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1.
Target Oncol ; 2022 Jan 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35025076

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The development of anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) has improved the survival outcomes of patients with advanced ALK-rearranged non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). The adverse events (AEs) related to ALK inhibitors are fairly well known; notably, about 20% of patients receiving lorlatinib experienced cognitive effects and behavioral alterations in pivotal trials. Therefore, psychiatric disorders could represent AEs of special interest for all ALK TKIs, deserving careful assessment in the post-marketing setting. OBJECTIVE: We conducted a real-world pharmacovigilance study on psychiatric AEs with marketed ALK inhibitors in subjects with advanced NSCLC. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We performed an observational, retrospective analysis of spontaneous reports submitted to the Food and Drug Administration Adverse Events Reporting System (FAERS, as of December 2020), selecting psychiatric AEs to ALK TKIs approved in NSCLC (crizotinib, ceritinib, alectinib, brigatinib, lorlatinib). These AEs were independently scrutinized by three oncologists applying predefined exclusion criteria, described in terms of clinical/demographic features and assessed for drug-related causality according to an adaptation of the WHO-UMC system, a standardized probabilistic algorithm. RESULTS: Among 584 reported psychiatric AEs, 95 cases were selected as potentially treatment related, with higher reporting frequency for lorlatinib (26, 2.8%), followed by brigatinib (10, 1.2%), alectinib (18, 0.7%), ceritinib (12, 0.6%), and crizotinib (29, 0.3%). Reported psychiatric symptoms were mood disorders (39), psychotic disorders (24), and anxiety, agitation, and irritability (25). In the majority (74%) of cases, psychiatric AEs were serious and required hospitalization in about 32% of patients; 15.8% of retained cases were considered as highly probable and 69.5% as probable. Drug discontinuation was recorded in 31.6% of the reported cases, with the highest proportion for lorlatinib (65.4%). CONCLUSION: Notwithstanding limitations, our study found a higher proportion of psychiatric AEs with lorlatinib, but also raised the hypothesis of psychiatric reactions as a class effect of ALK TKIs.

2.
Clin Lung Cancer ; 2021 Oct 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34865963

RESUMO

Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibitors (EGFR-TKIs) are standard of care in the first-line (1L) setting for patients with metastatic non-small cell lung cancer (mNSCLC) with activating EGFR mutations. EGFR-activating mutations are a predictive factor for response to EGFR-TKIs. Meta-analyses have shown that patients with exon 21_L858R mutations exhibit reduced sensitivity to EGFR-TKIs, resulting in inferior patient outcomes compared to those with exon 19 deletion mutations, with worse overall survival, progression-free survival, objective response, and disease control rates. Clinical activity observed with 1L therapy with first-generation (1G), second-generation (2G), and third-generation (3G) EGFR-TKIs is not permanent, and resistance inevitably develops in all cases, supporting the importance of overall treatment planning. The introduction of the 3G EGFR-TKI, osimertinib, provides an opportunity to overcome T790M-mediated resistance to 1G, and 2G EGFR-TKIs. Additionally, with the use of osimertinib, fewer T790M mutations are being detected as T790M is not a reported resistance mechanism to 3G EGFR-TKIs. However, there are currently no approved targeted therapies after 3G EGFR-TKIs. In order to further improve patient outcomes, there is a need to explore additional options for the overall treatment strategy for patients, including 1L and beyond. Combination of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) inhibitors and EGFR-TKIs or chemotherapy and EGFR-TKIs may be a potential therapeutic approach in the 1L setting. This review discusses current treatment options for mNSCLC with activating EGFR mutations based on tumor, patient, and treatment characteristics and how an overall treatment plan may be developed.

4.
Am J Clin Dermatol ; 2021 Oct 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34699032

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK)-4/6 inhibitors have been associated with dermatologic reactions, especially alopecia, in pivotal trials. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to comprehensively describe skin toxicities with CDK4/6 inhibitors reported in the real world through the US FDA Adverse Event Reporting System (FAERS). METHODS: Cutaneous adverse events (AEs) were characterized in terms of spectrum and clinical features, including seriousness (with fatality proportion), latency, and discontinuation. Disproportionality analyses were performed through the reporting odds ratio (ROR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) by comparing CDK4/6 inhibitors with other anticancer drugs used in breast cancer. RESULTS: As of December 2020, a total of 7986 cutaneous events were reported with CDK4/6 inhibitors (15% of total AEs with CDK4/6 inhibitors), mainly by consumers (39.6%), with 43.5% classified as serious and 25% requiring discontinuation. In 49% of the cases, five or more noncutaneous events were co-reported. The most frequently reported cutaneous events were alopecia (N = 3528), rash (N = 1493), and pruritus (N = 1211): rashes were recorded in the first month (median onset 28 days), whereas alopecia and nail alterations were recorded after a median of 67 and 112 days, respectively. Several cutaneous AEs were associated with increased reporting, including vitiligo (N = 6; ROR 8.88; 95% CI 2.95-22.46) and bullous dermatitis with ribociclib (N = 7; ROR 2.90; 95% CI 1.13-6.27); erythema multiforme with abemaciclib (N = 9; ROR 5.80; 95% CI 2.57-11.48); onychoclasis (N = 142, ROR 2.27; 95% CI 1.83-2.79) and trichorrhexis (N = 22; ROR 3.27; 95% CI 1.78-5.93) with palbociclib. CONCLUSIONS: Although causality cannot be demonstrated, a diverse reporting pattern of cutaneous AEs emerged from FAERS, including dermal/epidermal conditions, hair/nail disorders, and serious bullous conditions, with variable onsets and a remarkable proportion of discontinuations. The potential differential reporting among CDK4/6 inhibitors deserves further investigation.

5.
Tumori ; : 3008916211047888, 2021 Sep 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34585625

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Osimertinib is a third-generation epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) approved as first-line therapy for advanced EGFR-mutated non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Some osimertinib-related interstitial lung diseases (ILDs) were shown to be transient, called transient asymptomatic pulmonary opacities (TAPO)-clinically benign pulmonary opacities that resolve despite continued osimertinib treatment-and are not associated with the clinical manifestations of typical TKI-associated ILDs. METHODS: In this multicentric study, we retrospectively analyzed 92 patients with EGFR-mutated NSCLC treated with osimertinib. Computed tomography (CT) examinations were reviewed by two radiologists and TAPO were classified according to radiologic pattern. We also analyzed associations between TAPO and patients' clinical variables and compared clinical outcomes (time to treatment failure and overall survival) for TAPO-positive and TAPO-negative groups. RESULTS: TAPO were found in 18/92 patients (19.6%), with a median follow-up of 114 weeks. Median onset time was 16 weeks (range 6-80) and median duration time 14 weeks (range 8-37). The most common radiologic pattern was focal ground-glass opacity (54.5%). We did not find any individual clinical variable significantly associated with the onset of TAPO or significant difference in clinical outcomes between TAPO-positive and TAPO-negative groups. CONCLUSIONS: TAPO are benign pulmonary findings observed in patients treated with osimertinib. TAPO variability in terms of CT features can hinder the differential diagnosis with either osimertinib-related mild ILD or tumor progression. However, because TAPO are asymptomatic, it could be reasonable to continue therapy and verify the resolution of the CT findings at follow-up in selected cases.

6.
JTO Clin Res Rep ; 2(9): 100214, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34590054

RESUMO

Introduction: The addition of programmed cell death protein-1 (PD-1) or programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) inhibitors to first-line chemotherapy (CT) improved the outcomes of advanced NSCLC. Nonetheless, no direct comparison exists between these combination treatments. Methods: We performed a meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials to evaluate and compare the efficacy and safety of PD-(L)1 inhibitors in combination with first-line CT for advanced NSCLC. Results: A total of eight randomized clinical trials were included. The addition of a PD-(L)1 inhibitor to CT improved progression-free survival, overall survival, and objective response rate compared with CT alone. The risk of grade greater than or equal to 3 treatment-related adverse events was slightly higher with the addition of a PD-(L)1 inhibitor to CT as compared with CT alone. A subgroup analysis according to the targeted receptor (PD-1 versus PD-L1) revealed that the addition of a PD-1 inhibitor to CT led to better objective response rate (p = 0.0001), progression-free survival (p = 0.006), and overall survival (p = 0.002) compared with that of a PD-L1 inhibitor. The risk of grade greater than or equal to 3 treatment-related adverse events was significantly increased with the addition of a PD-L1 inhibitor to CT, but not with the addition of a PD-1 inhibitor. A direct comparison using the meta-regression analysis confirmed the statistical significance of all previous findings. Conclusions: On the basis of this meta-analysis, the addition of a PD-1 inhibitor to first-line CT revealed statistically significant better outcomes and less additional toxicity compared with that of a PD-L1 inhibitor, as compared with CT alone, in advanced NSCLC, regardless of PD-L1 status.

7.
Lung Cancer ; 161: 18-25, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34492552

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Adjuvant chemotherapy demonstrated a clear benefit in resected non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) with nodal disease (stages II-III), and a minimal benefit in tumors >4 cm (stage II, TNM 8th edition). Pleural invasion (PL), classified as visceral pleural invasion (VPI, which includes PL1 and PL2, and parietal pleural invasion (PL3), is an established negative prognostic factor. However, whether PL should influence the decisional algorithm of postoperative chemotherapy is controversial. METHODS: A survival analysis of NSCLC patients who underwent radical surgery between 2010 and 2015 included in the SEER database was performed. Tumor stage and size, number of examined and positive nodes, histology, PL, and treatment data were extracted. Propensity score matching was performed. The benefit of chemotherapy was analyzed in two subgroups: standard of care (SOC), including patients with positive nodes or tumors ≥ 4 cm; non-SOC, including patients with tumors < 4 cm and negative nodes. RESULTS: Records of 30,858 patients were extracted. 11,708 patients were included in the propensity score-matched analysis. In the SOC subgroup, including 8089 patients, all pleural invasion degrees were associated with progressively increased risk for death and shorter overall survival (OS), independently from chemotherapy administration. However, chemotherapy significantly improved the median OS regardless of the extent of PL. In the non-SOC subgroup, including 3619 patients, only PL3 was associated with increased mortality. The administration of chemotherapy did not improve survival outcomes. CONCLUSION: Chemotherapy should be strongly recommended in patients in the SOC-subgroup with pleural invasion. VPI is not associated with unfavorable prognosis in the non-SOC subgroup.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas , Neoplasias Pulmonares , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/tratamento farmacológico , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/patologia , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Invasividade Neoplásica/patologia , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Prognóstico , Pontuação de Propensão , Estudos Retrospectivos
8.
Anticancer Drugs ; 2021 Aug 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34387596

RESUMO

AIM: We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to evaluate the role of platinum-based adjuvant chemotherapy (AC) in upper tract urothelial carcinoma. MATERIALS METHODS: Eligible studies were identified using Pubmed/Medline, Cochrane library, Embase and meeting abstracts. Outcomes of interest included: overall survival (OS), cancer-specific survival (CSS) and disease-free survival (DFS). RESULTS: Platinum-based AC was associated with improved DFS, while the benefit in OS and CSS was not statistically significant compared to observation. Conversely, platinum-based AC showed a modest OS benefit in an analysis combing multivariable HRs with estimated HRs from Kaplan-Meier curves. CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that platinum-based AC is associated with improved DFS and a modest OS benefit in patients with locally advanced urothelial carcinomas.

9.
Future Oncol ; 17(32): 4415-4424, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34402681

RESUMO

Introduction: The best treatment for advanced, PD-L1-high non-small-cell lung cancer remains a debated issue. Methods: A meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials (RCTs) was performed to compare the efficacy and safety of PD-(L)1 inhibitors alone or plus chemotherapy (CT) for advanced, PD-L1-high non-small-cell lung cancer. Results: 14 RCTs were included. The combination of a PD-(L)1 inhibitor with CT resulted in the improvement of progression-free survival (HR: 0.59; 95% CI: 0.43-0.79; p = 0.0005) and objective response rate (RR: 1.66; 95% CI: 1.14-2.42; p = 0.008). No overall survival difference was documented (HR: 0.99; 95% CI: 0.77-1.27; p = 0.95). The risk of grade ≥3 treatment-related adverse events was significantly reduced with immune-checkpoint inhibitor single-agent therapy compared with immune-checkpoint inhibitors plus CT (RR: 0.38; 95% CI: 0.32-0.45; p = 0.00001). Conclusion: The combination of a PD-(L)1 inhibitor and CT appears to be associated with improved PFS and ORR, but similar OS, compared with PD-(L)1 inhibitor single-agent therapy in patients with PD-L1-high non-small-cell lung cancer.

10.
Invest New Drugs ; 2021 Aug 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34436699

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION:  The combination of BRAF and MEK inhibitors has deeply changed the treatment of BRAF V600-mutant non-small cell lung cancer patients. These agents demonstrated high antitumor activity as well as safe and manageable toxicity profile. Hypertension, pyrexia and increased liver enzymes are the most common adverse events. Gastrointestinal toxicities are rare, and mainly consist of mild grade vomiting and diarrhea. CASE REPORT:  We report the case of 70-year-old man affected by BRAF V600-mutant NSCLC with bilateral lung and bone metastases. First-line treatment with encorafenib (450 mg once daily) and binimetinib (45 mg twice daily) was administered within a clinical trial. At the first radiological assessment, computed tomography (CT) scan showed a partial response and signs of intestinal inflammation were reported. The investigational treatment was timely withheld. The subsequent colonoscopy demonstrated the presence of ulcerative lesions at the caecal tract, and the histological diagnosis suggested a drug-induced colitis. No specific treatment was given as the patient did not report abdominal disturbances. Forty-five days after treatment interruption a new CT scan showed the resolution of bowel inflammation and investigational treatment was resumed at the same doses. The patient is still alive and free of toxicity recurrence after 11 months from treatment initiation. Conclusion. Severe gastrointestinal toxicities are uncommon with BRAF and MEK inhibitors, although cases of colitis and intestinal perforation have already been reported in literature. The pathogenesis seems to be related to the MAPK pathway inhibition performed by MEK inhibitors. These adverse events should be accounted given the potential to evolve into life-threatening conditions.

11.
EClinicalMedicine ; 37: 100940, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34195574

RESUMO

Background: LUX-Lung 8 was a randomised, controlled, phase 3 study comparing afatinib and erlotinib as second-line treatment of patients with advanced squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the lung. We report the final overall survival (OS) and safety analyses of LUX-Lung 8 and investigate the characteristics of patients who achieved long-term benefit (≥12 months' treatment). Methods: LUX-Lung 8 (NCT01523587) enroled patients between March 2012 and January 2014 in 183 cancer centres located in 23 countries worldwide and this final analysis had a data cut-off of March 2018. Eligible patients had stage IIIB or IV lung SCC and had progressed after at least four cycles of platinum-based chemotherapy. Patients were randomly assigned (1:1) to receive afatinib (40 mg per day) or erlotinib (150 mg per day) until disease progression. Endpoints included OS and safety; a post-hoc analysis of patients with long-term benefit (≥12 months on treatment) was also conducted. Findings: 795 eligible patients were randomly assigned (398 to afatinib, 397 to erlotinib). OS was significantly prolonged with afatinib compared with erlotinib (median 7·8 months vs 6·8 months; hazard ratio 0·84; 95% CI 0·73-0·97; p = 0·0193). These findings were consistent with those of the primary analysis and were consistent across subgroups. Adverse events (AEs) were manageable with dose interruption and reduction, with similar AEs being experienced between both groups. Twenty-one (5·3%) patients receiving afatinib and 13 (3·3%) patients receiving erlotinib achieved long-term benefit; median OS was 34·6 months and 20·1 months, respectively. Amongst 132 afatinib-treated patients who underwent tumour genetic analysis, ERBB family mutations were more common in patients with long-term benefit than in the overall population (50% vs 21%). Interpretation: Afatinib is a treatment option for patients with SCC of the lung progressing on chemotherapy who are ineligible for immunotherapy, particularly those with ERBB family genetic aberrations. Afatinib has a predictable and manageable tolerability profile, and long-term treatment may be well tolerated.

12.
Eur J Cancer ; 154: 120-127, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34265504

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Recent years have witnessed the advent of novel treatment options for metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC), including combination therapies with immune checkpoint inhibitors. Herein, we conducted an up-to-date and comprehensive meta-analysis including recently published data of phase III clinical trials evaluating immune-based combinations in mRCC. METHODS: We retrieved all the relevant trials published from 15th June 2008 to 24th February 2021, evaluating immune-based combinations in treatment-naïve mRCC through PubMed/MEDLINE, Cochrane library, and EMBASE; additionally, proceedings of the main international oncological meetings were also searched for relevant abstracts. Outcomes of interest included overall survival (OS), progression-free survival (PFS), complete response (CR) rate, and overall response rate (ORR). Hazard ratios (HRs) and their 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for OS and PFS, and odds ratios (ORs) and 95% CIs for CR rate and ORR, were extracted. RESULTS: Overall, 6 phase III studies involving 5175 treatment-naïve mRCC patients were available for the meta-analysis (immune-based combinations, n = 2576; sunitinib, n = 2597). According to our results, the use of immune-based combinations decreased the risk of death by 26% (HR 0.74, 95% CI 0.67-0.81, P < 0.001); similarly, a PFS benefit was observed (HR 0.68, 95% CI 0.54-0.85, P = 0.001). In addition, immune-based combinations showed better CR rate and ORR, with ORs of 3.04 (95% CI 2.31-3.99, P = 0.001) and 2.53 (95% CI 1.77-3.62, P < 0.03), respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The results of our meta-analysis confirm the clinical benefit provided by immunotherapy combinations, with CR rate more than tripled in mRCCs receiving immune-based combinations. Further studies in real-world setting are warranted to validate the findings of our meta-analysis, the most updated to systematically evaluate immune-based combinations in mRCC.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Carcinoma de Células Renais/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Renais/tratamento farmacológico , Carcinoma de Células Renais/mortalidade , Humanos , Inibidores de Checkpoint Imunológico/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias Renais/mortalidade , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
14.
Cancers (Basel) ; 13(14)2021 Jul 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34298702

RESUMO

Treatment response is usually assessed by the response evaluation criteria in solid tumors (RECIST). These criteria may not be adequate to evaluate the response to immunotherapy, considering the peculiar patterns of response reported with this therapy. With the advent of immunotherapy these criteria have been modified to include the evaluation of the peculiar responses seen with this type of therapy (iRECIST criteria), including pseudoprogressions and hyperprogressions. Tumor growth rate (TGR) is a dynamic evaluation that takes into account the kinetics of response to treatment and may help catch the real efficacy of an immunotherapy approach. We performed a retrospective monocentric study to explore the impact of TGR change after nivolumab administration as the second or later line of treatment in patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma (RCC). We evaluated 27 patients, divided into three categories: Disease control (DC) if there was no PD; lower velocity PD (LvPD) if disease progressed but the TGR at second assessment (TGR2) was lower than the TGR at first assessment (TGR1); higher velocity PD (HvPD) if TGR2 was higher than TGR1. The median OS for the DC group was 11.0 months (95% CI 5.0-17.0) (reference) vs. (not reached) NR (95% CI NR-NR) for LvPD (HR 0.27; 95% CI 0.06-1.30; p 0.102) vs. NR (95% CI NR-NR) for HvPD (HR 0.23; 95% CI 0.06-0.88; p 0.032). There was no difference between LvPD and DC (HR 1.21; 95% CI 0.20-7.28; p 0.838). In patients with metastatic RCC, the second or later line of nivolumab treatment may lead to a deceleration in TGR resulting in an improved survival outcome similar to that observed in patients experiencing tumor regression. In this subgroup, especially in the presence of a clinical benefit, continuing the treatment beyond progression can be recommended.

15.
Front Cell Dev Biol ; 9: 666156, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34178989

RESUMO

Cancers of unknown primary (CUPs) comprise a heterogeneous group of rare metastatic tumors whose primary site cannot be identified after extensive clinical-pathological investigations. CUP patients are generally treated with empirical chemotherapy and have dismal prognosis. As recently reported, CUP genome presents potentially druggable alterations for which targeted therapies could be proposed. The paucity of tumor tissue, as well as the difficult DNA testing and the lack of dedicated panels for target gene sequencing are further relevant limitations. Here, we propose that circulating tumor cells (CTCs) and circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) could be used to identify actionable mutations in CUP patients. Blood was longitudinally collected from two CUP patients. CTCs were isolated with CELLSEARCH® and DEPArrayTM NxT and Parsortix systems, immunophenotypically characterized and used for single-cell genomic characterization with Ampli1TM kits. Circulating cell-free DNA (ccfDNA), purified from plasma at different time points, was tested for tumor mutations with a CUP-dedicated, 92-gene custom panel using SureSelect Target Enrichment technology. In parallel, FFPE tumor tissue was analyzed with three different assays: FoundationOne CDx assay, DEPArray LibPrep and OncoSeek Panel, and the SureSelect custom panel. These approaches identified the same mutations, when the gene was covered by the panel, with the exception of an insertion in APC gene. which was detected by OncoSeek and SureSelect panels but not FoundationOne. FGFR2 and CCNE1 gene amplifications were detected in single CTCs, tumor tissue, and ccfDNAs in one patient. A somatic variant in ARID1A gene (p.R1276∗) was detected in the tumor tissue and ccfDNAs. The alterations were validated by Droplet Digital PCR in all ccfDNA samples collected during tumor evolution. CTCs from a second patient presented a pattern of recurrent amplifications in ASPM and SEPT9 genes and loss of FANCC. The 92-gene custom panel identified 16 non-synonymous somatic alterations in ccfDNA, including a deletion (I1485Rfs∗19) and a somatic mutation (p. A1487V) in ARID1A gene and a point mutation in FGFR2 gene (p.G384R). Our results support the feasibility of non-invasive liquid biopsy testing in CUP cases, either using ctDNA or CTCs, to identify CUP genetic alterations with broad NGS panels covering the most frequently mutated genes.

16.
NPJ Breast Cancer ; 7(1): 82, 2021 Jun 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34183674

RESUMO

The GIM2 phase III trial demonstrated the benefit of dose-dense chemotherapy in node-positive early breast cancer (eBC). To better define the dose-dense effect in the hormone receptor-positive subgroup, we evaluated its benefit through a composite measure of recurrence risk. We conducted an ancillary analysis of the GIM2 trial evaluating the absolute treatment effect through a composite measure of recurrence risk (CPRS) in patients with hormone receptor-positive HER2-negative eBC. CPRS was estimated through Cox proportional hazards models applied to the different clinicopathological features. The treatment effect was compared to the values of CPRS by using the Sub-population Treatment Effect Pattern Plot (STEPP) process. The Disease-Free Survival (DFS)-oriented STEPP analysis showed distinct patterns of relative treatment effect with respect to CPRS. Overall, 5-year DFS differed across CPRS quartiles ranging from 95.2 to 66.4%. Each CPRS quartile was characterized by a different patients' composition, especially for age, lymph node involvement, tumor size, estrogen and progesterone receptor expression, and Ki-67. A number needed to treat of 154 and 6 was associated with the lowest and the highest CPRS quartile, respectively. Dose-dense adjuvant chemotherapy showed a consistent benefit in node-positive eBC patients with hormone receptor-positive HER2-negative disease, but its effect varied according to CPRS.

17.
Mol Oncol ; 15(10): 2732-2751, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34075699

RESUMO

Metastasis is responsible for the majority of cancer-related deaths. Particularly, challenging is the management of metastatic cancer of unknown primary site (CUP), whose tissue of origin (TOO) remains undetermined even after extensive investigations and whose therapy is rather unspecific and poorly effective. Molecular approaches to identify the most probable TOO of CUPs can overcome some of these issues. In this study, we applied a predetermined set of 89 microRNAs (miRNAs) to infer the TOO of 53 metastatic cancers of unknown or uncertain origin. The miRNA expression was assessed with droplet digital PCR in 159 samples, including primary tumors from 17 tumor classes (reference set) and metastases of known and unknown origin (test set). We combined two different statistical models for class prediction to obtain the most probable TOOs: the nearest shrunken centroids approach of Prediction Analysis of Microarrays (PAMR) and the least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO) models. The molecular test was successful for all formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded samples and provided a TOO identification within 1 week from the biopsy procedure. The most frequently predicted origins were gastrointestinal, pancreas, breast, lung, and bile duct. The assay was applied also to multiple metastases from the same CUP, collected from different metastatic sites: The predictions showed a strong agreement, intrinsically validating our assay. The final CUPs' TOO prediction was compared with the clinicopathological hypothesis of primary site. Moreover, a panel of 13 miRNAs proved to have prognostic value and be associated with overall survival in CUP patients. Our study demonstrated that miRNA expression profiling in CUP samples could be employed as diagnostic and prognostic test. Our molecular analysis can be performed on request, concomitantly with standard diagnostic workup and in association with genetic profiling, to offer valuable indications about the possible primary site, thereby supporting treatment decisions.

18.
Front Microbiol ; 12: 692491, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34163460

RESUMO

Vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) is a symptomatic inflammation of the vagina mainly caused by C. albicans. Other species, such as C. parapsilosis, C. glabrata, C. tropicalis, and C. krusei, are mainly associated to the recurrent form of the disease (RVVC), although with a lower frequency. In its yeast form, C. albicans is tolerated by the vaginal epithelium, but switching to the invasive hyphal form, co-regulated with the expression of genes encoding virulence factors such as secreted aspartyl proteases (Sap) and candidalysin, allows for tissue damage. Vaginal epithelial cells play an important role by impairing C. albicans tissue invasion through several mechanisms such as epithelial shedding, secretion of mucin and strong interepithelial cell connections. However, morphotype switching coupled to increasing of the fungal burden can overcome the tolerance threshold and trigger an intense inflammatory response. Pathological inflammation is believed to be facilitated by an altered vaginal microbiome, i.e., Lactobacillus dysbiosis. Notwithstanding the damage caused by the fungus itself, the host response to the fungus plays an important role in the onset of VVC, exacerbating fungal-mediated damage. This response can be triggered by host PRR-fungal PAMP interaction and other more complex mechanisms (i.e., Sap-mediated NLRP3 activation and candidalysin), ultimately leading to strong neutrophil recruitment. However, recruited neutrophils appear to be ineffective at reducing fungal burden and invasion; therefore, they seem to contribute more to the symptoms associated with vaginitis than to protection against the disease. Recently, two aspects of the vulvovaginal environment have been found to associate with VVC and induce neutrophil anergy in vitro: perinuclear anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (pANCA) and heparan sulfate. Interestingly, CAGTA antibodies have also been found with higher frequency in VVC as compared to asymptomatic colonized women. This review highlights and discusses recent advances on understanding the VVC pathogenesis mechanisms as well as the role of host defenses during the disease.

19.
Tumori ; : 3008916211014954, 2021 May 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34002648

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the role of CTLA-4, PD-1 (programmed death-1), and PD-L1 (programmed death-ligand 1) single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in predicting clinical outcome of patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) treated with immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs). METHODS: A total of 166 consecutive patients were included. We correlated SNPs with clinical benefit, progression-free survival, time to treatment failure, and overall survival and evaluated the incidence of SNPs in nonresponder and long clinical benefit groups. RESULTS: Considering the entire cohort, no correlation was found between SNPs and clinical outcome; however, PD-L1 rs4143815 SNP and the long clinical benefit group showed a statistically significant association (p = 0.02). The nonresponder cohort displayed distinctive PD-L1 haplotype (p = 0.05). CONCLUSION: PD-L1 SNPs seem to be marginally involved in predicting clinical outcome of NSCLC treated with ICI, but further investigations are required.

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