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1.
JAMA ; 322(23): 2292-2302, 2019 12 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31846016

RESUMO

Importance: Short-term infusions of single vasodilators, usually given in a fixed dose, have not improved outcomes in patients with acute heart failure (AHF). Objective: To evaluate the effect of a strategy that emphasized early intensive and sustained vasodilation using individualized up-titrated doses of established vasodilators in patients with AHF. Design, Setting, and Participants: Randomized, open-label blinded-end-point trial enrolling 788 patients hospitalized for AHF with dyspnea, increased plasma concentrations of natriuretic peptides, systolic blood pressure of at least 100 mm Hg, and plan for treatment in a general ward in 10 tertiary and secondary hospitals in Switzerland, Bulgaria, Germany, Brazil, and Spain. Enrollment began in December 2007 and follow-up was completed in February 2019. Interventions: Patients were randomized 1:1 to a strategy of early intensive and sustained vasodilation throughout the hospitalization (n = 386) or usual care (n = 402). Early intensive and sustained vasodilation was a comprehensive pragmatic approach of maximal and sustained vasodilation combining individualized doses of sublingual and transdermal nitrates, low-dose oral hydralazine for 48 hours, and rapid up-titration of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, angiotensin receptor blockers, or sacubitril-valsartan. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary end point was a composite of all-cause mortality or rehospitalization for AHF at 180 days. Results: Among 788 patients randomized, 781 (99.1%; median age, 78 years; 36.9% women) completed the trial and were eligible for primary end point analysis. Follow-up at 180 days was completed for 779 patients (99.7%). The primary end point, a composite of all-cause mortality or rehospitalization for AHF at 180 days, occurred in 117 patients (30.6%) in the intervention group (including 55 deaths [14.4%]) and in 111 patients (27.8%) in the usual care group (including 61 deaths [15.3%]) (absolute difference for the primary end point, 2.8% [95% CI, -3.7% to 9.3%]; adjusted hazard ratio, 1.07 [95% CI, 0.83-1.39]; P = .59). The most common clinically significant adverse events with early intensive and sustained vasodilation vs usual care were hypokalemia (23% vs 25%), worsening renal function (21% vs 20%), headache (26% vs 10%), dizziness (15% vs 10%), and hypotension (8% vs 2%). Conclusions and Relevance: Among patients with AHF, a strategy of early intensive and sustained vasodilation, compared with usual care, did not significantly improve a composite outcome of all-cause mortality and AHF rehospitalization at 180 days. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00512759.


Assuntos
Insuficiência Cardíaca/tratamento farmacológico , Vasodilatadores/administração & dosagem , Doença Aguda , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Causas de Morte , Comorbidade , Esquema de Medicação , Feminino , Insuficiência Cardíaca/mortalidade , Hospitalização , Humanos , Masculino , Readmissão do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Vasodilatadores/efeitos adversos
2.
J Cardiovasc Magn Reson ; 21(1): 53, 2019 08 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31434577

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The differentiated assessment of functional parameters besides morphological changes is essential for the evaluation of prognosis in systemic immunoglobulin light chain (AL) amyloidosis. METHODS: Seventy-four subjects with AL amyloidosis and presence of late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) pattern typical for cardiac amyloidosis were analyzed. Long axis strain (LAS) and myocardial contraction fraction (MCF), as well as morphological and functional markers, were measured. The primary endpoint was death, while death and heart transplantation served as a composite secondary endpoint. RESULTS: After a median follow-up of 41 months, 29 out of 74 patients died and 10 received a heart transplant. Left ventricular (LV) functional parameters were reduced in patients, who met the composite endpoint (LV ejection fraction 51% vs. 61%, LAS - 6.9% vs - 10%, GLS - 12% vs - 15% and MCF 42% vs. 69%; p <  0.001 for all). In unadjusted univariate analysis, LAS (HR = 1.05, p <  0.001) and MCF (HR = 0.96, p <  0.001) were associated with reduced transplant-free survival. Kaplan-Meier analyses showed a significantly lower event-free survival in patients with reduced MCF. MCF and LAS performed best to identify high risk patients for secondary endpoint (Log-rank test p <  0.001) in a combined model. Using sequential Cox regression analysis, the addition of LAS and MCF to LV ejection fraction led to a significant increase in the predictive power of the model (χ2 (df = 1) = 28.2, p <  0.001). CONCLUSIONS: LAS and MCF as routinely available and robust CMR-derived parameters predict outcome in LGE positive AL amyloidosis. Patients with impaired LV function in combination with reduced LAS and MCF are at the highest risk for death and heart transplantation.

3.
J Cardiovasc Magn Reson ; 19(1): 87, 2017 Nov 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29121956

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To compare the prognostic value of cardiac valve plane displacement (CVPD) on various locations in cardiac light chain (AL) amyloidosis. METHODS: Consecutive patients with biopsy-proven cardiac involvement in AL amyloidosis who had undergone cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) between 2005 and 2014 in our institution, were retrospectively identified and data analyzed. The primary combined endpoint was all-cause mortality or heart transplantation. Systolic CVPD were obtained from standard cine bSSFP in 2-, 3- and 4-chamber views at anterior aortic plane systolic excursion (AAPSE); anterior, anterolateral, inferolateral, inferior, inferoseptal mitral (MAPSE); and lateral tricuspid (TAPSE) annular segments. RESULTS: We identified 68 patients (58 ± 10 years; 59% male). Median follow-up period was 1.2 years (IQR, 0.3-4.1). Significant differences in CVPD between patients who reached a primary endpoint (n = 44) and transplant-free survivors were found only for AAPSE (6.1 mm (IQR, 4.6-9.4) vs. 8.8 mm (IQR, 6.9-10.4); p = 0.02) and MAPSEanterolateral (7.3 mm (IQR, 5.4-11.7) vs. 10.5 mm (IQR, 8.1-13.4); p = 0.03). AAPSE (χ2 = 15.6; p = 0.0002) provided the best predictive value for transplant-free survival compared to all other valvular plane locations. A high-risk cutoff (AAPSE ≤ 7.6 mm) was calculated by ROC analysis to predict all-cause death or heart transplantation within 6 months from index examination (AUC = 0.80; CI: 0.68 to 0.89; p < 0.0001). AAPSE added incremental prognostic power to an imaging prediction model of late gadolinium enhancement and global longitudinal strain (GLS) (∆χ2 = 5.8, p = 0.02) as well as to a clinical model including Karnofsky index and NT-proBNP (∆χ2 = 6.2, p = 0.01). CONCLUSION: In patients with cardiac involvement in AL amyloidosis, systolic CVPD obtained from standard long axis cine views appear to indicate outcome better, when obtained in the anterior aortic plane (AAPSE) and provide incremental prognostic value to LGE and strain measurements.


Assuntos
Cardiomiopatias/diagnóstico por imagem , Amiloidose de Cadeia Leve de Imunoglobulina/diagnóstico por imagem , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Contração Miocárdica , Função Ventricular Esquerda , Idoso , Área Sob a Curva , Biópsia , Cardiomiopatias/mortalidade , Cardiomiopatias/fisiopatologia , Cardiomiopatias/cirurgia , Distribuição de Qui-Quadrado , Feminino , Alemanha , Transplante de Coração , Humanos , Amiloidose de Cadeia Leve de Imunoglobulina/mortalidade , Amiloidose de Cadeia Leve de Imunoglobulina/fisiopatologia , Amiloidose de Cadeia Leve de Imunoglobulina/cirurgia , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Avaliação de Estado de Karnofsky , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multivariada , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Prognóstico , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Curva ROC , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Tempo
4.
Radiology ; 283(3): 681-691, 2017 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28156200

RESUMO

Purpose To assess the utility of established functional markers versus two additional functional markers derived from standard cardiovascular magnetic resonance (MR) images for their incremental diagnostic and prognostic information in patients with nonischemic dilated cardiomyopathy (NIDCM). Materials and Methods Approval was obtained from the local ethics committee. MR images from 453 patients with NIDCM and 150 healthy control subjects were included between 2005 and 2013 and were analyzed retrospectively. Myocardial contraction fraction (MCF) was calculated by dividing left ventricular (LV) stroke volume by LV myocardial volume, and long-axis strain (LAS) was calculated from the distances between the epicardial border of the LV apex and the midpoint of a line connecting the origins of the mitral valve leaflets at end systole and end diastole. Receiver operating characteristic curve, Kaplan-Meier method, Cox regression, and classification and regression tree (CART) analyses were performed for diagnostic and prognostic performances. Results LAS (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve [AUC] = 0.93, P < .001) and MCF (AUC = 0.92, P < .001) can be used to discriminate patients with NIDCM from age- and sex-matched control subjects. A total of 97 patients reached the combined end point during a median follow-up of 4.8 years. In multivariate Cox regression analysis, only LV ejection fraction (EF) and LAS independently indicated the combined end point (hazard ratio = 2.8 and 1.9, respectively; P < .001 for both). In a risk stratification approach with classification and regression tree analysis, combined LV EF and LAS cutoff values were used to stratify patients into three risk groups (log-rank test, P < .001). Conclusion Cardiovascular MR-derived MCF and LAS serve as reliable diagnostic and prognostic markers in patients with NIDCM. LAS, as a marker for longitudinal contractile function, is an independent parameter for outcome and offers incremental information beyond LV EF and the presence of myocardial fibrosis. © RSNA, 2017 Online supplemental material is available for this article.


Assuntos
Cardiomiopatia Dilatada/diagnóstico por imagem , Cardiomiopatia Dilatada/fisiopatologia , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Contração Miocárdica , Técnicas de Imagem Cardíaca , Cardiomiopatia Dilatada/mortalidade , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Taxa de Sobrevida
5.
Eur Radiol ; 27(9): 3913-3923, 2017 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28188427

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association of right ventricular long axis strain (RV-LAS), a parameter of longitudinal function, with outcome in patients with non-ischaemic dilated cardiomyopathy (NIDCM). METHODS: In 441 patients with NIDCM, RV-LAS was analysed retrospectively by measuring the length between the epicardial border of the left ventricular apex and the middle of a line connecting the origins of the tricuspidal valve leaflets in end-diastole and end-systole on non-contrast standard cine sequences. RESULTS: The primary endpoint (cardiac death or heart transplantation) occurred in 41 patients, whereas 95 reached the combined endpoint (including cardiac decompensation and sustained ventricular arrhythmias) during a median follow-up of 4.2 years. Kaplan-Meier survival curves showed a poor outcome in patients with RV-LAS values below -10% (log-rank, p < 0.0001). In a risk stratification model RV-LAS improved prediction of outcome in addition to RV ejection fraction (RVEF) and presence of late gadolinium enhancement. Assessment of RV-LAS offered incremental information compared to clinical symptoms, biomarkers and RVEF. Even in the subgroup with normal RVEF (>45%, n = 213) reduced RV-LAS was still associated with poor outcome. CONCLUSION: Assessment of RV-LAS is an independent indicator of outcome in patients with NIDCM and offers incremental information beyond clinical and cardiac MR parameters. KEY POINTS: • Impaired right ventricular longitudinal function (RV-LAS) is associated with poorer cardiac outcomes. • Poor outcome is associated with decreased RV-LAS even in patients with RVEF >45%. • Addition of RV-LAS to known risk factors enhances the power prognostic information.


Assuntos
Cardiomiopatia Dilatada/diagnóstico , Cardiomiopatia Dilatada/mortalidade , Cardiomiopatia Dilatada/cirurgia , Feminino , Gadolínio , Transplante de Coração/mortalidade , Ventrículos do Coração/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Angiografia por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Miocárdio/patologia , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Estresse Fisiológico/fisiologia , Disfunção Ventricular Direita/diagnóstico , Disfunção Ventricular Direita/mortalidade
6.
Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging ; 18(12): 1414-1422, 2017 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28165128

RESUMO

Aims: Left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) has strong prognostic implications and is associated with heart failure. Recently, myocardial contraction fraction (MCF) was identified as a useful marker for specifically identifying cardiac amyloidosis (CA). The purpose of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of MCF for the discrimination of different forms of LVH. Methods and results: We analysed cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) scans of patients with CA (n = 132), hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM, n = 60), hypertensive heart disease (HHD, n = 38) and in 100 age- and gender-matched healthy controls. MCF was calculated by dividing left ventricular (LV) stroke volume by LV myocardial volume. The diagnostic accuracy of MCF was compared to that of LV ejection fraction (EF) and the mass index (MI). Compared with controls (136.3 ± 24.4%, P < 0.05), mean values for MCF were significantly reduced in LVH (HHD:92.6 ± 20%, HCM:80 ± 20.3%, transthyretin CA:74.9 ± 32.2% and light-chain (AL) CA:50.5 ± 21.4%). MCF performed better than LVEF (AUC = 0.96 vs. AUC = 0.6, P < 0.001) and was comparable to LVMI (AUC = 0.95, P = 0.4) in discriminating LVH from controls. There was a significant yet weak correlation between MCF and LVEF (r = 0.43, P < 0.0001). MCF outperformed LVEF and LVMI in discriminating between different etiologies of LVH and between AL and other forms of LVH (AUC = 0.84, P < 0.0001). Moreover, cut-off values for MCF <50% and LVEF <60% allowed to identify patients with high probability for CA. Conclusion: In patients with heart failure MCF discriminates CA from other forms of LVH. As it can easily be derived from standard, non-contrast cine images, it may be a very useful marker in the diagnostic workup of patients with LVH.


Assuntos
Insuficiência Cardíaca/diagnóstico por imagem , Hipertensão/diagnóstico por imagem , Hipertrofia Ventricular Esquerda/diagnóstico por imagem , Imagem Cinética por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Contração Miocárdica/fisiologia , Fatores Etários , Amiloidose/diagnóstico por imagem , Amiloidose/epidemiologia , Amiloidose/fisiopatologia , Área Sob a Curva , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Distribuição de Qui-Quadrado , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Feminino , Insuficiência Cardíaca/epidemiologia , Insuficiência Cardíaca/fisiopatologia , Hospitais Universitários , Humanos , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Hipertensão/fisiopatologia , Hipertrofia Ventricular Esquerda/epidemiologia , Hipertrofia Ventricular Esquerda/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Prognóstico , Curva ROC , Valores de Referência , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Fatores Sexuais , Volume Sistólico/fisiologia
7.
J Cardiovasc Magn Reson ; 18(1): 36, 2016 06 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27268238

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Long axis strain (LAS) has been shown to be a fast assessable parameter representing global left ventricular (LV) longitudinal function in cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR). However, the prognostic value of LAS in cardiomyopathies with reduced left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) has not been evaluated yet. METHODS AND RESULTS: In 146 subjects with non-ischemic dilated cardiomyopathy (NIDCM, LVEF ≤45 %) LAS was assessed retrospectively from standard non-contrast SSFP cine sequences by measuring the distance between the epicardial border of the left ventricular apex and the midpoint of a line connecting the origins of the mitral valve leaflets in end-systole and end-diastole. The final values were calculated according to the strain formula. The primary endpoint of the study was defined as a combination of cardiac death, heart transplantation or aborted sudden cardiac death and occurred in 24 subjects during follow-up. Patients with LAS values > -5 % showed a significant higher rate of cardiac events independent of the presence of late gadolinium enhancement (LGE). The multivariate Cox regression analysis revealed that LVEDV/BSA (HR: 1.01, p < 0.05), presence of LGE (HR: 2.51, p < 0.05) and LAS (HR: 1.28, p < 0.05) were independent predictors for cardiac events. In a sequential cox regression analysis LAS offered significant incremental information (p < 0.05) for the prediction of outcome in addition to LGE and LVEDV/BSA. Using a dichotomous three point scoring model for risk stratification, including LVEF <35 %, LAS > -10 % and the presence of LGE, patients with 3 points had a significantly higher risk for cardiac events than those with 2 or less points. CONCLUSION: Assessment of long axis function with LAS offers significant incremental information for the prediction of cardiac events in NIDCM and improves risk stratification beyond established CMR parameters.


Assuntos
Cardiomiopatia Dilatada/diagnóstico por imagem , Imagem Cinética por Ressonância Magnética , Volume Sistólico , Disfunção Ventricular Esquerda/diagnóstico por imagem , Função Ventricular Esquerda , Adulto , Idoso , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Cardiomiopatia Dilatada/etiologia , Cardiomiopatia Dilatada/fisiopatologia , Cardiomiopatia Dilatada/cirurgia , Distribuição de Qui-Quadrado , Meios de Contraste/administração & dosagem , Morte Súbita Cardíaca/etiologia , Feminino , Transplante de Coração , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valva Mitral/diagnóstico por imagem , Valva Mitral/fisiopatologia , Análise Multivariada , Variações Dependentes do Observador , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Prognóstico , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Tempo , Disfunção Ventricular Esquerda/etiologia , Disfunção Ventricular Esquerda/fisiopatologia , Disfunção Ventricular Esquerda/cirurgia
8.
Eur J Radiol ; 85(7): 1322-8, 2016 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27235880

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Right ventricular longitudinal axis strain (RV-LAS) is a simple measure of RV longitudinal function. The purpose of this study was the evaluation of its diagnostic performance in non-ischemic dilated cardiomyopathy (NIDCM) and the determination of reference values in controls. METHODS: 217 NIDCM patients and 200 healthy controls were analysed retrospectively regarding the diagnostic performance of RV-LAS using receiver operating characteristic curves in comparison with RV ejection fraction (RVEF), tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion (TAPSE) and global longitudinal strain (RV-GLS). Hereby, four different approaches were evaluated to assess RV-LAS based on different reference points. RV-LAS LVapex/mid was defined as the change in distance between the LV apex and the middle of a line connecting the origins of the tricuspidal valve leaflets in systole and diastole. The ethical approval was obtained in all participants. RESULTS: NIDCM and controls were 48 years in mean. Controls were equally gender distributed, while the proportion of men with NIDCM was higher with 77%. Among the four approaches RV-LAS LVapex/mid provided the highest diagnostic performance for discrimination between NIDCM and controls (AUC=0.94). Of all RV functional parameters RV-LAS LVapex/mid preformed significantly better than RVEF (delta AUC=0.05; p=0.003), TAPSE (delta AUC=0.23; p<0.0001) and RV-GLS (delta AUC=0.31; p<0.0001). A significant correlation was found between RV-LAS LVapex/mid and RVEF (r=-0.65; p<0.0001). The reference mean values for RV-LAS LVapex/mid were -17.4±3.5 for men and -18.5±3.7 for women. CONCLUSION: RV-LAS showed better diagnostic accuracy for RV dysfunction than RVEF, TAPSE and RV-GLS. Furthermore, it has a rapid accessibility and low intra- and interobserver variability.


Assuntos
Cardiomiopatia Dilatada/diagnóstico por imagem , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Disfunção Ventricular Direita/diagnóstico por imagem , Disfunção Ventricular Direita/patologia , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Ventrículos do Coração/diagnóstico por imagem , Ventrículos do Coração/patologia , Humanos , Interpretação de Imagem Assistida por Computador/métodos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Curva ROC , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Estudos Retrospectivos , Adulto Jovem
9.
Dtsch Med Wochenschr ; 141(7): 500-3, 2016 Apr.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27031207

RESUMO

HISTORY: A 36-year-old man with a history of PR3-ANCA positive granulomatosis with polyangiitis presented with chest pain at the emergency department. Due to his underlying disease, he was treated with Rituximab in regular intervals. The last Rituximab infusion was admitted one day before presentation. INVESTIGATION: The ECG showed marked ST elevation in V1-V4. DIAGNOSIS, TREATMENT AND COURSE: After the diagnosis of an acute anterior myocardial infarction, the patient was prepared for acute percutaneous coronary intervention. During transport to the cardiac catheterization laboratory, he suffered a cardiac arrest due to ventricular fibrillation. After successful resuscitation, the cardiac catheterization showed no evidence of relevant coronary stenosis. Because of suspected coronary spasm of left anterior descending artery the therapy was extended with a calcium channel blocker. A single chamber cardiac defibrillator was implanted for secondary prevention. CONCLUSION: Acute coronary syndrome is a possible side effect of rituximab therapy. The reported case emphasizes a correlation between Rituximab therapy and cardiac event.


Assuntos
Antirreumáticos/efeitos adversos , Infarto do Miocárdio/induzido quimicamente , Rituximab/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Antirreumáticos/uso terapêutico , Granulomatose com Poliangiite/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Masculino , Rituximab/uso terapêutico
10.
Pacing Clin Electrophysiol ; 37(12): 1686-93, 2014 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25160503

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To compare the feasibility and efficiency of atrioventricular junction (AVJ) ablation and device implantation in patients with drug-refractory atrial fibrillation using three different approaches. METHODS: Sixty-nine patients (57% male; age 72 ± 10; ejection fraction 45 ± 15%) undergoing device implantation and AVJ ablation were retrospectively studied at a tertiary referral center. In 20 patients (29%) AVJ ablation was performed via the femoral vein immediately following device implantation (group 1), whereas 33 patients (48%) underwent a staged procedure with AVJ ablation via the femoral vein >3 weeks after device implantation (group 2). In a third group of 16 patients (23%), AVJ ablation was performed during device implantation through the pocket using the same axillary vein access site (group 3). The main outcome measures were: procedure time, fluoroscopy time, laboratory occupancy time, and success rate. RESULTS: There was a significant difference in procedure time (118 ± 45 minutes. in group 1, 133 ± 32 minutes in group 2, and 87 ± 26 minutes in group 3, P < 0.001) and the laboratory occupancy time (175 ± 48 minutes in group 1, 200 ± 32 minutes in group 2, and 121 ± 27 minutes in group 3, P < 0.001). There was no difference in fluoroscopy time (group 1: 20 ± 15 minutes, group 2: 27 ± 22 minutes, and group 3: 24 ± 9 minutes P = 0.4). The procedure was successfully completed in all patients, but cross-over to a femoral approach was required in one patient in group 3. CONCLUSION: The alternative approach of AVJ ablation during permanent pacemaker implantation from the same axillary vein access site is feasible and more efficient compared to the femoral approach.


Assuntos
Fibrilação Atrial/cirurgia , Nó Atrioventricular/cirurgia , Ablação por Cateter , Marca-Passo Artificial , Idoso , Terapia Combinada , Estudos de Viabilidade , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos
11.
Swiss Med Wkly ; 144: w13911, 2014 Feb 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24496744

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Delayed recognition of sepsis and inappropriate initial antibiotic therapy are associated with increased mortality and morbidity. The early detection of the causative organism in sepsis is an unmet clinical need. A novel multiplex real-time polymerase chain reaction (MRT-PCR) (SeptiFast®) technique may provide the microbiological diagnosis within six hours. METHODS: We assessed the diagnostic accuracy of blood cultures and MRT-PCR in a comparative diagnostic cohort study in 110 consecutive adult patients presenting to the emergency department (ED) with suspected sepsis. RESULTS: We collected 205 corresponding PCR samples and blood culture (BC) pairs from the 110 patients. There was moderate to high concordance between PCR and BC with 181 (88%) matching and 24 (12%) mismatching samples. The diagnostic accuracy of MRT-PCR in detecting sepsis and its causative organism was comparable to that of BCs. The additional use of MRT-PCR significantly reduced the time to microbiological diagnosis as compared to the use of conventional microbiological methods alone (mean time gained 3.9 hours, range 0-66 hours, p <0.001). CONCLUSION: Diagnostic accuracy of BCs and MRT-PCR in the early diagnosis of sepsis and its causative organism in the ED are comparable. However, MRT-PCR reduces the time to microbiological diagnosis. Whether a more rapid detection of the organism by MRT-PCR could improve the outcome of patients has to be assessed in large prospective randomised trials.


Assuntos
Bacteriemia/diagnóstico , DNA Bacteriano/análise , DNA Fúngico/análise , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Fungemia/diagnóstico , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Idoso , Bacteriemia/sangue , Bacteriemia/microbiologia , Sangue/microbiologia , Análise Química do Sangue , Diagnóstico Precoce , Feminino , Fungemia/sangue , Fungemia/microbiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Estudos Prospectivos , Método Simples-Cego , Fatores de Tempo
12.
Ther Umsch ; 71(2): 111-6, 2014 Feb.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24463381

RESUMO

Sudden cardiac death is one of the leading causes of death in industrialized countries. The implantable cardioverter/defibrillator (ICD) is the most effective treatment for malignant ventricular tachyarrhythmias. Current guidelines recommend the implantation of a defibrillator in patients who experienced ventricular tachycardia or fibrillation (secondary prevention of sudden cardiac death), as well as in high risk patients for primary prevention. The latter are patients with impaired left ventricular function ≤ 35 %. With the exception of secondary prevention indications (ie. after a "survived sudden cardiac death") indications for ICD implantation in the context of other cardiomyopathies, such as hypertrophic (obstructive) cardiomyopathy and arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy (ARVC), and of channelopathies, such as Brugada syndrome and long QT syndrome are complex. Before deciding to implant an ICD, the indication as well as the potential complications (inappropriate shocks, risk of infection, device or lead replacement, costs, etc.) have to be considered and discussed in detail with the patients and their relatives. There are very few specific hazards or significant limitations in daily life for the patient and his environment caused by the ICD. An ICD can be transiently deactivated if necessary by using a magnet (eg. during surgery) or permanently deactivated by re-programming the device (eg. palliative care).


Assuntos
Cardiomiopatias/prevenção & controle , Morte Súbita Cardíaca/prevenção & controle , Desfibriladores Implantáveis , Insuficiência Cardíaca/prevenção & controle , Taquicardia Ventricular/prevenção & controle , Disfunção Ventricular Esquerda/prevenção & controle , Fibrilação Ventricular/prevenção & controle , Medicina Baseada em Evidências , Humanos
13.
J Card Fail ; 19(9): 629-34, 2013 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24054339

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chemotherapy-induced left ventricular systolic dysfunction (LVSD) may limit survival in cancer patients and therefore should be treated timely with appropriate heart failure medication. This study aimed to evaluate quality of cardiac care in cancer patients with documented chemotherapy-induced LVSD in real-world clinical practice. METHODS: Using an institutional echo database, we screened 1,520 cancer patients for first documentation of chemotherapy-associated LVSD, defined as left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) ≤45%. Hospital charts of all 63 patients meeting inclusion criteria were reviewed regarding patient characteristics and frequency of heart failure medication prescription. RESULTS: Patients were 61 (interquartile range [IQR], 50-70) years old, mostly symptomatic, and had an average LVEF of 34 ± 8%. Most patients received anthracyclines (73%) and/or alkylating agents (73%) as part of their chemotherapeutic regimen. Median time from cancer diagnosis to first documentation of LVSD was 2.2 (0.7-5.2) years. Fewer than two-thirds of patients received guideline-recommended heart failure medication, and only one-half of patients received cardiology consult. Cardiology consultation was associated with a significantly higher frequency of heart failure medication prescription (100% vs. 52% for angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor or angiotensin receptor blocker (P < .0001); 94% vs. 41% for beta-blocker (P < .0001) and better survival (71% vs. 41%; P < .05). CONCLUSIONS: Chemotherapy-associated LVSD is insufficiently treated in cancer patients. Cardiology consultation improves rates of heart failure medication and therefore should be advocated in all patients with chemotherapy-induced LVSD.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Disfunção Ventricular Esquerda/induzido quimicamente , Disfunção Ventricular Esquerda/terapia , Idoso , Gerenciamento Clínico , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias/diagnóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento , Disfunção Ventricular Esquerda/diagnóstico
14.
Am J Med ; 126(6): 515-22, 2013 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23597799

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The phenomenon of silent myocardial infarction is poorly understood. METHODS: We aimed to evaluate the prevalence, extent, and independent predictors of silent myocardial infarction in 2 large independent cohorts of consecutive patients without a history of myocardial infarction referred for rest/stress myocardial perfusion single photon emission computed tomography. There were 1621 patients enrolled in the derivation cohort and 338 patients in the validation cohort. Silent myocardial infarction was diagnosed in patients with a myocardial scar ≥5% of the left ventricle. RESULTS: In the derivation cohort, the prevalence of silent myocardial infarction was 23.3% (n = 377). The median infarct size was 10% (interquartile range [IQR] 5%-15%) of the left ventricle. The prevalence of silent myocardial infarction was 28.5% in diabetics and 21.5% in nondiabetics (P = .004). Diabetes mellitus was an independent predictor for the presence of silent myocardial infarction (odds ratio 1.5; 95% confidence interval, 1.1-1.9; P = .004). These findings were confirmed in the independent validation cohort. In the validation cohort, the prevalence of silent myocardial infarction was 26.3% (n = 89), while the prevalence was higher in diabetics (35.8%) than in nondiabetics (24%; P = .049). The median infarct size was 11.8% (IQR 5.9%-17.6%) of the left ventricle. Again, in logistic regression analysis, diabetes mellitus was a significant predictor of the presence of silent myocardial infarction. CONCLUSION: Silent myocardial infarctions are more common than previously thought. One of 4 patients with suspected coronary artery disease had experienced a silent myocardial infarction; the extent in average is 10% of the left ventricle, and it is more common in diabetics.


Assuntos
Infarto do Miocárdio/diagnóstico por imagem , Infarto do Miocárdio/epidemiologia , Infarto do Miocárdio/etiologia , Tomografia Computadorizada de Emissão de Fóton Único , Distribuição de Qui-Quadrado , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiologia , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Dislipidemias/epidemiologia , Eletrocardiografia , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Prevalência , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Fumar/epidemiologia , Estatísticas não Paramétricas , Suíça/epidemiologia
15.
Am J Med ; 125(11): 1124.e1-1124.e8, 2012 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22921885

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The pathophysiology and key determinants of lower extremity edema in patients with acute heart failure are poorly investigated. METHODS: We prospectively enrolled 279 unselected patients presenting to the Emergency Department with acute heart failure. Lower extremity edema was quantified at predefined locations. Left ventricular ejection fraction, central venous pressure quantifying right ventricular failure, biomarkers to quantify hemodynamic cardiac stress (B-type natriuretic peptide), and the activity of the arginine-vasopressin system (copeptin) also were recorded. RESULTS: Lower extremity edema was present in 218 (78%) patients and limited to the ankle in 22%, reaching the lower leg in 40%, reaching the upper leg in 11%, and was generalized (anasarca) in 3% of patients. Patients in the 4 strata according to the presence and extent of lower leg edema had comparable systolic blood pressure, left ventricular ejection fraction, central venous pressure, and B-type natriuretic peptide levels, as well as copeptin and glomerular filtration rate (P=NS for all). The duration of dyspnea preceding the presentation was longer in patients with more extensive edema (P=.006), while serum sodium (P=.02) and serum albumin (P=.03) was lower. CONCLUSION: Central venous pressure, hemodynamic cardiac stress, left ventricular ejection fraction, and the activity of the arginine-vasopressin system do not seem to be key determinants of the presence or extent of lower extremity edema in acute heart failure.


Assuntos
Edema/fisiopatologia , Glicopeptídeos/sangue , Insuficiência Cardíaca/fisiopatologia , Peptídeo Natriurético Encefálico/sangue , Função Ventricular Esquerda/fisiologia , Doença Aguda , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Biomarcadores/sangue , Pressão Venosa Central , Edema/etiologia , Feminino , Insuficiência Cardíaca/sangue , Insuficiência Cardíaca/complicações , Hemodinâmica , Humanos , Hiponatremia/etiologia , Extremidade Inferior , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , Volume Sistólico
16.
Crit Care ; 16(1): R2, 2012 Jan 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22226205

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The accurate prediction of acute kidney injury (AKI) in patients with acute heart failure (AHF) is an unmet clinical need. Neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) is a novel sensitive and specific marker of AKI. METHODS: A total of 207 consecutive patients presenting to the emergency department with AHF were enrolled. Plasma NGAL was measured in a blinded fashion at presentation and serially thereafter. The potential of plasma NGAL levels to predict AKI was assessed as the primary endpoint. We defined AKI according to the AKI Network classification. RESULTS: Overall 60 patients (29%) experienced AKI. These patients were more likely to suffer from pre-existing chronic cardiac or kidney disease. At presentation, creatinine (median 140 (interquartile range (IQR), 91 to 203) umol/L versus 97 (76 to 132) umol/L, P<0.01) and NGAL (114.5 (IQR, 67.1 to 201.5) ng/ml versus 74.5 (60 to 113.9) ng/ml, P<0.01) levels were significantly higher in AKI compared to non-AKI patients. The prognostic accuracy for measurements obtained at presentation, as quantified by the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was mediocre and comparable for the two markers (creatinine 0.69; 95%CI 0.59 to 0.79 versus NGAL 0.67; 95%CI 0.57 to 0.77). Serial measurements of NGAL did not further increase the prognostic accuracy for AKI. Creatinine, but not NGAL, remained an independent predictor of AKI (hazard ratio (HR) 1.12; 95%CI 1.00 to 1.25; P=0.04) in multivariable regression analysis. CONCLUSIONS: Plasma NGAL levels do not adequately predict AKI in patients with AHF.


Assuntos
Lesão Renal Aguda/sangue , Lesão Renal Aguda/epidemiologia , Insuficiência Cardíaca/sangue , Insuficiência Cardíaca/epidemiologia , Lipocalinas/sangue , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas/sangue , Doença Aguda , Lesão Renal Aguda/diagnóstico , Proteínas da Fase Aguda , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Biomarcadores/sangue , Feminino , Insuficiência Cardíaca/diagnóstico , Humanos , Lipocalina-2 , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Estudos Prospectivos
17.
Circ Heart Fail ; 5(1): 17-24, 2012 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21976469

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The early and noninvasive differentiation of ischemic and nonischemic acute heart failure (AHF) in the emergency department (ED) is an unmet clinical need. METHODS AND RESULTS: We quantified cardiac hemodynamic stress using B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) and cardiomyocyte damage using 2 different cardiac troponin assays in 718 consecutive patients presenting to the ED with AHF (derivation cohort). The diagnosis of ischemic AHF was adjudicated using all information, including coronary angiography. Findings were validated in a second independent multicenter cohort (326 AHF patients). Among the 718 patients, 400 (56%) were adjudicated to have ischemic AHF. BNP levels were significantly higher in ischemic compared with nonischemic AHF (1097 [604-1525] pg/mL versus 800 [427-1317] pg/mL; P<0.001). Cardiac troponin T (cTnT) and sensitive cardiac troponin I (s-cTnI) were also significantly higher in ischemic compared with nonischemic AHF patients (0.040 [0.010-0.306] µg/L versus 0.018 [0.010-0.060] µg/L [P<0.001]; 0.024 [0.008-0.106] µg/L versus 0.016 [0.004-0.044 ] µg/L [P=0.002]). The diagnostic accuracy of BNP, cTnT, and s-cTnI for the diagnosis of ischemic AHF, as quantified by the area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve, was low (0.58 [95% CI, 0.54-0.63], 0.61 [95% CI, 0.57-0.66], and 0.59 [95% CI,0.54-0.65], respectively). These findings were confirmed in the validation cohort. CONCLUSIONS: At presentation to the ED, patients with ischemic AHF exhibit more extensive hemodynamic cardiac stress and cardiomyocyte damage than patients with nonischemic AHF. However, the overlap is substantial, resulting in poor diagnostic accuracy.


Assuntos
Insuficiência Cardíaca/sangue , Insuficiência Cardíaca/diagnóstico , Hemodinâmica/fisiologia , Isquemia Miocárdica/sangue , Isquemia Miocárdica/diagnóstico , Miócitos Cardíacos/patologia , Doença Aguda , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Biomarcadores/sangue , Estudos de Coortes , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Feminino , Insuficiência Cardíaca/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Masculino , Isquemia Miocárdica/fisiopatologia , Peptídeo Natriurético Encefálico/sangue , Estudos Retrospectivos , Troponina I/sangue , Troponina T/sangue
18.
Chest ; 141(4): 974-982, 2012 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22135381

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Early and accurate risk stratification for patients with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is an unmet clinical need. METHODS: We enrolled 341 unselected patients presenting to the ED with CAP in whom blinded measurements of N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP), midregional pro-atrial natriuretic peptide (MR-proANP), and B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) were performed. The potential of these natriuretic peptides to predict short- (30-day) and long-term mortality was compared with the pneumonia severity index (PSI) and CURB-65 (confusion, urea plasma level, respiratory rate, BP, age over 65 years). The median follow-up was 942 days. RESULTS: NT-proBNP, MR-proANP, and BNP levels at presentation were higher in short-term (median 4,882 pg/mL vs 1,133 pg/mL; 426 pmol/L vs 178 pmol/L; 436 pg/mL vs 155 pg/mL, all P < .001) and long-term nonsurvivors (3,515 pg/mL vs 548 pg/mL; 283 pmol/L vs 136 pmol/L; 318 pg/mL vs 103 pg/mL, all P < .001) as compared with survivors. Receiver operating characteristics analysis to quantify the prognostic accuracy showed comparable areas under the curve for the three natriuretic peptides to PSI for short-term (PSI 0.76, 95% CI, 0.71-0.81; NT-proBNP 0.73, 95% CI, 0.67-0.77; MR-proANP 0.72, 95% CI, 0.67-0.77; BNP 0.68, 95% CI, 0.63-0.73) and long-term (PSI 0.72, 95% CI, 0.66-0.77; NT-proBNP 0.75, 95% CI, 0.70-0.80; MR-proANP 0.73, 95% CI, 0.67-0.77, BNP 0.70, 95% CI, 0.65-0.75) mortality. In multivariable Cox-regression analysis, NT-proBNP remained an independent mortality predictor (hazard ratio 1.004, 95% CI, 1.00-1.01, P = .02 for short-term; hazard ratio 1.004, 95% CI, 1.00-1.01, P = .001 for long-term, increase of 300 pg/mL). A categorical approach combining PSI point values and NT-pro-BNP levels adequately identified patients at low, medium, and high short- and long-term mortality risk. CONCLUSIONS: Natriuretic peptides are simple and powerful predictors of short- and long-term mortality for patients with CAP. Their prognostic accuracy is comparable to PSI.


Assuntos
Fator Natriurético Atrial/sangue , Infecções Comunitárias Adquiridas/mortalidade , Peptídeo Natriurético Encefálico/sangue , Fragmentos de Peptídeos/sangue , Pneumonia/mortalidade , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Biomarcadores/sangue , Infecções Comunitárias Adquiridas/sangue , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pneumonia/sangue , Prognóstico , Análise de Regressão , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
19.
Swiss Med Wkly ; 141: w13259, 2011.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21984121

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Simple tools for risk stratification of patients with acute heart failure (AHF) are an unmet clinical need, particularly regarding long-term mortality. METHODS: We prospectively enrolled 610 consecutive patients presenting to the emergency department with AHF. The diagnosis of AHF was adjudicated by two independent cardiologists. The classification and regression tree (CART) analysis was used to develop a simple risk algorithm. This was internally validated by cross-validation. RESULTS: One-year follow-up was complete in all patients (100%). A total of 201 patients (33%) died within 360 days. The CART analysis identified blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and age as the best single predictors of 1-year mortality and patients were categorised to three risk groups: high risk group (BUN >27.5 mg/dl and age >86 years), intermediate risk group (BUN >27.5 mg/dl and age ≤ 86 years) and low risk group (BUN ≤ 27.5 mg/dl). The Kaplan-Meier curves showed a significant increase in mortality in the high risk group compared with the lower risk groups (log-rank test p <0.001). The hazard ratio regarding 1-year mortality between patients identified as low and high risk was 2.0 (95% confidence interval, 1.7-2.4), with statistically significant differences between all risk groups (p <0.001). The likelihood-based 95%-confidence set for the age- and the urea-threshold is contained in the rectangular set defined by 25 mg/dl ≤ urea threshold ≤30.6 mg/dl and 76 years ≤ age threshold ≤96 years. CONCLUSION: These results suggest that AHF patients at low, intermediate and high risk for death within 360 days can be easily identified using patient's demographics and laboratory data obtained at presentation. Application of this simple risk stratification algorithm may help to improve the management of these patients.


Assuntos
Insuficiência Cardíaca/classificação , Insuficiência Cardíaca/mortalidade , Doença Aguda , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , Análise de Regressão , Medição de Risco/métodos , Medição de Risco/estatística & dados numéricos , Suíça/epidemiologia
20.
Am J Cardiol ; 107(5): 730-5, 2011 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21247523

RESUMO

We aimed to establish the prevalence and effect of worsening renal function (WRF) on survival among patients with acute decompensated heart failure. Furthermore, we sought to establish a risk score for the prediction of WRF and externally validate the previously established Forman risk score. A total of 657 consecutive patients with acute decompensated heart failure presenting to the emergency department and undergoing serial creatinine measurements were enrolled. The potential of the clinical parameters at admission to predict WRF was assessed as the primary end point. The secondary end point was all-cause mortality at 360 days. Of the 657 patients, 136 (21%) developed WRF, and 220 patients had died during the first year. WRF was more common in the nonsurvivors (30% vs 41%, p = 0.03). Multivariate regression analysis found WRF to independently predict mortality (hazard ratio 1.92, p <0.01). In a single parameter model, previously diagnosed chronic kidney disease was the only independent predictor of WRF and achieved an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.60. After the inclusion of the blood gas analysis parameters into the model history of chronic kidney disease (hazard ratio 2.13, p = 0.03), outpatient diuretics (hazard ratio 5.75, p <0.01), and bicarbonate (hazard ratio 0.91, p <0.01) were all predictive of WRF. A risk score was developed using these predictors. On receiver operating characteristic curve analysis, the Forman and Basel prediction rules achieved an area under the curve of 0.65 and 0.71, respectively. In conclusion, WRF was common in patients with acute decompensated heart failure and was linked to significantly worse outcomes. However, the clinical parameters failed to adequately predict its occurrence, making a tailored therapy approach impossible.


Assuntos
Creatinina/metabolismo , Taxa de Filtração Glomerular , Insuficiência Cardíaca/fisiopatologia , Insuficiência Renal/diagnóstico , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Seguimentos , Insuficiência Cardíaca/complicações , Humanos , Testes de Função Renal , Masculino , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Curva ROC , Insuficiência Renal/etiologia , Insuficiência Renal/fisiopatologia , Fatores de Risco
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