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1.
Org Lett ; 22(9): 3702-3705, 2020 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32286076

RESUMO

We describe the synthesis of a new class of trisulfonamide calix[6]arene-based wheels that can bind dialkylviologen salts, in apolar media. The threading process occurs through a selective ion-pair recognition, established by the sulfonamide groups with the counterions of the bipyridinium salts, that dictates a conformational rearrangement of the corresponding pseudorotaxanes.

2.
Chemistry ; 26(14): 3022-3025, 2020 Mar 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31944456

RESUMO

This work describes a calix[6]arene-based wheel that binds, in non-polar media, a stilbazolium salt to yield a mixture of pseudorotaxane orientational isomers. The isomer's abundance ratio evolves with time and can be reversibly tuned by adjusting the temperature. The spectroscopic properties, and notably the emission spectrum, of the bound guest depend on its orientation inside the non-palindromic wheel, suggesting such a system as a switch with spectroscopic readout.


Assuntos
Calixarenos/química , Corantes Fluorescentes/química , Fenóis/química , Rotaxanos/química , Cinética , Estrutura Molecular , Espectrometria de Fluorescência , Estereoisomerismo , Temperatura , Termodinâmica
3.
Inorg Chem ; 58(21): 14642-14651, 2019 Nov 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31609595

RESUMO

The "CHON" compatible water-soluble ligand 3,3'-(pyridine-2,6-diylbis(1H-1,2,3-triazole-4,1-diyl))bis(propan-1-ol) (PTD) has shown promise for selectively stripping actinide ions from an organic phase containing both actinide and lanthanide ions, by preferential complexation of the former. Aiming at improving its complexation properties, PTD-OMe was synthesized, bearing a methoxy group on the central pyridine ring, thus increasing its basicity and hence complexation strength. Unfortunately, solvent extraction experiments in the range of 0.1-1 mol/L nitric acid proved PTD-OMe to be less efficient than PTD. This behavior is explained by its greater pKa value (pKa = 2.54) compared to PTD (pKa = 2.1). This counteracts its improved complexation properties for Cm(III) (log ß3(PTD-OMe) = 10.8 ± 0.4 versus log ß3(PTD) = 9.9 ± 0.5).

4.
Molecules ; 23(5)2018 May 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29751658

RESUMO

Catenanes with desymmetrized ring components can undergo co-conformational rearrangements upon external stimulation and can form the basis for the development of molecular rotary motors. We describe the design, synthesis and properties of a [2]catenane consisting of a macrocycle-the 'track' ring-endowed with two distinct recognition sites (a bipyridinium and an ammonium) for a calix[6]arene-the 'shuttle' ring. By exploiting the ability of the calixarene to thread appropriate non-symmetric axles with directional selectivity, we assembled an oriented pseudorotaxane and converted it into the corresponding oriented catenane by intramolecular ring closing metathesis. Cyclic voltammetric experiments indicate that the calixarene wheel initially surrounds the bipyridinium site, moves away from it when it is reduced, and returns in the original position upon reoxidation. A comparison with appropriate model compounds shows that the presence of the ammonium station is necessary for the calixarene to leave the reduced bipyridinium site.


Assuntos
Calixarenos/química , Catenanos/química , Modelos Moleculares , Conformação Molecular , Catenanos/síntese química , Técnicas de Química Sintética , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Estrutura Molecular
5.
Chemistry ; 24(47): 12370-12382, 2018 Aug 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29660175

RESUMO

Operating molecular machines are based on switchable systems whose components can be set in motion in a controllable fashion. The presence of nonsymmetrical elements is a mandatory requirement to obtain and demonstrate the unidirectionality of motion. Calixarene-based macrocycles have proved to be very efficient hosts in the design of oriented rotaxanes and of pseudorotaxanes with strict control over the direction of complexation. A series of two-station rotaxanes based on bipyridinium-ammonium axles was synthesized and characterized. A recently reported supramolecularly assisted strategy for the synthesis of different orientational isomers was exploited, and the ammonium unit was identified as a proper secondary station for the calixarene. Displacement of the macrocycle was triggered by electrochemical reduction of the bipyridinium primary station, and it was shown that the shuttling is influenced both by the length of the chain of the axle component and by the position of the secondary station with respect to the calixarene rims.

6.
Org Biomol Chem ; 15(32): 6753-6763, 2017 Aug 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28766652

RESUMO

A substrate can modify its chemical features, including a change of its reactivity, as a consequence of non-covalent interactions upon inclusion within a molecular host. Since the rise of supramolecular chemistry, this phenomenon has stimulated the ingenuity of scientists to emulate the function of enzymes by designing supramolecular systems in which the energetics and selectivity of reactions can be manipulated through programmed host-guest interactions and/or steric confinement. In this paper we investigate how the engulfment of a positively charged pyridinium-based guest inside the π-rich cavity of a tris-(N-phenylureido)calix[6]arene host affects its reactivity towards a SN2 reaction. We found that the alkylation of complexed substrates leads to the formation of pseudorotaxanes and rotaxanes with faster kinetics and higher yields with respect to the standard procedures exploited so far. More importantly, the strategy described here expands the range of efficient synthetic routes for the formation of mechanically interlocked species with a strict control of the mutual orientation of their non-symmetric molecular components.

7.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 53(45): 6172-6174, 2017 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28530282

RESUMO

We describe the active template effect of a calix[6]arene host towards the alkylation of a complexed pyridylpyridinium guest. The acceleration of the reaction within the cavity is significant and rim-selective, enabling the efficient preparation of rotaxanes with full control of the mutual orientation of their nonsymmetric components.

8.
Inorg Chem ; 56(4): 2135-2144, 2017 Feb 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28151663

RESUMO

The complexation of Cm(III) and Eu(III) with the novel i-SANEX complexing agent 2,6-bis[1-(propan-1-ol)-1,2,3-triazol-4-yl]pyridine (PTD) was studied by time-resolved laser fluorescence spectroscopy (TRLFS). The formation of 1:3, 1:2, and 1:1 metal/ligand complexes was identified upon increasing PTD concentration in 10-3 mol/L HClO4 and in 0.44 mol/L HNO3 solutions. For all these complexes, stability constants were determined at different acid concentrations. Though under the extraction conditions proposed for an An/Ln separation process, that is, for 0.08 mol/L PTD in 0.44 mol/L HNO3, 1:3 complexes represent the major species, a significant fraction of 1:2 complexes was found. This is caused by ligand protonation, and results in lower Eu(III)/Am(III) separation factors compared to SO3-Ph-BTP, until now considered the i-SANEX reference ligand. Focused extraction studies performed at lower proton concentration, where the 1:3 complex is formed exclusively, confirm this assumption.

9.
ChemistryOpen ; 6(1): 64-72, 2017 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28168152

RESUMO

Tris-(N-phenylureido)-calix[6]arene derivatives are heteroditopic non-symmetric molecular hosts that can form pseudorotaxane complexes with 4,4'-bipyridinium-type guests. Owing to the unique structural features and recognition properties of the calix[6]arene wheel, these systems are of interest for the design and synthesis of novel molecular devices and machines. We envisaged that the incorporation of photoactive units in the calixarene skeleton could lead to the development of systems the working modes of which can be governed and monitored by means of light-activated processes. Here, we report on the synthesis, structural characterization, and spectroscopic, photophysical, and electrochemical investigation of two calix[6]arene wheels decorated with three naphthyl groups anchored to either the upper or lower rim of the phenylureido calixarene platform. We found that the naphthyl units interact mutually and with the calixarene skeleton in a different fashion in the two compounds, which thus exhibit a markedly distinct photophysical behavior. For both hosts, the inclusion of a 4,4'-bipyridinium guest activates energy- and/or electron-transfer processes that lead to non-trivial luminescence changes.

10.
J Am Chem Soc ; 138(23): 7232-5, 2016 06 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27203357

RESUMO

There is still an evident need for selective and stable ligands able to separate actinide(III) from lanthanide(III) metal ions in view of the treatment of the accumulated radioactive waste and of the recycling of minor actinides. We have herein demonstrated that hydrophilic 2,6-bis-triazolyl-pyridines are able to strip all actinides in all the different oxidation states from a diglycolamide-containing kerosene solution into an acidic aqueous phase. The ascertained high actinide selectivity, efficiency, extraction kinetics, and chemical/radiolytic stability spotlight this hydrophilic class of ligands as exceptional candidates for advanced separation processes fundamental for closing the nuclear fuel cycle and solving the environmental issues related to the management of existing nuclear waste.


Assuntos
Elementos da Série Actinoide/química , Elementos da Série dos Lantanídeos/química , Energia Nuclear , Piridinas/química , Resíduos Radioativos/prevenção & controle , Interações Hidrofóbicas e Hidrofílicas , Cinética , Ligantes , Modelos Químicos , Oxirredução , Radioquímica
11.
Chemistry ; 21(43): 15428-38, 2015 Oct 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26471448

RESUMO

A series of lipophilic gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) circa 5 nm in diameter and having a mixed organic layer consisting of 1-dodecanethiol and 1-(11-mercaptoundecyl) pyridinium bromide was synthesised by reacting tetraoctylammonium bromide stabilised AuNPs in toluene with different mixtures of the two thiolate ligands. A bidentate ω-alkylthiolate calix[4]arene derivative was instead used as a functional protecting layer on AgNPs of approximately 3 nm. The functionalised nanoparticles were characterised by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and by UV/Vis and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Recognition of the pyridinium moieties loaded on the AuNPs by the calix[4]arene units immobilised on the AgNPs was demonstrated in solution of weakly polar solvents by UV/Vis titrations and DLS measurements. The extent of Au-AgNPs aggregation, shown through the low-energy shift of their surface plasmon bands (SPB), was strongly dependent on the loading of the pyridinium moieties present in the organic layer of the AuNPs. Extensive aggregation between dodecanethiol-capped AuNPs and the Ag calix[4]arene-functionalised NPs was also promoted by the action of a simple N-octyl pyridinium difunctional supramolecular linker. This linker can interdigitate through its long fatty tail in the organic layer of the dodecanethiol-capped AuNPs, and simultaneously interact through its pyridinium moiety with the calix[4]arene units at the surface of the modified AgNPs.

12.
Org Biomol Chem ; 11(35): 5944-53, 2013 Sep 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23903288

RESUMO

We have designed and synthesized two amphiphilic calix[6]arene derivatives, CA8 and CA18, that combine the potential to act as wheel components for pseudorotaxane structures with the self-assembly features typical of surfactant molecules in aqueous solution. Their endo-cavity recognition and selfaggregation properties were compared with those of a non-amphiphilic analogue, C8. TEM, DLS, and fluorescence experiments show that in water the amphiphilic calixarenes form vesicle- and micelle-like aggregates. The size, nature and properties of such aggregates depend on the length of the alkyl chain anchored at the lower rim of the calix[6]arene skeleton, as well as on the inclusion of a molecular guest into the wheel. Specifically, the release of a fluorescent guest entrapped inside the CA8 vesicles is accelerated in the presence of dioctylviologen axles that can pierce the calixarene cavity.


Assuntos
Calixarenos/química , Fenóis/química , Tensoativos/química , Água/química , Calixarenos/síntese química , Micelas , Fenóis/síntese química , Tensoativos/síntese química
13.
J Am Chem Soc ; 135(26): 9924-30, 2013 Jul 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23751139

RESUMO

We have investigated the self-assembly of pseudorotaxanes composed of viologen-type axle and calix[6]arene wheel components. The distinctive feature of this system is that both components are structurally nonsymmetric; hence, their self-assembly can follow four distinct pathways and eventually give rise to two different orientational pseudorotaxane isomers. We found that the alkyl side chains of the viologen recognition site on the molecular axle act as strict kinetic control elements in the self-assembly, thereby dictating which side of the axle pierces the calixarene cavity. Specifically, nonsymmetric axles with alkyl side chains of different length thread the wheel with the shorter chain. Such a selectivity, in combination with the face-selective threading of viologen-type axles afforded by tris(N-phenylureido)calix[6]arenes, enables a strict directional control of the self-assembly process for both the face of the wheel and the side of the axle. This kinetic selectivity allows both intramolecular self-sorting between two different side chains in a nonsymmetric axle and intermolecolar self-sorting among symmetric axles with alkyl substituents of different length.


Assuntos
Calixarenos/química , Fenóis/química , Estrutura Molecular
14.
Chemistry ; 19(24): 7999-8006, 2013 Jun 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23606638

RESUMO

The assembly of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) on a hydrogenated Si(100) surface, mediated by a series of hierarchical and reversible complexation processes, is reported. The proposed multi-step sequence involves a redox-active ditopic guest and suitable calix[n]arene-based hosts, used as functional organic monolayers of the two inorganic components. Surface reactions and controlled release of AuNPs have been monitored by application of XPS, atomic force microscopy (AFM), field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and electrochemistry.

15.
Chemistry ; 18(50): 16203-13, 2012 Dec 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23090856

RESUMO

The development of a pseudorotaxane motif capable of performing unidirectional threading and dethreading processes under control of external stimuli is particularly important for the construction of processive linear motors based on rotaxanes and, at least in principle, it discloses the possibility to access to rotary motors based on catenanes. Here, we report a strategy to obtain the solvent-controlled unidirectional transit of a molecular axle through a molecular wheel. It is based on the use of appropriately designed molecular components, the essential feature of which is their non-symmetric structure. Specifically they are an axle containing a central electron-acceptor 4,4'-bipyridinium core functionalized with a hexanol chain at one side, and a stilbene unit connected through a C6 chain at the other side, and a heteroditopic tris(phenylureido)-calix[6]arene wheel. In apolar solvents the axle threads into the wheel from its upper rim and with the end carrying the OH group, giving an oriented pseudorotaxane structure. After a stoppering reaction, which replaces the small hydroxy group with a bulky diphenylacetyl moiety, and replacement of the apolar solvent with a polar one, dethreading occurs through the slippage of the stilbene unit from the lower rim of the wheel, that is, in the same direction of the threading process. The essential role played by the stilbene unit to achieve the unidirectional transit of the axle through the wheel, and to tune the dethreading rate by light is also demonstrated.


Assuntos
Rotaxanos/química , Solventes/química , Estilbenos/química , Luz , Modelos Moleculares , Estrutura Molecular
16.
J Nanosci Nanotechnol ; 12(11): 8851-5, 2012 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23421300

RESUMO

The results of an X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy study conducted on a series of gold nanoparticles recently reported by us, stabilized by monodentate, bidentate, tridentate and tetradentate thiolate calix[n]arene ligands, are presented here. By virtue of the different denticity of the ligands, the nuclearity of the resulting particles can be tuned down to the subnanometric range. From the present XPS results, a clear correlation among the experimental binding energy of single Au 4f peak components and the specific Au state of charge is proposed, where the smaller (i.e., nanometer) fraction of the series selectively shows negatively charged Au atoms. Our findings are relevant for the open discussion of a specific role played by negatively charged Au atoms in catalytic reactions, especially at low temperatures.


Assuntos
Partículas Elementares , Ouro/química , Nanopartículas Metálicas/química , Terapia por Raios X/métodos
17.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 13(10): 4444-51, 2011 Mar 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21264384

RESUMO

The first report is given here on the anchoring on H-Si(100) of calix[4]arenes and calix[6]arene-based pseudorotaxanes, versatile building blocks for molecular devices. Covalent functionalization on Si was reached through a wet chemistry recipe, by making use of an extra-mild photochemical activation via visible light of C=C terminated anchoring arms. Our approach largely preserves the integrity of the molecular substrate, also allowing for a full monolayer of pseudorotaxane to be formed on Si(100). Molecular adhesion has been demonstrated by the presence and quantitation of XPS signals from specific elements in the molecules. AFM measurements performed on Si(100)/calix[4]arenes have revealed structures 2.3 nm high, consistent with the length of the molecule. The availability of the calix[4]arene cavity to host further species after anchoring on Si has been demonstrated by the successful complexation reaction with Cs(+) ions, resulting in a 1:1 calix/Cs(+) ratio, and with N-methyl pyridinium iodide. A pseudorotaxane species, composed of a calix[6]arene wheel derivatised with N-phenylureido groups on the upper rim and a viologen (4,4'-bipyridinium) containing axle, has been anchored on Si(100) via the C=C termination of the axle. We demonstrated the self-assembling of this pseudorotaxane covalently bound by use of XPS.

18.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 13(10): 4452-62, 2011 Mar 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21264385

RESUMO

Specific and reversible binding of guest molecules from a solution to a surface pre-treated with host molecules is a recent and active field of research. Self-assembled monolayers may result from supramolecular interactions, adding distinct functionalities to the surface. In this frame, the first compared study is given here of the anchoring on the technologically relevant Cu surface of calix[4]arene receptors and calix[6]arene-based rotaxanes and pseudorotaxanes. These molecules, which belong to the most representative classes of compounds in supramolecular chemistry, have been chosen for their synthetic accessibility and versatility, which make them useful building blocks for the synthesis of new advanced supramolecular structures. Covalent functionalisation of calix[4,6]arenes on Cu was reached via a dip-coating procedure, optimizing the various synthetic aspects in order to obtain good coverages and copper passivation. Molecular adhesion has been demonstrated by the presence and relative quantitation of XPS signals from specific elements in the molecules. We have successfully tested the combination of different functionalities by producing a mixed film, prepared by ligand exchange of calix[4]arene with undecanethiol. The availability of the calix[4]arene cavity to reversibly host further species after anchoring on Cu has been demonstrated by a sequence of uptake and release cycles with pyridinium salts. Rotaxane and pseudorotaxane species, composed of a calix[6]arene wheel functionalized with N-phenylurea groups on the upper rim, and a viologen-containing axle, have been anchored on Cu via the SH-termination of the axle. XPS demonstrated the successful self-assembly of fully threaded rotaxanes and pseudorotaxanes from their solutions and the controlled release upon biasing of full rotaxanes and of the pseudorotaxane wheel.

19.
J Nanosci Nanotechnol ; 11(10): 9333-9, 2011 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22400346

RESUMO

We report the first compared study of the anchoring mode of calix[6]arene derivatives and pseudorotaxanes on Si(100) and polycrystalline Cu. Calixarenes have been chosen for their flexibility as linkers, being, i.a., efficient building blocks for the constructing of molecular devices based on pseudorotaxanes and rotaxanes. A covalent functionalization on Si or Cu surfaces requires the molecules to be differently modified: thiol (-SH) or C double bond C terminations are respectively suitable for Cu or H-Si(100). Anchoring on Cu was reached by dipping a clean substrate in a calix[6]arene-SH solution, while a wet-chemistry recipe was followed for Si(100), combined with an extra-mild photochemical activation via visible light. Molecular adhesion onto either surfaces has been demonstrated by the presence of XPS signals from specific elements in the molecules: calix[6]arene designed for H-Si were derivatized with NO2 groups on the upper rim of the calix, while the S atom was used as the molecular identifier on Cu. A further extension is represented by the anchoring reaction of rotaxanes on Si(100) and Cu surfaces. A pseudorotaxane species was first formed in solution by reacting a calix[6]arene "wheel," bearing three N-phenylureido groups on the upper rim, with viologen (4,4'-bipyridinium) containing axle. The resulting species has then been anchored on either Cu and Si via its distinct termination of the axle. This two-step reaction has produced a threaded pseudorotaxane covalently bound to either surfaces, as shown by XPS results. These species are ready to respond to external stimuli. We also cross-checked the two different anchoring groups for their reactivity on Cu and Si surfaces. No molecular uptake was observed when two solutions, containing calixarenes with the anchoring arms intended either for Si or Cu surfaces, were exchanged.

20.
Chemistry ; 16(36): 11089-99, 2010 Sep 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20715205

RESUMO

A series of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) stabilized by monodentate, bidentate, and tridentate thiolate calix[n]arene ligands 1-3 was prepared by using the Brust-Schiffrin two-phase direct synthesis and characterized with NMR spectroscopy, elemental analysis, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The experimental data show that the particular multidentate structure of calix[n]arene derivatives 2 and 3 introduces a control element in the preparation of the gold nanoparticles that allows, in the particular experimental conditions here reported, to obtain very small (≈1 nm) AuNPs. These are the first experimental findings that identify a role of ligand "denticity" in the determination of the nuclearity of nanoparticles.

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