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1.
Scand J Pain ; 2020 May 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32383692

RESUMO

Background and aims Psychological traits such as pain catastrophizing may play a role in the development of chronic pelvic pain (CPP). Pain catastrophizing is the tendency to amplify negative cognitive and emotional pain processes. The Pain Catastrophizing Scale (PCS) assesses elements of pain catastrophizing divided into three subgroups of factors (rumination, helplessness and magnification). Previous studies have shown associations between CPP and increased pain sensitivity, widespread generalized hyperalgesia, and decreased pain thresholds, but the relation between pain catastrophizing and specific pain thresholds has not yet been widely examined in this patient group. The aims of this study were (a) to determine if catastrophizing is increased in women with CPP compared with pain-free women, (b) to assess the importance of pain catastrophizing, psychological distress variables, and subjective pain sensitivity for pain thresholds of heat, cold and pressure in these two groups, and (c) to determine whether psychological variables or pain thresholds best contribute to the differentiation between CPP and controls. Methods Thirty-seven women with chronic pelvic pain who underwent diagnostic laparoscopy on the suspicion of endometriosis participated along with 55 healthy and pain-free controls. All underwent quantitative sensory testing on six locations on the body to determine heat (HPT), cold (CPT) and pressure (PPT) pain thresholds. The PCS, the Pain Sensitivity Questionnaire (PSQ), the Hospital Anxiety Depression Scale, (HADS) demographics and clinical data were collected prospectively. Principal component analysis and orthogonal partial least square regressions were used to assess the associations between PCS scores and pain thresholds. Results The women with CPP scored significantly higher on PCS than the healthy controls. PCS-helplessness, PCS-rumination and HADS-depression were significantly associated with pain thresholds for the whole group. In the CPP group, PCS-rumination, body mass index and PSQ were significant regressors for HPT and CPT. The PCS and the HADS subscales were strongly intercorrelated in women with CPP and were stronger regressors of group membership than the three pain thresholds. In the group of healthy control women, no relationships were found to be significant. The psychological variables were somewhat stronger significant regressors than pain thresholds (also significant) for group membership. Conclusions Women with CPP have significantly higher pain catastrophizing scores than women without CPP. The pain catastrophizing rumination factor is significantly associated with pain thresholds of heat and cold in CPP women. PCS and HADS are strongly intercorrelated and PSQ correlates positively with these variables. It seems that the psychological variables are important for group differentiation. Implications The results clearly indicate the need for a multimodal assessment (bio-psycho-social) of CPP patients including psychological symptoms such as catastrophizing, anxiety and depression. The registration of semi-objective pain thresholds captures both specific pain sensitivity information (mechanical pressure, cold or heat) and the degree of wide spread pain hypersensitivity. There is a need for future larger studies investigating whether certain profiles in the clinical presentations (including pain thresholds and psychological variables) are associated with outcomes after different types of interventions.

2.
Mol Pain ; 16: 1744806920923885, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32375547

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: One out of seven women will develop a state of chronic postoperative pain following robot-assisted hysterectomy for endometrial cancer. Recently, metabolic studies have indicated that circulating lipids and lipoproteins could act as nociceptive modulators and thereby influence the induction and perpetuation of pain. The objectives of this explorative study were (1) to examine the preoperative serologic variations in concentrations of lipids, lipoproteins, and various low-molecular metabolites in patients with and without chronic postoperative pain after robot-assisted hysterectomy and (2) to explore if any of these serological biomarkers were predictive for development of chronic postoperative pain. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study was designed as a nested case-control study within a cohort of women treated for endometrial cancer with robot-assisted laparoscopic hysterectomy. Twenty-six women with chronic postoperative pain were matched on age and body mass index with fifty-two controls without chronic postoperative pain, and metabolic profiling of preoperatively drawn blood samples from a biobank was performed by means of nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. RESULTS: Nineteen metabolites, including cholesterol, cholesteryl ester, linoleic acid, phospholipids, lipids, and triglycerides had statistically significant higher concentrations in a subgroup of patients who would develop chronic postoperative pain on a later stage compared to the group of patients who would not develop chronic postoperative pain (p < 0.05). A sparse Partial Least Squares-Discriminant Analysis model explained 38.1% of the variance and had a predictive accuracy of 73.1%. CONCLUSIONS: This explorative study substantiates the hypothesis that certain lipids, lipoproteins, and fatty acids are associated with chronic postoperative pain.

3.
Physiol Meas ; 2020 Apr 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32272468

RESUMO

Recording of knee vibroarthrographic (VAG) activity during activities of daily living (ADL) can contribute to diagnose knee osteoarthritis (KOA). However, classifying KOA patients based on knee VAG during ADL has been an elusive problem not related to knee pain. Therefore, the aims of this study was to classify KOA patients based on 1) VAG during ADL and 2) knee pain sensitivity and then compare their results. The experimental procedure consisted of the recording of VAG signals during four ADLs (over-ground gait, stairs descent, stairs ascent and sit-to-stand) from eight patellar and peri-patellar locations in 20 KOA and 20 asymptomatic participants. Pressure pain thresholds (PPT) were obtained from eight locations around the knee joint to quantify pain sensitivity. A random forest classifier was utilized to identify KOA patients based on VAG signal features and PPTs. The most important features contributing to the classification accuracy were determined. The KOA patients participated in a second identical experimental session to examine the day-to-day reproducibility. The participants were classified with accuracy of 90%, 70%, 64% and 82% during over-ground gait, stairs descent, stairs ascent and sit to stand, respectively. However, the accuracy of the classifier was reduced by about 10-25% due to a systematic bias in the extracted features across days. Features of the VAG signals in time and frequency domains as well as nonlinear features were found importantly contributing towards the classification accuracy. The VAG features extracted from the lateral side of the knee was found to be more informative than other locations. The classification based on PPT reached 77%. Medial and proximal knee PPT points contributed to the classification accuracy. This study showed that using multichannel VAG signals to identify KOA patients allows better accuracy than the use of PPTs. However, VAG setup must be standardized to avoid day-to-day bias.

4.
Pain Physician ; 23(2): 219-227, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32214304

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A method for assessing dynamic muscle hyperalgesia (dynamic pressure algometry) has been developed and applied in tension-type and migraine headaches. OBJECTIVES: To investigate differences in dynamic pressure pain assessment over the trigeminal area between men with cluster headache (CH) and headache-free controls, and the association between dynamic and static pressure pain sensitivity. STUDY DESIGN: A case-control study. SETTING: Tertiary urban hospital. METHODS: Forty men with episodic CH and 40 matched controls participated. Dynamic pressure pain sensitivity was assessed with a dynamic pressure algometry set consisting of 8 rollers with different fixed levels (500, 700, 850, 1,350, 1,550, 2,200, 3,850, and 5,300 g). Each roller was moved at a speed of 0.5 cm/sec over a diagonal line covering the temporalis muscle from an anterior to posterior direction. The dynamic pressure threshold (DPT; load level of the first painful roller) and the pain intensity perceived at the DPT level (roller-evoked pain) were assessed. Static pressure pain thresholds (PPT) were also assessed with a digital pressure algometer applied statically over the mid-muscle belly of the temporalis. Patients were assessed in a remission phase, at least 3 months from the last cluster attack, and without preventive medication. RESULTS: Side-to-side consistency between DPTs (r = 0.781, P < 0.001), roller-evoked pain on DPT (r = 0.586; P < 0.001), and PPTs (r = 0.874; P < 0.001) were found in men with CH. DPT was moderately, bilaterally, and side-to-side associated with PPTs (0.663 > r > 0.793, all P < 0.001). Men with CH had bilateral lower DPT and PPT and reported higher levels of roller-evoked pain (all P < 0.001) than headache-free controls. LIMITATIONS: Only men with episodic CH were included. CONCLUSIONS: This study supports that a dynamic pressure algometry is as valid as a static pressure algometry for assessing pressure pain sensitivity in patients with CH. Assessing both dynamic and static pain sensitivity may provide new opportunities for differentiated diagnostics. KEY WORDS: Cluster headache, dynamic pressure pain, pressure pain threshold.

5.
Trials ; 21(1): 218, 2020 Feb 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32197629

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is considered an effective treatment for pain relief and improved physical performances in end-stage knee osteoarthritis. However, several studies have reported less favorable outcomes after TKA with chronic pain rates of approximately 20%. Exercise might be an effective treatment strategy for chronic pain following TKA, but no randomized controlled trials have evaluated its effect. Therefore, the purpose of this randomized controlled trial is to investigate whether a 12-week neuromuscular exercise (NEuroMuscular EXercise training program for patients with knee or hip osteoarthritis assigned for total joint replacement; NEMEX-TJR) program combined with pain neuroscience education (PNE) provides greater pain relief and improvement in physical performances than PNE alone at 12 months follow-up in a population of patients with chronic pain after primary TKA. METHODS: For this randomized controlled superiority trial, 120 patients with moderate-to-severe chronic pain after TKA are recruited from Aalborg University Hospital, Denmark. Patients are randomly assigned in a 1:1 ratio to one of two interventions: (a) NEMEX-TJR twice weekly for 12 weeks combined with two sessions of PNE or (b) two sessions of PNE given over 6 weeks. Assessment is performed at baseline before intervention and at 3, 6, and 12 months after initiation of the intervention. Outcome assessors are blinded toward group allocation. The primary outcome is the change in the Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score4 (KOOS4), defined as the mean score for the KOOS subscales pain, symptoms, activities of daily living, and quality of life. Secondary outcomes include all KOOS subscale scores and scores for PainDETECT, the Fear-Avoidance Beliefs Questionnaire, Global Perceived Effect, the Pain Catastrophizing Scale, pain intensities, temporal summation, conditioned pain modulation, and pressure pain thresholds. Physical performances are measured with walking, stair climbing, and chair standing tests as well as tests of muscle strength and power. DISCUSSION: The findings will be useful in establishing effective treatment strategies for chronic pain after TKA. The randomized controlled trial involves rigorous scientific methods and uses clinically applicable interventions. The study interventions are conducted in clinical settings, thereby enhancing the possibility of future implementation of the treatments in the health care systems. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT03886259. Registered 22 March 2019. Ethics committee registration: N-20180046.

6.
BMC Neurol ; 20(1): 43, 2020 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32007103

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pharmacological treatment of patients with tension-type headache (TTH) includes symptomatic (acute) and prophylactic (preventive) medication. No previous study has investigated variables associated to symptomatic medication intake in TTH. Our aim was to assess the association of clinical, psychological and neurophysiological outcomes with the use and timing of the use of symptomatic medication in TTH. METHODS: A longitudinal observational study was conducted. One hundred and sixty-eight (n = 168) patients with TTH participated. Pain features of the headache (intensity, frequency, duration), burden of headache (Headache Disability Inventory), sleep quality (Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index), anxiety/depression (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale), trait/state anxiety levels (State-Trait Anxiety Inventory), and bilateral pressure pain thresholds on the temporalis, C5-C6 joint, second metacarpal and tibialis anterior were assessed. Symptomatic medication intake was also collected for a 6-months follow-up period. Differences between patients using or not using symptomatic medication, depending on self-perceived effectiveness, and time (early during an attack, i.e., the first 5 min, or when headache attack is intense) when the symptomatic medication was taken were calculated. RESULTS: One hundred and thirty-six (n = 136, 80%) reported symptomatic medication intake for headache (73% NSAIDs). Sixteen (12%) reported no pain relief, 81 (59%) experienced moderate relief and 39 (29%) total pain relief. Fifty-eight (43%) took 'early medication' whereas 78 (57%) took 'late medication'. Patients taking symptomatic medication in general showed lower headache frequency and lower depressive levels than those patients not taking medication. Symptomatic medication was more effective in patients with lower headache history, frequency, and duration, and lower emotional burden. No differences in pressure pain sensitivity were found depending on the self-perceived effectiveness of medication. Patients taking 'late symptomatic' medication exhibited more widespread pressure pain sensitivity than those taking 'early medication'. CONCLUSIONS: This study found that the effectiveness of symptomatic medication was associated with better headache parameters (history, frequency, or duration) and lower emotional burden. Further, consuming early symptomatic medication at the beginning of a headache attack (the first 5 min) could limit widespread pressure pain sensitivity.

8.
Anesth Analg ; 2020 Feb 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32049671

RESUMO

Chronic pain is a highly prevalent and complex health problem that is associated with a heavy symptom burden, substantial economic and social impact, and also, very few highly effective treatments. This review examines evidence for the efficacy and safety of magnesium in chronic pain. The previously published protocol for this review was registered in International Prospective Register of Systematic Reviews (PROSPERO), MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) databases were searched until September 2018. We included randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing magnesium (at any dose, frequency, or route of administration) with placebo using participant-reported pain measures. A total of 9 RCTs containing 418 participants were included. Three studies examined neuropathic pain (62 participants), 3 examined migraines (190 participants), 2 examined complex regional pain syndrome (86 participants), and 1 examined low back pain with a neuropathic component (80 participants). Heterogeneity of included studies precluded any meta-analyses. No judgement could be made about safety because adverse events were inconsistently reported in the included studies. Evidence of analgesic efficacy from included studies was equivocal. However, reported efficacy signals in some of the included trials provide a rationale for more definitive studies. Future, larger-sized trials with good assay sensitivity and better safety assessment and reporting, as well as careful attention to formulations with optimal bioavailability, will serve to better define the role of magnesium in the management of chronic pain.

9.
Pain ; 161(6): 1255-1263, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32068664

RESUMO

Chronic musculoskeletal pain is a common problem globally. Current evidence suggests that maladapted central pain pathways are associated with pain chronicity, for example, in postoperative pain after knee replacement. Other factors such as low mood, anxiety, and tendency to catastrophize are also important contributors. We aimed to investigate brain imaging features that underpin pain chronicity based on multivariate pattern analysis of cerebral blood flow (CBF), as a marker of maladaptive brain changes. This was achieved by identifying CBF patterns that discriminate chronic pain from pain-free conditions and by exploring their explanatory power for factors thought to drive pain chronification. In 44 chronic knee pain and 29 pain-free participants, we acquired both CBF and T1-weighted data. Participants completed questionnaires related to affective processes and pressure and cuff algometry to assess pain sensitization. Two factor scores were extracted from these scores representing negative affect and pain sensitization. A spatial covariance principal component analysis of CBF identified 5 components that significantly discriminated chronic pain participants from controls, with the unified network achieving 0.83 discriminatory accuracy (area under the curve). In chronic knee pain, significant patterns of relative hypoperfusion were evident in anterior default-mode and salience network hubs, while hyperperfusion was seen in posterior default mode, thalamus, and sensory regions. One component correlated positively with the pain sensitization score (r = 0.43, P = 0.006), suggesting that this CBF pattern reflects neural activity changes encoding pain sensitization. Here, we report a distinct chronic knee pain-related representation of CBF, pointing toward a brain signature underpinning central aspects of pain sensitization.

10.
Pain Med ; 2020 Feb 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32011710

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Between 50% and 67% of adults suffer from neck-shoulder pain, which may be associated with increased stiffness of neck muscles. We assessed pressure pain sensitivity and muscle stiffness maps of the upper trapezius in female computer users with and without chronic neck-shoulder pain and investigated the effects of eccentric training on females with neck-shoulder pain. DESIGN: Cross-sectional (part 1) and open-label (part 2) study. SETTING: University. SUBJECTS: Twenty females with neck-shoulder pain were compared with 20 controls (part 1). In part 2, neck-shoulder pain participants followed a five-week unilateral upper trapezius eccentric training program. METHODS: Topographical maps of pressure pain thresholds (pressure algometer) and muscle stiffness (myotonometer), using a 15-point grid covering myotendinous and muscle belly sites, and shoulder elevation force and range of elevation (dynamometer) were assessed at baseline and after training. RESULTS: There were no differences in pressure pain thresholds between sites (P = 0.243) or groups (P = 0.068), and there were significant differences in stiffness between myotendinous and muscle belly sites (P < 0.001) but not groups (P = 0.273). After training, pressure pain thresholds increased, stiffness decreased (P < 0.005), and shoulder elevation force and range of elevation improved (P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: The lack of differences in upper trapezius pressure pain sensitivity and stiffness between females with or without neck-shoulder pain confirms no clear etiology among computer users reporting neck-shoulder pain. A five-week eccentric training protocol showed positive effects on pressure pain sensitivity, stiffness, shoulder force, and range of motion.

11.
Clin J Pain ; 36(5): 352-358, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31977370

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Severe preoperative and acute postoperative pain have been associated with the development of chronic postoperative pain. Chlorzoxazone (a muscle relaxant) has been suggested to enhance acute postoperative pain recovery, but the lack of larger randomized controlled trials has, however, questioned the continued use. Despite this, chlorzoxazone is still used for acute postoperative pain management following total knee replacement (TKR) or total hip replacement (THR). The current randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled, parallel-group, clinical trial aimed to assess the effect of chlorzoxazone for postoperative pain management following TKR or THR. METHODS: A total of 393 patients scheduled for TKR or THR were included in the trial. Patients were assigned to 250 mg chlorzoxazone 3 times daily for the first 7 days postoperatively or to placebo. The primary outcome was pain after 5 m walk assessed 24 hours postoperatively. Secondary outcomes included changes in preoperative pain at rest, worst pain in the last 24 hours, and Oxford Knee or Hip Score compared with 12 months' follow-up. In addition, adverse events were assessed in the perioperative period. RESULTS: No significant differences were found for any of the outcome parameters after TKR or THR. As regards TKR or THR, no effects were demonstrated for pain after 5 m walk 24 hours after surgery (P>0.313), or for any of the secondary outcomes (P>0.288) or adverse events (P>0.112) in the group receiving chlorzoxazone compared with placebo. CONCLUSION: The current study demonstrated no analgesic effects of postoperative chlorzoxazone administration compared with placebo on acute or chronic postoperative pain 12 months following TKR and THR.

12.
Clin J Pain ; 36(4): 229-237, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31977377

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Osteoarthritis (OA) is known to be a slowly progressive disease that alters all tissue compartments of the joint involved with a characteristic degradation of the cartilage, bone remodeling, and inflammation. One of the prominent symptoms in OA patients is pain, but a few radiologic, inflammatory, or structurally related biomarkers have shown few if any associations with pain. This study aimed to assess serum levels of 92 markers involved in inflammatory pathways in patients with knee osteoarthritis (KOA) and evaluate their possible associations with the clinical pain intensity. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Serum samples were collected from 127 KOA patients and 39 healthy participants with no knee pain. Each serum sample was analyzed for 92 inflammatory markers using the Proximity Extension Array (PEA) technology. Clinical pain intensity was assessed using a Visual Analog Scale, and patients completed the Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS) questionnaire. RESULTS: Fifteen markers were significantly different when comparing KOA patients and healthy participants. Two markers, fibroblast growth factor-21 and Eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E-binding protein 1 (4E-BP1), correlated positively with pain intensity (R=0.235, P=0.008; R=0.233, P=0.008). Moreover, a linear regression model showed interleukin-6, macrophage colony-stimulating factor 1, fibroblast growth factor-21, and tumor necrosis factor superfamily member 12 (TWEAK) as significant independent parameters for pain intensity. DISCUSSION: The associations between specific cytokines and KOA pain intensities provide new insights into the understanding of the underlying factors driving the pain in OA.

13.
BMJ Open ; 10(1): e033495, 2020 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31948990

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess the 24-month cost-effectiveness of total knee replacement (TKR) plus non-surgical treatment compared with non-surgical treatment with the option of later TKR if needed. METHODS: 100 adults with moderate-to-severe knee osteoarthritis found eligible for TKR by an orthopaedic surgeon in secondary care were randomised to TKR plus 12 weeks of supervised non-surgical treatment (exercise, education, diet, insoles and pain medication) or to supervised non-surgical treatment alone. Including quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) data from baseline, 3, 6, 12 and 24 months, effectiveness was measured as change at 24 months. Healthcare costs and transfer payments were derived from national registries. Incremental healthcare costs, and incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs) were calculated. A probabilistic sensitivity analysis was conducted and the probability of cost-effectiveness was estimated at the 22 665 Euros/QALY threshold defined by the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. RESULTS: TKR plus non-surgical treatment was more expensive (mean of 23 076 vs 14 514 Euros) but also more effective than non-surgical treatment (mean 24-month improvement in QALY of 0.195 vs 0.056). While cost-effective in the unadjusted scenario (ICER of 18 497 Euros/QALY), TKR plus non-surgical treatment was not cost-effective compared with non-surgical treatment with the option of later TKR if needed in the adjusted (age, sex and baseline values), base-case scenario (ICER of 32 611 Euros/QALY) with a probability of cost-effectiveness of 23.2%. Including deaths, TKR plus non-surgical treatment was still not cost-effective (ICERs of 46 277 to 64 208 Euros/QALY). CONCLUSIONS: From a 24-month perspective, TKR plus non-surgical treatment does not appear to be cost-effective compared with non-surgical treatment with the option of later TKR if needed in patients with moderate-to-severe knee osteoarthritis and moderate intensity pain in secondary care in Denmark. Results were sensitive to changes, highlighting the need for further confirmatory research also assessing the long-term cost-effectiveness of TKR. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT01410409).

14.
Eur J Pain ; 24(3): 593-603, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31782860

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are a group of non-coding RNAs that act as regulators of gene expression; they are implicated in various human diseases and have been reported to be involved in the modulation of pain. We aimed to study whether: (a) lncRNAs modifications could be found in an experimental model of pain; (b) there was a correlation between lncRNA changes and laser evoked potential (LEP) amplitude/laser-pain rating. METHODS: Laser evoked potentials were recorded from 11 healthy subjects to both left hand and perioral region stimulation. Three consecutive averages were calculated for each stimulation site in order to investigate the LEP amplitude habituation. Blood samples were obtained immediately before LEP recording (pre-pain) and 30-min after the recording of the last LEP average (post-pain). Eighty-four lncRNAs, involved in autoimmunity and human inflammatory response, were screened. The criteria used for lncRNAs analysis were fold change >2 and p < .05. By Real-Time PCR, we identified two lncRNAs up-regulated at the post-pain time, as compared to the pre-pain time: RP11-819C21.1 (fold change = 8.2; p = .038) and ZNRD1 antisense RNA 1 non-protein coding (ZNRD1-AS; fold change = 6.3; p = .037). RESULTS: The ZNRD1-AS up-regulation was directly correlated with the N1 amplitude, while the RP11-819C21.1 increase after pain showed a correlation with the reduced N2/P2 amplitude and laser-pain habituation. CONCLUSION: IncRNA changes in a human experimental phasic pain model. The correlation between lncRNA changes and LEP amplitude and habituation suggests that RP11-819C21.1 and ZNRD1-AS could be involved in the pathophysiology of painful diseases characterized by abnormal excitability of the cerebral cortex. SIGNIFICANCE: Long non-coding RNAs are upregulated after experimental pain. RP11-819C21.1 and ZNRD1 could be involved in the pathophysiology of diseases characterized by reduced habituation to pain.

15.
Clin J Pain ; 36(1): 34-40, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31794440

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Synovitis is one of the possible pain generators in osteoarthritis (OA) and is associated with upregulation of proinflammatory cytokines, which can lead to worsening of the postoperative pain. This exploratory study aimed to investigate the association between perioperative synovitis and self-reported pain 12 months after total knee arthroplasty (TKA) in patients with OA. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty-six knee OA patients were included in this analysis. The perioperative volume of synovitis in predefined locations was assessed by contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (CE-MRI) and dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI). Perioperative synovitis was assessed histologically from biopsies of the synovium. Highest pain intensity within the last 24 hours (Visual Analog Scale, VAS, 0 to 100) was assessed before and 12 months after TKA. Patients were divided into a low-pain intensity (VAS≤30) and a high-pain intensity (VAS>30) group on the basis of 12 months postoperative VAS. RESULTS: The high-pain intensity group had significantly lower perioperative contrast-enhanced-synovitis (P=0.025), DCE-synovitis (P<0.04), and a trend toward lower histologically assessed synovitis (P=0.077) compared with the low-pain intensity group. Perioperative synovitis scores were inversely correlated with pain intensity 12 months after TKA (P<0.05), indicating that more severe perioperative synovitis is associated with less severe pain intensity at 12 months. DISCUSSION: Higher degrees of perioperative synovitis scores are found to be associated with less postoperative pain 12 months after TKA. Further, correlation analysis revealed that less severe perioperative CE-MRI and DCE-MRI synovitis was associated with higher pain intensity 12 months after TKA, suggesting that CE-MRI and DCE-MRI synovitis grades could be used as imaging markers for prediction of chronic postoperative pain after TKA.

16.
Clin Biomech (Bristol, Avon) ; 72: 16-23, 2019 Nov 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31794924

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Variations in the internal pressure distribution applied to cartilage and synovial fluid explain the spatial dependencies of the knee vibroarthrographic signals. These spatial dependencies were assessed by multi-channel recordings during activities of daily living in patients with painful knee osteoarthrosis. METHODS: Knee vibroarthrographic signals were detected using eight miniature accelerometers, and vibroarthrographic maps were calculated for the most affected knee of 20 osteoarthritis patients and 20 asymptomatic participants during three activities: (i) sit to stand, (ii) stairs descent, and (iii) stairs ascent in real life conditions. Vibroarthrographic maps of average rectified value, variance of means squared, form factor, mean power frequency, % of recurrence and, % of determinism were obtained from the eight VAG recordings. FINDINGS: Higher average rectified value and lower % of recurrence were found in knee osteoarthritis patients compared with asymptomatic participants. All vibroarthrographic parameters, except for % of recurrence, differentiated the type of activity. Average rectified value, variance of means squared, form factor, and % of determinism were lowest while mean power frequency was highest during sit-to-stand compared with stairs ascent and descent. INTERPRETATION: Distinct topographical vibroarthrographic maps underlined that the computed parameters represent unique features. The present study demonstrated that wireless multichannel vibroarthrographic recordings and the associated topographical maps highlighted differences between (i) knee osteoarthritis patients and asymptomatic participants, (ii) sit to stand, stairs descent and ascent and (iii) knee locations. The technique offers new perspectives for biomechanical assessments of physical functions of the knee joint in ecological environment.

17.
Women Health ; : 1-12, 2019 Dec 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31795922

RESUMO

Our aim was to assess gender differences in variables associated with the emotional and physical burdens of tension-type headache (TTH). Participants with TTH diagnosed according to the ICHD-III were recruited from three university-based hospitals (in Spain, Italy, Denmark) between January 2015 and June 2017. The physical/emotional headache burden was assessed with the Headache Disability Inventory (HDI-P/HDI-E, respectively). Headache features were collected with a four-week diary. Sleep quality was assessed with Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index. The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale evaluated anxiety and depressive symptom levels. Trait and state anxiety levels were evaluated with the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory. Two hundred and twelve (28% men) participants (aged 41-48 years old) participated. Multiple regression models revealed that sleep quality explained 36.7% of the variance of HDI-E and 31.1% of the variance of HDI-P in men, whereas headache intensity, depressive levels, and younger age explained 37.5% of the variance of HDI-E and 32.8% of the variance of HDI-P in women (all p < .001). This study observed gender differences in variables associated with headache burden in TTH. Management of men with TTH should focus on interventions targeting sleep quality, whereas the management of women with TTH should combine psychological approaches and interventions targeting pain mechanisms.

18.
Scand J Pain ; 2019 Oct 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31586969

RESUMO

Background and aims Traumatic anterior shoulder dislocation (ASD) is frequent in active populations and associated with a 39% higher risk of recurrent dislocation, which may cause persistent shoulder problems, pain, and impaired shoulder-related quality of life. While local and distant pressure pain sensitivity has been demonstrated in other shoulder conditions, little is known about the link between pressure pain sensitivity and ASD. The interesting aspect is whether recurrent dislocation - resulting in symptoms of longer duration - is associated with more pronounced pressure pain sensitivity, or if presence of pressure pain sensitivity may be part of the reasons why patients develop recurrent dislocation. Therefore, this study aimed at evaluating whether patients with recurrent ASD display greater pressure pain sensitivity and more painful body sites than patients with first-time ASD. Methods This was a cross-sectional analysis of baseline data from a randomized controlled trial including 34 patients with first-time ASD [82% male, mean (SD) age 26 (7) years] and 22 patients with recurrent ASD [96% male, mean (SD) age 25 (5) years]. Patients were assessed as follows: (1) assessment of local and distant pressure pain sensitivity evaluated by pressure pain thresholds (PPTs) using a handheld algometer on mm. trapezius superior, levator scapula, pectorales major, deltoideus, and tibialis anterior, (2) pain intensity at rest during the previous 24 h, (3) number of ASD, and (4) number of painful body sites on a region-divided body chart. Results The PPTs were not significantly different between first-time and recurrent ASD [mean (SD) kPa for m. trapezius superior 264 (110) vs. 261 (88), m. levator scapula 301 (157) vs. 325 (163), m. pectorales major 234 (163) vs. 269 (130), m. deltoideus 290 (166) vs. 352 (173), m. tibialis anterior 420 (202) vs. 449 (184)], two-way ANCOVA, adjusted for sex and age, F (4,263) = 0.29, p = 0.88. For both groups, the PPTs were lower at the shoulder sites than at m. tibialis anterior (difference 117-184 kPa, 95% CI range 33-267). Females had lower PPTs than males (difference 124 kPa, 95% CI 64-183). The number (SD) of painful body sites were 2.2 (1.9) for first-time ASD and 2.6 (5.4) for recurrent ASD, with no between-group differences, one-way ANCOVA, adjusted for sex and age, F (1, 52) = 0.24, p = 0.63. There was a strong correlation between PPTs at the shoulder and lower leg, r = 0.84, p < 0.01. Conclusions This study demonstrated no differences in local and distant pressure pain sensitivity or number of painful body sites between patients with first-time and recurrent ASD. Females had lower PPTs than males, and a strong correlation was found between PPTs at the shoulder and lower leg. Implications Patients with first-time and recurrent ASD seem to have similar pressure pain sensitivity, but lower PPTs compared to existing normative data, suggesting that it is relevant to evaluate the status of the pain system in these patients to prevent triggering or worsening of their symptoms. However, it remains unanswered how these changes affect the patients' ability to undergo rehabilitation, symptom response and long-term shoulder function.

19.
Clin J Pain ; 2019 Sep 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31567397

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Synovitis is one of the possible pain generators in osteoarthritis (OA) and associated with upregulation of pro-inflammatory cytokines, which can lead to worsening of the postoperative pain. This explorative study aimed to investigate the association between perioperative synovitis and self-reported pain 12-months after total knee arthroplasty (TKA) in patients with OA. METHODS: Twenty-six knee OA patients were included in this analysis. Perioperative volume of synovitis in predefined locations was assessed by contrast enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (CE-MRI) and dynamic CE-MRI (DCE-MRI). Perioperative synovitis was assessed histologically from biopsies of the synovium. Highest pain intensity within the last 24-hours (visual analog scale, VAS, 0-100) was assessed before and 12-months after TKA. Patients were divided into a low-pain intensity (VAS≤30) and a high-pain intensity (VAS>30) group based on 12-months postoperative VAS. RESULTS: The high-pain intensity group had significantly lower perioperative CE-synovitis (P=0.025), DCE-synovitis (P<0.04) and a trend towards lower histologically assessed synovitis (P=0.077) compared to the low-pain intensity group. Perioperative synovitis scores were inversely correlated with pain intensity 12-months after TKA (P<0.05), indicating that more severe perioperative synovitis is associated with less severe pain intensity at 12-months. DISCUSSION: Higher degrees of perioperative synovitis scores are found to be associated with less postoperative pain 12-months after TKA. Further, correlation analysis revealed that less severe perioperative CE-MRI and DCE-MRI synovitis was associated with higher pain intensity 12-months after TKA, suggesting that CE and DCE-MRI synovitis grades could be used as imaging markers for prediction of chronic postoperative pain after TKA.

20.
BMC Neurosci ; 20(1): 48, 2019 09 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31521103

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Electrical stimulation is widely used in experimental pain research but it lacks selectivity towards small nociceptive fibers. When using standard surface patch electrodes and rectangular pulses, large fibers are activated at a lower threshold than small fibers. Pin electrodes have been designed for overcoming this problem by providing a higher current density in the upper epidermis where the small nociceptive fibers mainly terminate. At perception threshold level, pin electrode stimuli are rather selectively activating small nerve fibers and are perceived as painful, but for high current intensity, which is usually needed to evoke sufficient pain levels, large fibers are likely co-activated. Long duration current has been shown to elevate the threshold of large fibers by the mechanism of accommodation. However, it remains unclear whether the mechanism of accommodation in large fibers can be utilized to activate small fibers even more selectively by combining pin electrode stimulation with a long duration pulse. RESULTS: In this study, perception thresholds were determined for a patch- and a pin electrode for different pulse shapes of long duration. The perception threshold ratio between the two different electrodes was calculated to estimate the ability of the pulse shapes to preferentially activate small fibers. The perception threshold ratios were compared between stimulation pulses of 5- and 50 ms durations and shapes of: exponential increase, linear increase, bounded exponential, and rectangular. Qualitative pain perception was evaluated for all pulse shapes delivered at 10 times perception threshold. The results showed a higher perception threshold ratio for long duration 50 ms pulses than for 5 ms pulses. The highest perception threshold ratio was found for the 50 ms, bounded exponential pulse shape. Results furthermore revealed different strength-duration relation between the bounded exponential- and rectangular pulse shapes. Pin electrode stimulation at high intensity was mainly described as "stabbing", "shooting", and "sharp". CONCLUSION: These results indicate that long duration pulses with a bounded exponential increase preferentially activate the small nociceptive fibers with a pin electrode and concurrently cause elevated threshold of large non-nociceptive fibers with patch electrodes.

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