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1.
Prog Cardiovasc Dis ; 2021 May 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33964290

RESUMO

The outbreak of the novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection has presented a global public health emergency. Although predominantly a pandemic of acute respiratory disease, corona virus infectious disease-19 (COVID-19) results in multi-organ damage that impairs cardiopulmonary (CP) function and reduces cardiorespiratory fitness. Superimposed on the CP consequences of COVID-19 is a marked reduction in physical activity that exacerbates CP disease (CPD) risk. CP exercise testing (CPET) is routinely used in clinical practice to diagnose CPD and assess prognosis; assess cardiovascular safety for rehabilitation; and delineate the physiological contributors to exercise intolerance and exertional fatigue. As such, CPET plays an important role in clinical assessments of convalescent COVID-19 patients as well as research aimed at understanding the long-term health effects of SARS-CoV-2 infection. However, due to the ventilatory expired gas analysis involved with CPET, the procedure is considered an aerosol generating procedure. Therefore, extra precautions should be taken by health care providers and exercise physiologists performing these tests. This paper provides recommendations for CPET testing during the COVID-19 pandemic. These recommendations include indications for CPET; pre-screening assessments; precautions required for testing; and suggested decontamination protocols. These safety recommendations are aimed at preventing SARS-CoV-2 transmission during CPET.

2.
Int J Obes (Lond) ; 2021 Apr 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33927333

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Bariatric surgery (BS) is a successful, long-lasting treatment option for obese. The early postoperative (PO) period is followed by dietary restriction and physical inactivity, leading to declines in muscle mass and functional capacity. Whole-body electromyostimulation (WB-EMS) may be a feasible and potential early rehabilitation strategy post BS. The aim was to evaluate the effects of WB-EMS with exercise training (Fe) on functional capacity, body composition, blood biomarkers, muscle strength, and endurance post BS. SUBJECTS/METHODS: This is a randomized, triple-blind, sham-controlled trial. Thirty-five volunteers underwent a Roux-en-Y gastric bypass and were randomized into a WB-EMS (WB-EMSG) or control group (ShamG). Preoperative evaluations consisted of maximal and submaximal exercise testing, body composition, blood biomarkers, quadriceps strength, and endurance. After discharge, functional capacity and body composition were obtained. Exercise training protocols in both groups consisted of 14 dynamic exercises, 5 days per week, completing 30 sessions. The WB-EMSG also underwent an electrical stimulation protocol (Endurance: 85 Hz, 350 ms, 6 s of strain, 4 f of rest; Strength: 30 Hz, 350 ms, 4 s of strain, 10 seconds of rest, with bipolar electrical pulse). After intervention, subjects were reevaluated. RESULTS: The protocol started on average 6.7 ± 3.7 days after discharge. Both groups presented with a decline in functional capacity after BS (p < 0.05) and a reduction in all body composition measurements (p < 0.05). The exercise training program led to significant improvements in functional capacity (ShamG - PO: 453.8 ± 66.1 m, Post: 519.2 ± 62.8 m; WB-EMSG- PO: 435.9 ± 74.5, Post: 562.5 ± 66.4 m, p < 0.05), however, only the WB-EMSG demonstrated significant changes of distance walked (interaction time vs group effect, p < 0.05). In addition, adiponectin significantly increased only in the WB-EMSG (p < 0.05). The WB-EMSG was also able to preserve muscle strength, endurance, and fatigue index, while the ShamG demonstrated significant decline (p < 0.05). CONCLUSION: WB-EMS + Fe can be an attractive and feasible method following BS to enhance functional capacity and prevent deterioration of muscle function in the early PO. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: ReBEC, RBR-99qw5h, on 20 February 2015.

3.
Eur J Prev Cardiol ; 28(3): 287-292, 2021 Apr 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33891689

RESUMO

AIMS: The aim of this study was to determine the ability to predict all-cause mortality using established per cent-predicted (%PRED) equations for peak oxygen consumption (VO2peak) estimated by a submaximal walk test in outpatients with cardiovascular disease. METHODS: Male patients (N = 1491) aged 62 ± 10 years at baseline underwent a moderate and perceptually regulated (11-13 on the 6-20 Borg scale) 1-km treadmill-walking test to estimate VO2peak. %PRED was derived from the Fitness Registry and the Importance of Exercise: A National Data Base (FRIEND) and the Wasserman/Hansen equations. RESULTS: There were 215 deaths during a median 9.4-year follow-up. The FRIEND prediction equation provided better prognostic information with receiver operating curve analysis showing significantly different areas under the curve (0.72 and 0.69 for the FRIEND and the Wasserman/Hansen equations respectively, p = 0.001). Overall mortality rate was higher across decreasing tertiles of %PRED using FRIEND, with 26%, 11% and 5% for the least fit, intermediate and high fit tertiles, respectively (p for trend < 0.0001). Compared with the least fit tertile, the adjusted hazard ratios for the second and third tertiles were 0.54 (95% confidence interval 0.34-0.87, p = 0.01) and 0.45 (95% confidence interval 0.25-0.81, p = 0.008), respectively. Each 1% increase in %PRED conferred a 3% improvement in survival (p = 0.0004). CONCLUSION: Low %PRED VO2peak in cardiac outpatients determined by the FRIEND equation was associated with a high mortality rate independent of traditional cardiovascular risk factors and clinical history. The FRIEND equation may provide a suitable normal standard when applied to clinically stable outpatients with cardiovascular disease.

4.
Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther ; : 1-12, 2021 Apr 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33852807

RESUMO

Introduction: The coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) is a highly contagious respiratory viral disease for both the general population and healthcare professionals caring for infected patients. Of particular concern is the potential for significant respiratory, cardiovascular, physical, and psychological dysfunctions.Areas covered: In this context, the current review will focus on the following areas: 1) staying physically active during the COVID-19 pandemic; 2) highlighting the importance of understanding COVID-19 mechanisms; 3) preventing infections for healthcare workers by using personal protective equipment; 4) highlighting importance of respiratory care and physical therapy during hospitalization in patients with COVID-19; and 5) facilitating referral to a rehabilitation program in patients recovering from COVID-19.Expert opinion: We recommend daily physical exercise, outdoors or at home, as physical exercise increases the synthesis of anti-inflammatory cytokines; Patients with COVID-19 may develop severe acute respiratory syndrome, hypoxemia, diffuse alveolar damage, ACE2 reduction in the cardiovascular system and muscle weakness acquired through a prolonged hospital stay; The role of the physiotherapist in the hospital environment is of fundamental importance-early mobilization is highly recommended in severe cases of COVID-19.

6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33883472

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The objective of this study was to determine whether type 2 diabetes status is associated with an increased likelihood of depressed mood and anxiety in patients attending cardiac rehabilitation (CR) and to explore predictors of depression and anxiety after CR completion in patients with diabetes. METHODS: A retrospective analysis was conducted in patients who completed a 12-wk CR program between 2002 and 2016. Patients were classified as reporting normal-to-mild or moderate-to-severe symptoms of depression and anxiety using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). Logistic regression models were used to compare predictors of depression and anxiety prior to CR enrollment and investigate predictors of post-CR HADS scores among a subset of patients with diabetes. RESULTS: Data from 6746 patients (mean age 61 ± 11 yr, 18% female, 18% with diabetes) were analyzed. After controlling for known predictors of depression, patients with diabetes were not more likely to report moderate-to-severe levels of depression prior to or after completing CR. In patients with diabetes, younger age predicted moderate-to-severe depression post-CR (OR = 0.95: 95% CI, 0.93-0.98). Patients with diabetes were also more likely to report moderate-to-severe levels of anxiety after completing CR (OR = 1.45: 95% CI, 1.02-2.07). Younger age (OR = 0.93: 95% CI, 0.88-0.97) and smoking status (OR = 3.3: 95% CI, 1.15-7.06) predicted moderate-to-severe post-CR anxiety in patients with diabetes. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with diabetes, particularly younger patients who currently smoke or recently quit, are more likely to report having anxiety following CR. These patients may therefore require additional management of anxiety symptoms during CR. Larger studies of CR patients with diabetes and more variable depression and anxiety levels are needed.

7.
Eur J Prev Cardiol ; 28(2): 142-148, 2021 04 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33838037

RESUMO

AIMS: A recent scientific statement suggests clinicians should routinely assess cardiorespiratory fitness using at least non-exercise prediction equations. However, no study has comprehensively compared the many non-exercise cardiorespiratory fitness prediction equations to directly-measured cardiorespiratory fitness using data from a single cohort. Our purpose was to compare the accuracy of non-exercise prediction equations to directly-measured cardiorespiratory fitness and evaluate their ability to classify an individual's cardiorespiratory fitness. METHODS: The sample included 2529 tests from apparently healthy adults (42% female, aged 45.4 ± 13.1 years (mean±standard deviation). Estimated cardiorespiratory fitness from 28 distinct non-exercise prediction equations was compared with directly-measured cardiorespiratory fitness, determined from a cardiopulmonary exercise test. Analysis included the Benjamini-Hochberg procedure to compare estimated cardiorespiratory fitness with directly-measured cardiorespiratory fitness, Pearson product moment correlations, standard error of estimate values, and the percentage of participants correctly placed into three fitness categories. RESULTS: All of the estimated cardiorespiratory fitness values from the equations were correlated to directly measured cardiorespiratory fitness (p < 0.001) although the R2 values ranged from 0.25-0.70 and the estimated cardiorespiratory fitness values from 27 out of 28 equations were statistically different compared with directly-measured cardiorespiratory fitness. The range of standard error of estimate values was 4.1-6.2 ml·kg-1·min-1. On average, only 52% of participants were correctly classified into the three fitness categories when using estimated cardiorespiratory fitness. CONCLUSION: Differences exist between non-exercise prediction equations, which influences the accuracy of estimated cardiorespiratory fitness. The present analysis can assist researchers and clinicians with choosing a non-exercise prediction equation appropriate for epidemiological or population research. However, the error and misclassification associated with estimated cardiorespiratory fitness suggests future research is needed on the clinical utility of estimated cardiorespiratory fitness.

8.
Curr Probl Cardiol ; 46(6): 100823, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33789171

RESUMO

We continue to increase our cognizance and recognition of the importance of healthy living (HL) behaviors and HL medicine (HLM) to prevent and treat chronic disease. The continually unfolding events precipitated by the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic have further highlighted the importance of HL behaviors, as indicated by the characteristics of those who have been hospitalized and died from this viral infection. There has already been recognition that leading a healthy lifestyle, prior to the COVID-19 pandemic, may have a substantial protective effect in those who become infected with the virus. Now more than ever, HL behaviors and HLM are essential and must be promoted with a renewed vigor across the globe. In response to the rapidly evolving world since the beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic, and the clear need to change lifestyle behaviors to promote human resilience and quality of life, the HL for Pandemic Event Protection (HL-PIVOT) network was established. The 4 major areas of focus for the network are: (1) knowledge discovery and dissemination; (2) education; (3) policy; (4) implementation. This HL-PIVOT network position statement provides a current synopsis of the major focus areas of the network, including leading research in the field of HL behaviors and HLM, examples of best practices in education, policy, and implementation, and recommendations for the future.


Assuntos
Pesquisa Biomédica , Educação em Saúde , Política de Saúde , Estilo de Vida Saudável , Disseminação de Informação , Aptidão Cardiorrespiratória , Doença Crônica , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Dieta Saudável , Exercício Físico , Humanos , Ciência da Implementação , Obesidade , Educação de Pacientes como Assunto , Qualidade de Vida , Comportamento de Redução do Risco , Comportamento Sedentário , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar
9.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 10(7): e018511, 2021 Apr 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33719522

RESUMO

Background Administrative data have limited sensitivity for case finding of atrial fibrillation/atrial flutter (AF/AFL). Linkage with clinical repositories of interpreted ECGs may enhance diagnostic yield of AF/AFL. Methods and Results We retrieved 369 ECGs from the institutional Marquette Universal System for Electrocardiography (MUSE) repository as validation samples, with rhythm coded as AF (n=49), AFL (n=50), or other competing rhythm diagnoses (n=270). With blinded, duplicate review of ECGs as the reference comparison, we compared multiple MUSE coding definitions for identifying AF/AFL. We tested the agreement between MUSE diagnosis and reference comparison, and calculated the sensitivity and specificity. Using a data set linking clinical registries, administrative data, and the MUSE repository (n=11 662), we assessed the incremental diagnostic yield of AF/AFL by incorporating ECG data to administrative data-based algorithms. The agreement between MUSE diagnosis and reference comparison depended on the coding definitions applied, with the Cohen κ ranging from 0.57 to 0.75. Sensitivity ranged from 60.6% to 79.1%, and specificity ranged from 93.2% to 98.0%. A coding definition with AF/AFL appearing in the first 3 ECG statements had the highest sensitivity (79.1%), with little loss of specificity (94.5%). Compared with the algorithms with only administrative data, incorporating ECG data increased the diagnostic yield of preexisting AF/AFL by 14.5% and incident AF/AFL by 7.5% to 16.1%. Conclusions Routine ECG interpretation using MUSE coding is highly specific and moderately sensitive for AF/AFL detection. Inclusion of MUSE ECG data in AF/AFL case identification algorithms can identify cases missed using administrative data-based algorithms alone.

11.
Expert Rev Respir Med ; : 1-14, 2021 Mar 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33606567

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: It has become increasingly evident that COVID-19 contributes to multiorgan pathophysiology. The systemic inflammatory response increases both pro-inflammatory cytokine and chemokine levels, leading to immune dysregulation and increasing the likelihood of incurring cardiac and pulmonary injuries. AREAS COVERED: Longer periods of hospitalization (~20 days) increase susceptibility to ICU-acquired muscle weakness and deconditioning, which decreases muscle function and functional capacity. These conditions affect the quality of life in the post-COVID-19 period and require multi-disciplinary approaches to rehabilitate the cardiopulmonary and musculoskeletal systems of these patients. In this context, this narrative review, which included articles published in the Embase, PEDro and PubMed databases up to December 2020, is focused on discussing the essential role of exercise and rehabilitation health professionals in the COVID-19 recovery process, from hospitalization to hospital discharge, addressing strategies for professionals to mitigate the cardiac and pulmonary impairments associated with hospitalization to home or ambulatory rehabilitation, purposing ways to conduct rehabilitation programs to restore their functional status and quality of life after the infection. EXPERT OPINION: In the current environment, these findings further point to the vital role of rehabilitation health professionals in the coming years and the urgent need to develop strategies to assist COVID-19 survivors.

12.
Am J Cardiol ; 146: 107-114, 2021 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33539859

RESUMO

Exercise testing represents the preferred stress modality for individuals undergoing evaluation of suspected myocardial ischemia. Patients with limited functional status may be unable to achieve an adequate exercise stress, thus influencing the diagnostic sensitivity of the results. The Duke Activity Status Index (DASI) is a clinically applicable tool to estimate exercise capacity. The purpose of the current study was to assess the utility of the DASI to identify patients unable to achieve an adequate exercise stress result. Patients referred for exercise stress testing were administered the DASI pre-exercise. Baseline characteristics and exercise variables were evaluated including DASI-metabolic equivalents (DASI-METs), peak METs, exercise time (ET), and %-predicted maximal heart rate (%PMHR). Criteria for determining adequate exercise stress was defined as ≥85%PMHR or ≥ 5-METs at peak exercise. In 608 cardiovascular stress tests performed during the study period; 314 were exercise stress. The median DASI-METs (8.4 [interquartile range; 6.7 to 9.9]) was associated with estimated peak exercise METs (R=0.50, p <0.001), ET (R=0.29, p <0.001), and %PMHR (R=0.19, p = 0.003). DASI-METs were different between those with < or ≥85%PMHR (7.9 [6.6-9.0] vs. 8.9 [7.1-9.9], P=0.025) and those with < or ≥5-METs (5.8 [4.6 to 6.6] versus 8.9 [7.3-9.9], p <0.001). Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis identified a DASI-MET threshold of ≤/>7.4 to optimally predict adequate exercise stress (sensitivity=93%, specificity=71%). In conclusion, the DASI correlates with peak METs, ET, and %PMHR among patients referred for exercise testing and can be used to identify patients with an increased likelihood of an inadequate stress test result.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/diagnóstico , Teste de Esforço/métodos , Tolerância ao Exercício/fisiologia , Indicadores Básicos de Saúde , Medição de Risco/métodos , Doenças Cardiovasculares/fisiopatologia , Eletrocardiografia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos
13.
Hormones (Athens) ; 20(2): 381-387, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33523420

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (alpha-MSH) has proven cardiovascular effects and plays a significant role as an endogenous countermeasure to ischemia-reperfusion injury. The aim of the current study was to examine the response of alpha-MSH during exercise in patients diagnosed with coronary artery disease (CAD) and evaluate its value in the assessment of severity and prognosis. METHODS: Forty subjects with documented CAD (i.e., lesions on coronary angiography ≥ 50%) were included. Cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET) on a treadmill (TM) and recumbent ergometer (RE) were performed on two visits, 2-4 days apart, during 2 months of coronary angiography; subsequently, the subjects were followed up for 32 ± 10 months. At rest, at peak CPET, and after 3 min of recovery, plasma levels of alpha-MSH were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay technique. RESULTS: Mean ejection fraction was 56.7 ± 9.6%. Alpha-MSH similarly increased from rest to peak CPET on both modalities. There were no significant differences in alpha-MSH values during testing in patients with 1,2- and 3-vesel CAD, nor in patients with a SYNTAX score 0.05). Among CPET and hormonal parameters, ∆alpha-MSH recovery/peak during RE CPET was the best predictor of cardiac event occurrence (chi-square 6.67, HR = 0.51, CI = 0.25-1.02, p = 0.010). CONCLUSION: ∆alpha-MSH recovery/peak during RE CPET has predictive value for CAD prognosis, demonstrating involvement of alpha-MSH in CAD and a link between stress hormones and cardiac events.

14.
Prog Cardiovasc Dis ; 2021 Feb 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33549590

RESUMO

COVID-19 is one of the biggest health crises that the world has seen. Whilst measures to abate transmission and infection are ongoing, there continues to be growing numbers of patients requiring chronic support, which is already putting a strain on health care systems around the world and which may do so for years to come. A legacy of COVID-19 will be a long-term requirement to support patients with dedicated rehabilitation and support services. With many clinical settings characterized by a lack of funding and resources, the need to provide these additional services could overwhelm clinical capacity. This position statement from the Healthy Living for Pandemic Event Protection (HL-PIVOT) Network provides a collaborative blueprint focused on leading research and developing clinical guidelines, bringing together professionals with expertise in clinical services and the exercise sciences to develop the evidence base needed to improve outcomes for patients infected by COVID-19.

15.
Prog Cardiovasc Dis ; 2021 Feb 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33556427

RESUMO

Frailty is a highly prevalent multisystem syndrome in older adults with heart failure (HF) and is associated with poor clinical prognosis and increased complexity of care. While frailty is neither disease nor age specific, it is a clinical manifestation of aging-related processes that reflects a reduced physiological ability to tolerate and recover from stress associated with aging, disease, or therapy. Within this context, physical frailty, which is distinctly oriented to physical functional domains (e.g., muscle weakness, slowness, and low activity), has been recognized as a critical vital sign in older persons with HF. Identification and routine assessment of physical frailty, using objective physical performance measures, may guide the course of patient-centered treatment plans that maximize the likelihood of improving clinical outcomes in older HF patients. Exercise-based rehabilitation is a primary therapy to improve cardiovascular health in patients with HF; however, the limited evidence supporting the effectiveness of exercise tailored to older and frail HF patients underscores the current gaps in management of their care. Interdisciplinary exercise interventions designed with consideration of physical frailty as a therapeutic target may be an important strategy to counteract functional deficits characteristic of frailty and HF, and to improve patient-centered outcomes in this population. The purpose of this current review is to provide a better understanding of physical frailty and its relation to management of care in older patients with HF. Implications of movement-based interventions, including exercise and physical rehabilitation, to prevent or reverse physical frailty and improve clinical outcomes will further be discussed.

16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33568904

RESUMO

Aim: Our aim was to assess: 1) the impact of the eccentric left ventricular hypertrophy (ELVH) on exercise performance in patients diagnosed with chronic heart failure (CHF) alone and in patients with co-existing CHF and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and 2) the relationship between left and right cardiac function measurements obtained by doppler echocardiography, clinical characteristics and primary measures of cardiorespiratory fitness. Methods: The current study included 46 patients (CHF:23 and CHF+COPD:23) that performed advanced pulmonary function tests, echocardiography and symptom-limited, incremental cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET) on a cycle ergometer. Results: Patients with CHF+COPD demonstrated a lower work rate, peak oxygen uptake (VO2), oxygen pulse, rate pressure product (RPP), circulatory power (CP) and ventilatory power (VP) compared to those only diagnosed with CHF. In addition, significant correlations were observed between VP and relative wall thickness (r: 0.45 p: 0.03),VE/VCO2 intercept and Mitral E/e' ratio (r: 0.70 p: 0.003) in the CHF group. Significant correlations were found between indexed left ventricle mass and RPP (r: -0.47; p: 0.02) and relative VO2 and right ventricle diameter (r: -0.62; p: 0.001) in the CHF+COPD group. Conclusion: Compared to a diagnosis of CHF alone, a combined diagnosis of CHF+COPD induced further impairments in cardiorespiratory fitness. Moreover, echocardiographic measures of cardiac function are related to cardiopulmonary exercise performance and therefore appear to be an important therapeutic target when attempting to improve exercise performance and functional capacity.

17.
Prog Cardiovasc Dis ; 2021 Jan 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33453285

RESUMO

Sedentary behavior (SB) and physical activity (PA) are important risk factors of cardiovascular disease morbidity and mortality. In addition to increasing the amount of moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA), the current PA guidelines recommend that adults should reduce SB, or any waking activity performed while sitting, reclining, or lying, with low energy expenditure. While mounting evidence has emphasized the benefits of increasing MVPA, little has focused on the effect of SB on health. Therefore, this review discusses the pathophysiological effects of SB and the potential physiological benefits of reducing/breaking up SB at the levels below the current guidelines for PA. Such knowledge is important, given that the majority of the United States population performs insufficient or no MVPA and is at high risk of being negatively impacted by SB. Interventions targeting sedentary time, such as breaking up SB by standing and moving, may be safe, feasible, and applicable to execute daily for a wide range of the population. This review also discusses the importance of monitoring SB in the era of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic and the clinical implications of sitting less and moving more.

18.
J Cardiopulm Rehabil Prev ; 41(3): 194-198, 2021 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33470730

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPX) is the gold standard approach for the assessment of cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF). The primary aim of the current study was to determine reference standards for the minute ventilation/carbon dioxide production (V˙E/V˙co2) slope in a cohort from the "Fitness Registry and the Importance of Exercise: A National Database" (FRIEND) Registry. METHODS: The current analysis included 2512 tests from 10 CPX laboratories in the United States. Inclusion criteria included CPX data on apparently healthy men and women: (1) age ≥20 yr; and (2) with a symptom-limited exercise test performed on a treadmill. Ventilation and V˙co2 data, from the initiation of exercise to peak, were used to calculate the V˙E/V˙co2 slope via least-squares linear regression. Reference values were determined for men and women by decade of life. RESULTS: On average, V˙E/V˙co2 slope values were lower in men and increased with age independent of sex. Fiftieth percentile values increased from 27.1 in the second decade to 33.9 in the eighth decade in men and from 28.5 in the second decade to 33.7 in the eighth decade in women. In the overall group, correlations with baseline characteristics and the V˙E/V˙co2 slope were statistically significant (P < .05) although generally weak, particularly for age and body mass index. CONCLUSION: The results of the current study establish reference values for the V˙E/V˙co2 slope when treadmill testing is performed, and all exercise data are used for the slope calculation. These results may prove useful in enhancing the interpretation of CPX results when assessing CRF.

20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33438847

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: In heart transplantation (HT) recipients, several factors are critical to promptly adopting appropriate rehabilitation strategies and may be important to predict outcomes way after surgery. This study aimed to determine preoperative patient-related risk factors that could adversely affect the postoperative clinical course of patients undergoing HT. METHODS: Twenty-one hospitalized patients with heart failure undergoing HT were evaluated according to respiratory muscle strength and functional capacity before HT. Mechanical ventilation (MV) time, reintubation rate, and intensive care unit (ICU) length of stay were recorded, and assessed postoperatively. RESULTS: Inspiratory muscle strength as absolute and percentpredicted values were strongly correlated with MV time (r=-0.61 and r=-0.70, respectively, at P<0.001). Concerning ICU length of stay, only maximal inspiratory pressure (MIP) absolute and percent-predicted values were significantly associated. The absolute |MIP| was significantly negatively correlated with ICU length of stay (r=-0.58 at P=0.006) and the percent-predicted MIP was also significantly negatively correlated with ICU length of stay (r=-0.68 at P=0.0007). No associations were observed between preoperative functional capacity, age, sex, and clinical characteristics and MV time and ICU length of stay in the cohort included in this study. Patients with respiratory muscle weakness had a higher prevalence of prolonged MV, reintubation, and delayed ICU length of stay. CONCLUSION: An impairment of preoperative MIP was associated with poorer short-term outcomes following HT. As such, inspiratory muscle strength is an important clinical preoperative marker in patients undergoing HT.

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