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1.
Eur J Med Genet ; 65(5): 104475, 2022 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35283344

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patients and families with suspected, but genetically unexplained (unsolved) genetic tumour risk syndromes lack appropriate treatment and prevention, leading to preventable morbidity and mortality. To tackle this problem, patients from the European Reference Network on Genetic Tumour Risk Syndromes (ERN GENTURIS) are analysed in the European Commission's research project "Solving the unsolved rare diseases" (Solve-RD). The aim is to uncover known and novel cancer predisposing genes by reanalysing available whole-exome sequencing (WES) data of large cohorts in a combined manner, and applying a multidimensional omics approach. APPROACH: Around 500 genetically unsolved cases with suspected hereditary gastrointestinal tumour syndromes (polyposis, early-onset/familial colorectal cancer and gastric cancer) from multiple European centres are aimed to be included. Currently, clinical and germline WES data from 294 cases have been analysed. In addition, an extensive molecular profiling of gastrointestinal tumours from these patients is planned and deep learning techniques will be applied. The ambitious, multidisciplinary project is accompanied by a number of methodical, technical, and logistic challenges, which require the development and implementation of new analysis tools, the standardisation of bioinformatics pipelines, and strategies to exchange data and knowledge. RESULTS: and Outlook. The first re-analysis of 229 known and proposed cancer predisposition genes allowed solving 2-3% of previously unsolved GENTURIS cases. The integration of expert knowledge and new technologies will help to identify the genetic basis of additional unsolved cases within the ongoing project. The ERN GENTURIS approach might serve as a model for other genomic initiatives.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais , Síndromes Neoplásicas Hereditárias , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Genômica , Humanos , Síndromes Neoplásicas Hereditárias/genética , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma
2.
Geburtshilfe Frauenheilkd ; 82(1): 42-49, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35027859

RESUMO

Patients with a tumour-risk syndrome have a significantly increased risk of developing cancer during their lifetime. A positive family history of tumour disease or an unusually early age of onset may be indicative of a tumour risk syndrome. With the diagnosis of a tumour risk syndrome it is possible to recommend a risk-adapted tumour surveillance programme for the patient and (asymptomatic) family members at risk. This facilitates early detection of possible tumours and thus often prevents advanced tumour stages. Li-Fraumeni syndrome is associated with a significantly increased risk of sarcoma and breast cancer in particular, but it is often not diagnosed clinically in those affected. This article reviews the clinical picture, genetic cause and special aspects in the diagnosis and care of patients with Li-Fraumeni syndrome. The initiative resulted from the European reference network GENTURIS, which has set itself the task of improving the identification and care of patients with tumour risk syndromes. A first step is the recent publication of a European guideline for Li-Fraumeni syndrome, which is summarised here and discussed in the context of existing recommendations.

3.
Int J Cancer ; 150(1): 56-66, 2022 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34469588

RESUMO

Lynch syndrome (LS), Lynch-like syndrome (LLS) and familial colorectal cancer type X (FCCX) are different entities of familial cancer predisposition leading to an increased risk of colorectal cancer (CRC). The aim of this prospective study was to characterise and to compare the risks for adenoma and CRC in these three risk groups. Data was taken from the registry of the German Consortium for Familial Intestinal Cancer. Patients were prospectively followed up in an intensified colonoscopic surveillance programme that included annual examinations. Cumulative risks for adenoma and CRC were calculated separately for LS, LLS and FCCX, and then for males and females. Multivariate Cox regression was used to analyse the independent contributions of risk group, mismatch repair gene (within LS), sex and previous adenoma. The study population comprised 1448 individuals (103 FCCX, 481 LLS and 864 LS). The risks were similar for colorectal adenomas, but different for first and metachronous CRC between the three risk groups. CRC risk was highest in LS, followed by LLS and lowest in FCCX. Male sex and a prevalent adenoma in the index colonoscopy were associated with a higher risk for incident adenoma and CRC. In patients with LS, CRC risks were particularly higher in female MSH2 than MLH1 carriers. Our study may support the development of risk-adapted surveillance policies in LS, LLS and FCCX.


Assuntos
Adenoma/patologia , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Neoplasias Colorretais Hereditárias sem Polipose/classificação , Neoplasias Colorretais Hereditárias sem Polipose/complicações , Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Adenoma/etiologia , Adenoma/metabolismo , Adulto , Idoso , Neoplasias Colorretais/etiologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/metabolismo , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Proteína 1 Homóloga a MutL/genética , Proteína 2 Homóloga a MutS/genética , Mutação , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco
4.
Genet Med ; 24(3): 576-585, 2022 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34906469

RESUMO

PURPOSE: We aimed to investigate to what extent polygenic risk scores (PRS), rare pathogenic germline variants (PVs), and family history jointly influence breast cancer and prostate cancer risk. METHODS: A total of 200,643 individuals from the UK Biobank were categorized as follows: (1) heterozygotes or nonheterozygotes for PVs in moderate to high-risk cancer genes, (2) PRS strata, and (3) with or without a family history of cancer. Multivariable logistic regression and Cox proportional hazards models were used to compute the odds ratio across groups and the cumulative incidence through life. RESULTS: Cumulative incidence by age 70 years among the nonheterozygotes across PRS strata ranged from 9% to 32% and from 9% to 35% for breast cancer and prostate cancer, respectively. Among the PV heterozygotes it ranged from 20% to 48% in moderate-risk genes and from 51% to 74% in high-risk genes for breast cancer, and it ranged from 30% to 59% in prostate cancer risk genes. Family history was always associated with an increased cancer odds ratio. CONCLUSION: PRS alone provides a meaningful risk gradient leading to a cancer risk stratification comparable to PVs in moderate risk genes, whereas acts as a risk modifier when considering high-risk genes. Including family history along with PV and PRS further improves cancer risk stratification.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama , Neoplasias da Próstata , Idoso , Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Células Germinativas , Humanos , Masculino , Herança Multifatorial/genética , Neoplasias da Próstata/epidemiologia , Neoplasias da Próstata/genética , Fatores de Risco
5.
PLoS One ; 16(11): e0259185, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34843512

RESUMO

The spectrum of somatic genetic variation in colorectal adenomas caused by biallelic pathogenic germline variants in the MSH3 gene, was comprehensively analysed to characterise mutational signatures and identify potential driver genes and pathways of MSH3-related tumourigenesis. Three patients from two families with MSH3-associated polyposis were included. Whole exome sequencing of nine adenomas and matched normal tissue was performed. The amount of somatic variants in the MSH3-deficient adenomas and the pattern of single nucleotide variants (SNVs) was similar to sporadic adenomas, whereas the fraction of small insertions/deletions (indels) (21-42% of all small variants) was significantly higher. Interestingly, pathogenic somatic APC variants were found in all but one adenoma. The vast majority (12/13) of these were di-, tetra-, or penta-base pair (bp) deletions. The fraction of APC indels was significantly higher than that reported in patients with familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) (p < 0.01) or in sporadic adenomas (p < 0.0001). In MSH3-deficient adenomas, the occurrence of APC indels in a repetitive sequence context was significantly higher than in FAP patients (p < 0.01). In addition, the MSH3-deficient adenomas harboured one to five (recurrent) somatic variants in 13 established or candidate driver genes for early colorectal carcinogenesis, including ACVR2A and ARID genes. Our data suggest that MSH3-related colorectal carcinogenesis seems to follow the classical APC-driven pathway. In line with the specific function of MSH3 in the mismatch repair (MMR) system, we identified a characteristic APC mutational pattern in MSH3-deficient adenomas, and confirmed further driver genes for colorectal tumourigenesis.


Assuntos
Polipose Adenomatosa do Colo/patologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Proteína 3 Homóloga a MutS/genética , Receptores de Activinas Tipo II/genética , Polipose Adenomatosa do Colo/genética , Proteína da Polipose Adenomatosa do Colo/genética , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Humanos , Mutação INDEL , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único
6.
Eur J Med Genet ; 64(10): 104316, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34425242

RESUMO

Hereditary Diffuse Gastric Cancer (HDGC) is a cancer predisposing syndrome mainly caused by germline inactivating variants in CDH1, encoding E-cadherin. Early-onset diffuse gastric cancer (DGC) and/or invasive lobular breast cancer (LBC) are the main phenotypes in CDH1-associated HDGC. CTNNA1, encoding for α-E-catenin, and E-cadherin-partner in the adherens junction complex, has been recently classified as a HDGC predisposing gene. Nevertheless, little is known about CTNNA1 tumor spectrum in variant carriers and variant-type associated causality. Herein, we systematically reviewed the literature searching for CTNNA1 germline variants carriers, further categorized them according to HDGC clinical criteria (HDGC vs non-HDGC), collected phenotypes, classified variants molecularly and according to CDH1 ACMG/AMP guidelines and performed genotype-phenotype analysis. We found 41 families carrying CTNNA1 germline variants encompassing in total 105 probands and relatives. All probands from 13 HDGC families presented DGC and their average age of onset was 40 ± 17 years; 10/13 (77%) HDGC families carried a pathogenic (P) variant. Most probands from 28 non-HDGC families developed unspecified-BC, as well as most of their relatives; 4/28 (14%) carried a P variant, 16/28 (57%) carried a likely pathogenic (LP) variant, 7/28 (25%) carried variants of unknown significance (VUS) and 1/28 (4%) carried a likely benign variant. Regardless of clinical criteria, 97% (32/33) of probands and relatives from P variant-carrier families had DGC/unspecified-GC. In LP variant-carrier families, 82% (28/34) of probands and relatives had unspecified-BC. Only 2/105 individuals had LBC. A cluster of frameshift and nonsense variants was found in CTNNA1 last exon of non-HDGC families and classified as VUS. In conclusion, current available data confirms an association of CTNNA1 P variants with early-onset DGC, but not with LBC. We demonstrate that in ascertained cohorts, CTNNA1 P variants explain <2% of HDGC families and support the use of ACMG/AMP CDH1 specific variant curation guidelines, while no specific guidelines are developed for CTNNA1 variant classification. Moreover, we demonstrated that truncating variants at the CTNNA1 NMD-incompetent last exon have limited deleteriousness, and that CTNNA1 LP variants have lower actionability than CDH1 LP variants. Current knowledge supports considering only CTNNA1 P variants as clinically actionable in HDGC carrying families.


Assuntos
Predisposição Genética para Doença , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa , Neoplasias Gástricas/genética , alfa Catenina/genética , Antígenos CD/genética , Caderinas/genética , Frequência do Gene , Heterozigoto , Humanos , Linhagem , Fenótipo , Neoplasias Gástricas/patologia
7.
Int J Cancer ; 149(12): 2052-2062, 2021 12 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34331771

RESUMO

Small bowel cancer (SBC) is the malignancy with the highest standardized incidence ratio in Lynch syndrome (LS) patients. Of all SBCs, about 50% are duodenal cancers (DCs), therefore being accessible by esophago-gastro-duodenoscopy (EGD) for surveillance. We asked whether early detection of DC is possible for LS patients undergoing surveillance by EGD and if surveillance should be limited to specific subgroups. Data for LS patients with DC were retrieved from the registry of the German Consortium for Familial Intestinal Cancer. Patients undergoing active surveillance by EGDs (surveillance group) were compared to those who did not (nonsurveillance group) regarding tumor stage at diagnosis. Union for International Cancer Control stages I-IIA were defined as early stage disease and IIB-IV as advanced stage disease. Statistical analysis was performed using Fisher's exact test. Among 2015 patients with pathogenic variants in any mismatch-repair-gene, 47 patients with 49 DCs were identified. In 10% of cases, patients were under 35 years at diagnosis; family and personal tumor history did not correlate with DC diagnosis. Pathogenic germline variants in MSH6, PMS2 or EPCAM were present in 10% of patients. Statistical analysis could be performed on 13 DC patients in the surveillance group and 14 in the nonsurveillance group. Early detection was possible for 71% of patients in the surveillance group and 29% of patients in the nonsurveillance group (P = .021). Early detection of DC by EGD in LS patients is feasible regardless of family history, mutational status and should start no later than 25 years of age.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Neoplasias Colorretais Hereditárias sem Polipose/complicações , Neoplasias Duodenais/diagnóstico , Duodenoscopia/estatística & dados numéricos , Detecção Precoce de Câncer/métodos , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Neoplasias Colorretais Hereditárias sem Polipose/genética , Reparo de Erro de Pareamento de DNA , Análise Mutacional de DNA/estatística & dados numéricos , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Neoplasias Duodenais/genética , Duodenoscopia/normas , Molécula de Adesão da Célula Epitelial/genética , Estudos de Viabilidade , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Masculino , Anamnese , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Endonuclease PMS2 de Reparo de Erro de Pareamento/genética , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Estudos Prospectivos , Sistema de Registros/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto Jovem
8.
Nat Genet ; 53(7): 1006-1021, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34211179

RESUMO

SPTBN1 encodes ßII-spectrin, the ubiquitously expressed ß-spectrin that forms micrometer-scale networks associated with plasma membranes. Mice deficient in neuronal ßII-spectrin have defects in cortical organization, developmental delay and behavioral deficiencies. These phenotypes, while less severe, are observed in haploinsufficient animals, suggesting that individuals carrying heterozygous SPTBN1 variants may also show measurable compromise of neural development and function. Here we identify heterozygous SPTBN1 variants in 29 individuals with developmental, language and motor delays; mild to severe intellectual disability; autistic features; seizures; behavioral and movement abnormalities; hypotonia; and variable dysmorphic facial features. We show that these SPTBN1 variants lead to effects that affect ßII-spectrin stability, disrupt binding to key molecular partners, and disturb cytoskeleton organization and dynamics. Our studies define SPTBN1 variants as the genetic basis of a neurodevelopmental syndrome, expand the set of spectrinopathies affecting the brain and underscore the critical role of ßII-spectrin in the central nervous system.


Assuntos
Genes Dominantes , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Variação Genética , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/genética , Espectrina/genética , Animais , Estudos de Associação Genética/métodos , Heterozigoto , Humanos , Camundongos , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/diagnóstico , Fenótipo , Espectrina/metabolismo
9.
J Clin Med ; 10(13)2021 Jun 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34203177

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Lynch syndrome is the most common genetic predisposition for hereditary cancer. Carriers of pathogenic changes in mismatch repair (MMR) genes have an increased risk of developing colorectal (CRC), endometrial, ovarian, urinary tract, prostate, and other cancers, depending on which gene is malfunctioning. In Lynch syndrome, differences in cancer incidence (penetrance) according to the gene involved have led to the stratification of cancer surveillance. By contrast, any differences in penetrance determined by the type of pathogenic variant remain unknown. OBJECTIVE: To determine cumulative incidences of cancer in carriers of truncating and missense or aberrant splicing pathogenic variants of the MLH1 and MSH2 genes. METHODS: Carriers of pathogenic variants of MLH1 (path_MLH1) and MSH2 (path_MSH2) genes filed in the Prospective Lynch Syndrome Database (PLSD) were categorized as truncating or missense/aberrant splicing according to the InSiGHT criteria for pathogenicity. RESULTS: Among 5199 carriers, 1045 had missense or aberrant splicing variants, and 3930 had truncating variants. Prospective observation years for the two groups were 8205 and 34,141 years, respectively, after which there were no significant differences in incidences for cancer overall or for colorectal cancer or endometrial cancers separately. CONCLUSION: Truncating and missense or aberrant splicing pathogenic variants were associated with similar average cumulative incidences of cancer in carriers of path MLH1 and path_MSH2.

10.
BMC Cancer ; 21(1): 526, 2021 May 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33971845

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Immigration has taken the central stage in world politics, especially in the developed countries like Germany, where the continuous flow of immigrants has been well documented since 1960s. Strikingly, emerging data suggest that migrant patients have a poorer response to the treatment and lower survival rates in their new host country, raising concerns about health disparities. Herein, we present our investigation on the treatment response rate and cancer survival in German patients with and without an immigrant background that were treated at our comprehensive cancer center in Germany. METHODS: Initially, we considered 8162 cancer patients treated at the Center for Integrated Oncology (CIO), University Hospital Bonn, Germany (April 2002-December 2015) for matched-pair analysis. Subsequently, the German patients with a migration background and those from the native German population were manually identified and catalogued using a highly specific name-based algorithm. The clinical parameters such as demographic characteristics, tumor characteristics, defined staging criteria, and primary therapy were further adjusted. Using these stringent criteria, a total of 422 patients (n = 211, Germans with migration background; n = 211, native German population) were screened to compare for the treatment response and survival rates (i.e., 5-year overall survival, progression-free survival, and time to progression). RESULTS: Compared to the cohort with migration background, the cohort without migration background was slightly older (54.9 vs. 57.9 years) while having the same sex distribution (54.5% vs. 55.0% female) and longer follow-up time (36.9 vs. 42.6 months). We did not find significant differences in cancer survival (5-year overall survival, P = 0.771) and the response rates (Overall Remission Rate; McNemar's test, P = 0.346) between both collectives. CONCLUSION: Contrary to prior reports, we found no significant differences in cancer survival between German patients with immigrant background and native German patients. Nevertheless, the advanced treatment protocols implemented at our comprehensive cancer center may possibly account for the low variance in outcome. To conduct similar studies with a broader perspective, we propose that certain risk factors (country-of-origin-specific infections, dietary habits, epigenetics for chronic diseases etc.) should be considered, specially in the future studies that will recruit new arrivals from the 2015 German refugee crisis.


Assuntos
Emigrantes e Imigrantes , Análise por Pareamento , Neoplasias/terapia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias/mortalidade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Adulto Jovem
11.
Hum Mol Genet ; 30(14): 1273-1282, 2021 06 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33822054

RESUMO

Ultra-rare genetic disorders can provide proof of concept for efficacy of targeted therapeutics and reveal pathogenic mechanisms relevant to more common conditions. Juvenile polyposis of infancy (JPI) is caused by microdeletions in chromosome 10 that result in haploinsufficiency of two tumor suppressor genes: phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome 10 (PTEN) and bone morphogenetic protein receptor type IA (BMPR1A). Loss of PTEN and BMPR1A results in a much more severe phenotype than deletion of either gene alone, with infantile onset pan-enteric polyposis and a high mortality rate. No effective pharmacological therapy exists. A multi-center cohort analysis was performed to characterize phenotype and investigate the therapeutic effect of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibition (adverse events, disease progression, time to colectomy and mortality) in patients with JPI. Among 25 JPI patients identified (mean age of onset 13 months), seven received mTOR inhibitors (everolimus, n = 2; or sirolimus, n = 5). Treatment with an mTOR inhibitor reduced the risk of colectomy (hazard ratio = 0.27, 95% confidence interval = 0.07-0.954, P = 0.042) and resulted in significant improvements in the serum albumin level (mean increase = 16.3 g/l, P = 0.0003) and hemoglobin (mean increase = 2.68 g/dl, P = 0.0077). Long-term mTOR inhibitor treatment was well tolerated over an accumulated follow-up time of 29.8 patient years. No serious adverse events were reported. Early therapy with mTOR inhibitors offers effective, pathway-specific and personalized treatment for patients with JPI. Inhibition of the phosphoinositol-3-kinase-AKT-mTOR pathway mitigates the detrimental synergistic effects of combined PTEN-BMPR1A deletion. This is the first effective pharmacological treatment identified for a hamartomatous polyposis syndrome.


Assuntos
Síndromes Neoplásicas Hereditárias , Receptores de Proteínas Morfogenéticas Ósseas Tipo I , Colectomia , Hemorragia Gastrointestinal , Humanos , Polipose Intestinal/congênito , Síndromes Neoplásicas Hereditárias/genética , Síndromes Neoplásicas Hereditárias/patologia , Síndromes Neoplásicas Hereditárias/cirurgia , PTEN Fosfo-Hidrolase/genética , Serina-Treonina Quinases TOR/genética
12.
Acta Neuropathol ; 142(1): 191-210, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33929593

RESUMO

The genetic basis of brain tumor development is poorly understood. Here, leukocyte DNA of 21 patients from 15 families with ≥ 2 glioma cases each was analyzed by whole-genome or targeted sequencing. As a result, we identified two families with rare germline variants, p.(A592T) or p.(A817V), in the E-cadherin gene CDH1 that co-segregate with the tumor phenotype, consisting primarily of oligodendrogliomas, WHO grade II/III, IDH-mutant, 1p/19q-codeleted (ODs). Rare CDH1 variants, previously shown to predispose to gastric and breast cancer, were significantly overrepresented in these glioma families (13.3%) versus controls (1.7%). In 68 individuals from 28 gastric cancer families with pathogenic CDH1 germline variants, brain tumors, including a pituitary adenoma, were observed in three cases (4.4%), a significantly higher prevalence than in the general population (0.2%). Furthermore, rare CDH1 variants were identified in tumor DNA of 6/99 (6%) ODs. CDH1 expression was detected in undifferentiated and differentiating oligodendroglial cells isolated from rat brain. Functional studies using CRISPR/Cas9-mediated knock-in or stably transfected cell models demonstrated that the identified CDH1 germline variants affect cell membrane expression, cell migration and aggregation. E-cadherin ectodomain containing variant p.(A592T) had an increased intramolecular flexibility in a molecular dynamics simulation model. E-cadherin harboring intracellular variant p.(A817V) showed reduced ß-catenin binding resulting in increased cytosolic and nuclear ß-catenin levels reverted by treatment with the MAPK interacting serine/threonine kinase 1 inhibitor CGP 57380. Our data provide evidence for a role of deactivating CDH1 variants in the risk and tumorigenesis of neuroepithelial and epithelial brain tumors, particularly ODs, possibly via WNT/ß-catenin signaling.


Assuntos
Antígenos CD/genética , Neoplasias Encefálicas/genética , Caderinas/genética , Carcinoma/genética , Neoplasias Neuroepiteliomatosas/genética , Adenoma/genética , Adenoma/patologia , Compostos de Anilina/uso terapêutico , Animais , Diversidade de Anticorpos , Neoplasias Encefálicas/tratamento farmacológico , Carcinoma/tratamento farmacológico , DNA de Neoplasias/genética , Técnicas de Introdução de Genes , Variação Genética , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Neoplasias Neuroepiteliomatosas/tratamento farmacológico , Oligodendroglioma/genética , Oligodendroglioma/patologia , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/uso terapêutico , Purinas/uso terapêutico , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma
13.
Eur J Cancer ; 148: 124-133, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33743481

RESUMO

PURPOSE: This study aimed to report the uptake of hysterectomy and/or bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy (BSO) to prevent gynaecological cancers (risk-reducing surgery [RRS]) in carriers of pathogenic MMR (path_MMR) variants. METHODS: The Prospective Lynch Syndrome Database (PLSD) was used to investigate RRS by a cross-sectional study in 2292 female path_MMR carriers aged 30-69 years. RESULTS: Overall, 144, 79, and 517 carriers underwent risk-reducing hysterectomy, BSO, or both combined, respectively. Two-thirds of procedures before 50 years of age were combined hysterectomy and BSO, and 81% of all procedures included BSO. Risk-reducing hysterectomy was performed before age 50 years in 28%, 25%, 15%, and 9%, and BSO in 26%, 25%, 14% and 13% of path_MLH1, path_MSH2, path_MSH6, and path_PMS2 carriers, respectively. Before 50 years of age, 107 of 188 (57%) BSO and 126 of 204 (62%) hysterectomies were performed in women without any prior cancer, and only 5% (20/392) were performed simultaneously with colorectal cancer (CRC) surgery. CONCLUSION: Uptake of RRS before 50 years of age was low, and RRS was rarely undertaken in association with surgical treatment of CRC. Uptake of RRS aligned poorly with gene- and age-associated risk estimates for endometrial or ovarian cancer that were published recently from PLSD and did not correspond well with current clinical guidelines. The reasons should be clarified. Decision-making on opting for or against RRS and its timing should be better aligned with predicted risk and mortality for endometrial and ovarian cancer in Lynch syndrome to improve outcomes.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Neoplasias Colorretais Hereditárias sem Polipose/patologia , Reparo de Erro de Pareamento de DNA , Heterozigoto , Histerectomia/métodos , Mutação , Salpingo-Ooforectomia/métodos , Adulto , Idoso , Neoplasias Colorretais Hereditárias sem Polipose/genética , Neoplasias Colorretais Hereditárias sem Polipose/cirurgia , Estudos Transversais , Bases de Dados Factuais , Feminino , Seguimentos , Neoplasias dos Genitais Femininos/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos
14.
J Clin Med ; 10(3)2021 Jan 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33513864

RESUMO

The scientific data to guide the management of Peutz-Jeghers syndrome (PJS) are sparse. The available evidence has been reviewed and discussed by diverse medical specialists in the field of PJS to update the previous guideline from 2010 and formulate a revised practical guideline for colleagues managing PJS patients. Methods: Literature searches were performed using MEDLINE, Embase, and Cochrane. Evidence levels and recommendation strengths were assessed using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE). A Delphi process was followed, with consensus being reached when ≥80% of the voting guideline committee members agreed. Recommendations and statements: The only recent guidelines available were for gastrointestinal and pancreatic management. These were reviewed and endorsed after confirming that no more recent relevant papers had been published. Literature searches were performed for additional questions and yielded a variable number of relevant papers depending on the subject addressed. Additional recommendations and statements were formulated. Conclusions: A decade on, the evidence base for recommendations remains poor, and collaborative studies are required to provide better data about this rare condition. Within these restrictions, multisystem, clinical management recommendations for PJS have been formulated.

15.
Int J Cancer ; 148(1): 106-114, 2021 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32930401

RESUMO

In our study, we evaluated the effectiveness of upper gastrointestinal (GI) endoscopy as an instrument for early gastric cancer (GC) detection in Lynch syndrome (LS) patients by analyzing data from the registry of the German Consortium for Familial Intestinal Cancer. In a prospective, multicenter cohort study, 1128 out of 2009 registered individuals with confirmed LS underwent 5176 upper GI endoscopies. Compliance was good since 77.6% of upper GI endoscopies were completed within the recommended interval of 1 to 3 years. Forty-nine GC events were observed in 47 patients. MLH1 (n = 21) and MSH2 (n = 24) mutations were the most prevalent. GCs in patients undergoing regular surveillance were diagnosed significantly more often in an early-stage disease (UICC I) than GCs detected through symptoms (83% vs 25%; P = .0231). Thirty-two (68%) patients had a negative family history of GC. The median age at diagnosis was 51 years (range 28-66). Of all GC patients, 13 were diagnosed at an age younger than 45. Our study supports the recommendation of regular upper GI endoscopy surveillance for LS patients beginning no later than at the age of 30.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais Hereditárias sem Polipose/complicações , Detecção Precoce de Câncer/métodos , Gastroscopia/estatística & dados numéricos , Neoplasias Gástricas/diagnóstico , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Neoplasias Colorretais Hereditárias sem Polipose/genética , Detecção Precoce de Câncer/normas , Detecção Precoce de Câncer/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos de Avaliação como Assunto , Mucosa Gástrica/diagnóstico por imagem , Mucosa Gástrica/patologia , Gastroscopia/normas , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Alemanha/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Proteína 1 Homóloga a MutL/genética , Proteína 2 Homóloga a MutS/genética , Mutação , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Cooperação do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Estudos Prospectivos , Neoplasias Gástricas/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Gástricas/genética , Neoplasias Gástricas/patologia
16.
Genet Med ; 23(4): 705-712, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33257847

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To determine impact of risk-reducing hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy (BSO) on gynecological cancer incidence and death in heterozygotes of pathogenic MMR (path_MMR) variants. METHODS: The Prospective Lynch Syndrome Database was used to investigate the effects of gynecological risk-reducing surgery (RRS) at different ages. RESULTS: Risk-reducing hysterectomy at 25 years of age prevents endometrial cancer before 50 years in 15%, 18%, 13%, and 0% of path_MLH1, path_MSH2, path_MSH6, and path_PMS2 heterozygotes and death in 2%, 2%, 1%, and 0%, respectively. Risk-reducing BSO at 25 years of age prevents ovarian cancer before 50 years in 6%, 11%, 2%, and 0% and death in 1%, 2%, 0%, and 0%, respectively. Risk-reducing hysterectomy at 40 years prevents endometrial cancer by 50 years in 13%, 16%, 11%, and 0% and death in 1%, 2%, 1%, and 0%, respectively. BSO at 40 years prevents ovarian cancer before 50 years in 4%, 8%, 0%, and 0%, and death in 1%, 1%, 0%, and 0%, respectively. CONCLUSION: Little benefit is gained by performing RRS before 40 years of age and premenopausal BSO in path_MSH6 and path_PMS2 heterozygotes has no measurable benefit for mortality. These findings may aid decision making for women with LS who are considering RRS.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais Hereditárias sem Polipose , Neoplasias Colorretais Hereditárias sem Polipose/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Colorretais Hereditárias sem Polipose/genética , Neoplasias Colorretais Hereditárias sem Polipose/prevenção & controle , Reparo de Erro de Pareamento de DNA/genética , Feminino , Heterozigoto , Humanos , Histerectomia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Endonuclease PMS2 de Reparo de Erro de Pareamento/genética , Proteína 1 Homóloga a MutL/genética , Estudos Prospectivos , Salpingo-Ooforectomia
17.
Cancers (Basel) ; 12(12)2020 Dec 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33322525

RESUMO

Hereditary diffuse gastric cancer (HDGC) is an inherited cancer susceptibility syndrome characterized by an elevated risk for diffuse gastric cancer (DGC) and lobular breast cancer (LBC). Some patients fulfilling the clinical testing criteria harbor a pathogenic CDH1 or CTNNA1 germline variant. However, the underlying mechanism for around 80% of the patients with a family or personal history of DGC and LBC has so far not been elucidated. In this cohort study, patients meeting the 2015 HDGC clinical testing criteria were included, and subsequently, CDH1 sequencing was performed. Of the 207 patients (161 families) in this study, we detected 21 pathogenic or likely pathogenic CDH1 variants (PV) in 60 patients (28 families) and one CTNNA1 PV in two patients from one family. Sixty-eight percent (n = 141) of patients were female. The overall PV detection rate was 18% (29/161 families). Criterion 1 and 3 of the 2015 HDGC testing criteria yielded the highest detection rate of CDH1/CTNNA1 PVs (21% and 28%). PV carriers and patients without proven PV were compared. Risk of gastric cancer (GC) (38/62 61% vs. 102/140 73%) and age at diagnosis (40 ± 13 years vs. 44 ± 12 years) were similar between the two groups. However, GC was more advanced in gastrectomy specimens of patients without PV (81% vs. 26%). LBC prevalence in female carriers of a PV was 20% (n = 8/40). Clinical phenotypes differed strongly between families with the same PV. Emphasis should be on detecting more causative genes predisposing for HDGC and improve the management of patients without a proven pathogenic germline variant.

18.
Int J Cancer ; 147(10): 2801-2810, 2020 11 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32875553

RESUMO

BRAF V600E mutations have been reported as a marker of sporadic microsatellite instability (MSI) colorectal cancer (CRC). Current international diagnostic guidelines recommend BRAF mutation testing in MSI CRC patients to predict low risk of Lynch syndrome (LS). We evaluated the age-specific performance of BRAF testing in LS diagnostics. We systematically compared the prevalence of BRAF mutations in LS-associated CRCs and unselected MSI CRCs in different age groups as available from published studies, databases and population-based patient cohorts. Sensitivity/specificity analysis of BRAF testing for exclusion of LS and cost calculations were performed. Among 969 MSI CRCs from LS carriers in the literature and German HNPCC Consortium, 15 (1.6%) harbored BRAF mutations. Six of seven LS patients with BRAF-mutant CRC and reported age were <50 years. Among 339 of 756 (44.8%) of BRAF mutations detected in unselected MSI CRC, only 2 of 339 (0.6%) BRAF mutations were detected in patients <50 years. The inclusion of BRAF testing led to high risk of missing LS patients and increased costs at age <50 years. BRAF testing in patients <50 years carries a high risk of missing a hereditary cancer predisposition and is cost-inefficient. We suggest direct referral of MSI CRC patients <50 years to genetic counseling without BRAF testing.


Assuntos
Substituição de Aminoácidos , Neoplasias Colorretais Hereditárias sem Polipose/diagnóstico , Detecção Precoce de Câncer/métodos , Marcadores Genéticos , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas B-raf/genética , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Neoplasias Colorretais Hereditárias sem Polipose/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Instabilidade de Microssatélites , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Taxa de Mutação , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
19.
Pathologe ; 41(5): 535-549, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32780213

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Monogenic hereditary tumor syndromes or tumor disposition syndromes (TDS) are based on germline/constitutional mutations in key genes of carcinogenesis. Early onset and a clustering of tumors belonging to a typical spectrum in the personal or family history are indicators for a hereditary form. In particular, rare specific tumors occur relatively frequently in the context of TDS. METHODS: Based on a literature search the current article presents information on which TDS should be considered for differential diagnosis (DD) in the presence of a rare tumor. RESULTS: The identification of a causal germline mutation in the index patient is important for the DD, the evaluation of recurrence risks, and predictive testing of asymptomatic at-risk family members. In TDS with autosomal dominant inheritance, it is often possible to identify several high-risk individuals in the affected families. CONCLUSION: Early detection and correct classification are of high clinical relevance as the patients and persons at risk can often be offered effective preventive procedures (surveillance, prophylactic operations), and in some cases, special therapeutic options exist. TDS are paradigmatic for an extremely successful concept of preventive oncology and personalized medicine. The introduction of new methods of high-throughput sequencing (next generation sequencing) enables a more effective genetic diagnosis, but also poses a challenge for the interpretation of findings and counseling. Referral to multidisciplinary expert centers is useful for care of the families.


Assuntos
Predisposição Genética para Doença , Síndromes Neoplásicas Hereditárias , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Testes Genéticos , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos , Síndromes Neoplásicas Hereditárias/diagnóstico , Síndromes Neoplásicas Hereditárias/genética
20.
J Clin Med ; 9(7)2020 Jul 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32708519

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To survey risk-reducing hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy (BSO) practice and advice regarding hormone replacement therapy (HRT) in women with Lynch syndrome. METHODS: We conducted a survey in 31 contributing centers from the Prospective Lynch Syndrome Database (PLSD), which incorporates 18 countries worldwide. The survey covered local policies for risk-reducing hysterectomy and BSO in Lynch syndrome, the timing when these measures are offered, the involvement of stakeholders and advice regarding HRT. RESULTS: Risk-reducing hysterectomy and BSO are offered to path_MLH1 and path_MSH2 carriers in 20/21 (95%) contributing centers, to path_MSH6 carriers in 19/21 (91%) and to path_PMS2 carriers in 14/21 (67%). Regarding the involvement of stakeholders, there is global agreement (~90%) that risk-reducing surgery should be offered to women, and that this discussion may involve gynecologists, genetic counselors and/or medical geneticists. Prescription of estrogen-only HRT is offered by 15/21 (71%) centers to women of variable age range (35-55 years). CONCLUSIONS: Most centers offer risk-reducing gynecological surgery to carriers of path_MLH1, path_MSH2 and path_MSH6 variants but less so for path_PMS2 carriers. There is wide variation in how, when and to whom this is offered. The Manchester International Consensus Group developed recommendations to harmonize clinical practice across centers, but there is a clear need for more research.

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