; 9(3): e12305, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30838776

RESUMO

With obesity levels increasing, it is important to consider the mental health risks associated with this condition to optimize patient care. Links between depression and obesity have been explored, but few studies focus on the risk profiles of patients across stratified body mass index (BMI) classes above 30 kg/m2 . This study aims to determine the impact of BMI on depression risk in patients with obesity and to investigate trends of depression in a large cohort of British patients with BMI > 30 kg/m2 . A nationwide primary care database, the Clinical Practice Research Datalink (CPRD), was analysed for diagnoses of obesity (BMI > 30 kg/m2 ). Obese patients were then sub-classified into seven BMI categories. Primary health care-based records of patients entered in the CPRD were analysed. A total of 363 037 patients had a BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2 ; of these patients 97 392 (26.8%) also had a diagnosis of depression. Absolute event rates over time and hazard risk of depression were analysed by BMI category. On Cox regression analysis of time to development of depression, the cumulative hazard increased significantly and linearly across BMI groups (P < 0.001). Compared to those with BMI 30 to 35 kg/m2 , patients with BMI 35 to 40 kg/m2 had a 20% higher risk of depression (hazard ratio [HR] 1.206, confidence interval [CI] 1.170-1.424), and those with BMI > 60 kg/m2 had a 98% higher risk (HR 1.988, CI 1.513-2.612). This study identified the prevalence and time course of depression in a cohort of obese patients in the United Kingdom. Findings suggest the risk of depression is directly proportional to BMI above 30 kg/m2 . Therefore, clinicians should note higher BMI levels confer increased risk of depression.


Assuntos
Índice de Massa Corporal , Depressão/psicologia , Obesidade/complicações , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Criança , Estudos de Coortes , Depressão/etiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/fisiopatologia , Obesidade/psicologia , Reino Unido , Adulto Jovem
19.
J Clin Monit Comput ; 33(4): 627-635, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30284098

RESUMO

Heart rate variability (HRV) provides an excellent proxy for monitoring of autonomic function, but the clinical utility of such characterization has not been investigated. In a clinical setting, the baseline autonomic function can reflect ability to adapt to stressors such as anesthesia. No monitoring tool has yet been developed that is able to track changes in HRV in real time. This study is a proof-of-concept for a non-invasive, real-time monitoring model for autonomic function via continuous Poincaré quantification of HRV dynamics. Anonymized heart rate data of 18 healthy individuals (18-45 years) undergoing minor procedures and 18 healthy controls (21-35 years) were analyzed. Patients underwent propofol and fentanyl anesthesia, and controls were at rest. Continuous heart rate monitoring was carried out from before aesthetic induction to the end of the surgical procedure. HRV components (sympathetic and parasympathetic) were extracted and analyzed using Poincaré quantification, and a real-time assessment tool was developed. In the patient group, a significant decrease in the sympathetic and parasympathetic components of HRV was observed following anesthesia (SD1: p = 0.019; SD2: p = 0.00027). No corresponding change in HRV was observed in controls. HRV parameters were modelled into a real-time graph. Using the monitoring technique developed, autonomic changes could be successfully visualized in real-time. This could provide the basis for a novel, fast and non-invasive method of autonomic assessment that can be delivered at the point of care.


Assuntos
Anestesia/métodos , Sistema Nervoso Autônomo/fisiopatologia , Eletrocardiografia/métodos , Frequência Cardíaca , Monitorização Intraoperatória/instrumentação , Monitorização Intraoperatória/métodos , Adolescente , Adulto , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Processamento de Sinais Assistido por Computador , Adulto Jovem
20.
Childs Nerv Syst ; 35(2): 209-216, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30215120

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Paediatric traumatic brain injury (pTBI) is one of the most frequent neurological presentations encountered in emergency departments worldwide. Every year, more than 200,000 American children suffer pTBIs, many of which lead to long-term damage. OBJECTIVES: We aim to review the existing evidence on the efficacy of the decompressive craniectomy (DC) in controlling intracranial pressure (ICP) and improving long-term outcomes in children with pTBI. METHODS: A comprehensive search of the MEDLINE and EMBASE databases led to the screening of 212 studies, 12 of which satisfied inclusion criteria. Data extracted included the number and ages of patients, Glasgow Coma Scale scores at presentation, treatment protocols and short- and long-term outcomes. RESULTS: Each of the nine studies including ICP as an outcome reported that it was successfully controlled by DC. The 6-12 month outcome scores of patients undergoing DC were positive, or superior to those of medically treated groups in nine of 11 studies. Mortality was compared in only two studies, and was lower in the DC group in both.Very few studies are currently available investigating short- and long-term outcomes in children with TBI undergoing DC. CONCLUSION: The currently available evidence may support a beneficial role of DC in controlling ICP and improving long-term outcomes.


Assuntos
Lesões Encefálicas Traumáticas/cirurgia , Craniectomia Descompressiva/métodos , Lesões Encefálicas Traumáticas/complicações , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão Intracraniana/etiologia , Hipertensão Intracraniana/prevenção & controle , Masculino , Resultado do Tratamento
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