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1.
Brain ; 2021 Mar 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33742668

RESUMO

The aging brain is vulnerable to a wide array of neuropathologies. Prior work estimated that the three most studied of these, Alzheimer's disease (AD), infarcts, and Lewy bodies, account for about 40% of the variation in late life cognitive decline. However, that estimate did not incorporate many other diseases that are now recognized as potent drivers of cognitive decline (e.g. limbic predominant age-related TDP-43 encephalopathy [LATE-NC], hippocampal sclerosis, other cerebrovascular conditions). We examined the degree to which person-specific cognitive decline in old age is driven by a wide array of neuropathologies. 1,164 deceased participants from two longitudinal clinical-pathologic studies, the Rush Memory and Aging Project and Religious Orders Study, completed up to 24 annual evaluations including 17 cognitive performance tests and underwent brain autopsy. Neuropathologic examinations provided 11 pathologic indices, including markers of AD, non-AD neurodegenerative diseases (i.e. LATE-NC, hippocampal sclerosis, Lewy bodies), and cerebrovascular conditions (i.e. macroscopic infarcts, microinfarcts, cerebral amyloid angiopathy, atherosclerosis, and arteriolosclerosis). Mixed effects models examined the linear relation of pathologic indices with global cognitive decline, and random change point models examined the relation of the pathologic indices with the onset of terminal decline and rates of preterminal and terminal decline. Cognition declined an average of about 0.10 unit per year (estimate = -0.101, SE = 0.003, p < 0.001) with considerable heterogeneity in rates of decline (variance estimate for the person-specific slope of decline was 0.0094, p < 0.001). When considered separately, 10 of the 11 pathologic indices were associated with faster decline and accounted for between 2 and 34% of the variation in decline, respectively. When considered simultaneously, the 11 pathologic indices together accounted for a total of 43% of the variation in decline; AD-related indices accounted for 30-36% of the variation, non-AD neurodegenerative indices 4-10%, and cerebrovascular indices 3-8%. Finally, the 11 pathologic indices combined accounted for less than a third of the variation in the onset of terminal decline (28%) and rates of preterminal (32%) and terminal decline (19%). Although age-related neuropathologies account for a large proportion of the variation in late life cognitive decline, considerable variation remains unexplained even after considering a wide array of neuropathologies. These findings highlight the complexity of cognitive aging and have important implications for the ongoing effort to develop effective therapeutics and identify novel treatment targets.

2.
Brain Pathol ; : e12939, 2021 Feb 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33624322

RESUMO

Limbic-predominant age-related transactive response DNA-binding protein 43 (TDP-43) encephalopathy neuropathologic change (LATE-NC) and microvascular pathologies, including microinfarcts, cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA), and arteriolosclerosis are common in old age. A relationship between LATE-NC and arteriolosclerosis has been reported in some but not all studies. The objectives of this study were to investigate the frequency of co-occurring LATE-NC and microvascular pathologies and test the hypothesis that arteriolosclerosis, specifically, is related to LATE-NC in brains from community-dwelling older persons. Analyses included 749 deceased participants with completed data on LATE-NC and microvascular pathology from 3 longitudinal clinical pathologic studies of aging. Given the specific interest in arteriolosclerosis, we expanded the examination of arteriolosclerosis to include not only the basal ganglia but also two additional white matter regions from anterior and posterior watershed territories. Ordinal logistic regression models examined the association of microvascular pathology with LATE-NC. LATE-NC was present in 409 (54.6%) decedents, of which 354 (86.5%) had one or multiple microvascular pathologies including 132 (32.3%) with moderate-severe arteriolosclerosis in basal ganglia, 195 (47.6%) in anterior watershed, and 144 (35.2%) in posterior watershed; 170 (41.5%) with moderate-severe CAA, and 150 (36.6%) with microinfarcts. In logistic regression models, only posterior watershed arteriolosclerosis, but not other regions of arteriolosclerosis was associated with a higher odds of more advanced LATE-NC stages (Odds Ratio = 1.12; 95% Confidence Interval = 1.01-1.25) after controlling for demographics, AD, and other age-related pathologies. Capillary CAA, but not the severity of CAA was associated with an increased odds of LATE-NC burden (Odds Ratio = 1.71; 95% Confidence Interval = 1.13-2.58). Findings were unchanged in analyses controlling for APOE ε4, vascular risk factors, or vascular diseases. These findings suggest that LATE-NC with microvascular pathology is a very common mixed pathology and small vessel disease pathology may contribute to LATE-NC in the aging brain.

3.
Alzheimers Dement ; 17(4): 716-725, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33480157

RESUMO

The MarkVCID consortium was formed under cooperative agreements with the National Institute of Neurologic Diseases and Stroke (NINDS) and National Institute on Aging (NIA) in 2016 with the goals of developing and validating biomarkers for the cerebral small vessel diseases associated with the vascular contributions to cognitive impairment and dementia (VCID). Rigorously validated biomarkers have consistently been identified as crucial for multicenter studies to identify effective strategies to prevent and treat VCID, specifically to detect increased VCID risk, diagnose the presence of small vessel disease and its subtypes, assess prognosis for disease progression or response to treatment, demonstrate target engagement or mechanism of action for candidate interventions, and monitor disease progression during treatment. The seven project sites and central coordinating center comprising MarkVCID, working with NINDS and NIA, identified a panel of 11 candidate fluid- and neuroimaging-based biomarker kits and established harmonized multicenter study protocols (see companion paper "MarkVCID cerebral small vessel consortium: I. Enrollment, clinical, fluid protocols" for full details). Here we describe the MarkVCID neuroimaging protocols with specific focus on validating their application to future multicenter trials. MarkVCID procedures for participant enrollment; clinical and cognitive evaluation; and collection, handling, and instrumental validation of fluid samples are described in detail in a companion paper. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has long served as the neuroimaging modality of choice for cerebral small vessel disease and VCID because of its sensitivity to a wide range of brain properties, including small structural lesions, connectivity, and cerebrovascular physiology. Despite MRI's widespread use in the VCID field, there have been relatively scant data validating the repeatability and reproducibility of MRI-based biomarkers across raters, scanner types, and time intervals (collectively defined as instrumental validity). The MRI protocols described here address the core MRI sequences for assessing cerebral small vessel disease in future research studies, specific sequence parameters for use across various research scanner types, and rigorous procedures for determining instrumental validity. Another candidate neuroimaging modality considered by MarkVCID is optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA), a non-invasive technique for directly visualizing retinal capillaries as a marker of the cerebral capillaries. OCTA has theoretical promise as a unique opportunity to visualize small vessels derived from the cerebral circulation, but at a considerably earlier stage of development than MRI. The additional OCTA protocols described here address procedures for determining OCTA instrumental validity, evaluating sources of variability such as pupil dilation, and handling data to maintain participant privacy. MRI protocol and instrumental validation The core sequences selected for the MarkVCID MRI protocol are three-dimensional T1-weighted multi-echo magnetization-prepared rapid-acquisition-of-gradient-echo (ME-MPRAGE), three-dimensional T2-weighted fast spin echo fluid-attenuated-inversion-recovery (FLAIR), two-dimensional diffusion-weighted spin-echo echo-planar imaging (DWI), three-dimensional T2*-weighted multi-echo gradient echo (3D-GRE), three-dimensional T2 -weighted fast spin-echo imaging (T2w), and two-dimensional T2*-weighted gradient echo echo-planar blood-oxygenation-level-dependent imaging with brief periods of CO2 inhalation (BOLD-CVR). Harmonized parameters for each of these core sequences were developed for four 3 Tesla MRI scanner models in widespread use at academic medical centers. MarkVCID project sites are trained and certified for their instantiation of the consortium MRI protocols. Sites are required to perform image quality checks every 2 months using the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative phantom. Instrumental validation for MarkVCID MRI-based biomarkers is operationally defined as inter-rater reliability, test-retest repeatability, and inter-scanner reproducibility. Assessments of these instrumental properties are performed on individuals representing a range of cerebral small vessel disease from mild to severe. Inter-rater reliability is determined by distribution of an independent dataset of MRI scans to each analysis site. Test-retest repeatability is determined by repeat MRI scans performed on individual participants on a single MRI scanner after a short (1- to 14-day) interval. Inter-scanner reproducibility is determined by repeat MRI scans performed on individuals performed across four MRI scanner models. OCTA protocol and instrumental validation The MarkVCID OCTA protocol uses a commercially available, Food and Drug Administration-approved OCTA apparatus. Imaging is performed on one dilated and one undilated eye to assess the need for dilation. Scans are performed in quadruplicate. MarkVCID project sites participating in OCTA validation are trained and certified by this biomarker's lead investigator. Inter-rater reliability for OCTA is assessed by distribution of OCTA datasets to each analysis site. Test-retest repeatability is assessed by repeat OCTA imaging on individuals on the same day as their baseline OCTA and a different-day repeat session after a short (1- to 14-day) interval. Methods were developed to allow the OCTA data to be de-identified by the sites before transmission to the central data management system. The MarkVCID neuroimaging protocols, like the other MarkVCID procedures, are designed to allow translation to multicenter trials and as a template for outside groups to generate directly comparable neuroimaging data. The MarkVCID neuroimaging protocols are available to the biomedical community and intended to be shared. In addition to the instrumental validation procedures described here, each of the neuroimaging MarkVCID kits will undergo biological validation to determine its ability to measure important aspects of VCID such as cognitive function. The analytic methods for the neuroimaging-based kits and the results of these validation studies will be published separately. The results will ultimately determine the neuroimaging kits' potential usefulness for multicenter interventional trials in small vessel disease-related VCID.

4.
Hum Brain Mapp ; 42(6): 1758-1776, 2021 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33449398

RESUMO

Τhe accuracy of template-based neuroimaging investigations depends on the template's image quality and representativeness of the individuals under study. Yet a thorough, quantitative investigation of how available standardized and study-specific T1-weighted templates perform in studies on older adults has not been conducted. The purpose of this work was to construct a high-quality standardized T1-weighted template specifically designed for the older adult brain, and systematically compare the new template to several other standardized and study-specific templates in terms of image quality, performance in spatial normalization of older adult data and detection of small inter-group morphometric differences, and representativeness of the older adult brain. The new template was constructed with state-of-the-art spatial normalization of high-quality data from 222 older adults. It was shown that the new template (a) exhibited high image sharpness, (b) provided higher inter-subject spatial normalization accuracy and (c) allowed detection of smaller inter-group morphometric differences compared to other standardized templates, (d) had similar performance to that of study-specific templates constructed with the same methodology, and (e) was highly representative of the older adult brain.

5.
Contemp Clin Trials ; 102: 106270, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33434704

RESUMO

Alzheimer's dementia (AD) is the sixth leading cause of death in the U.S., with an estimated $305 billion cost of care in 2020. Currently there are no cures or therapies to ameliorate the disease progression and symptoms. Growing evidence links a diet characterized by high antioxidant components with benefits to cognitive function, which is indicative of the preventative potential of dietary inteventions. The Mediterranean-DASH Intervention for Neurodegenerative Delay (MIND) study is a 3-year, multicenter, randomized controlled trial to test the effects of the MIND diet on cognitive function in 604 individuals at risk for AD. Men and women ages 65 to 84 years were recruited. Eligible participants were randomized to either the MIND diet with mild caloric restriction or their usual diet with mild caloric restriction. Cognitive assessments, medical history, blood pressure, anthropometric measurements, and blood and urine sample collections will be taken at baseline and follow-up visits. MRI scans will be completed on approximately half of the enrolled participants at the start and end of the study. Unique features of the MIND study include: 1) a dietary pattern, rather than single nutrient or food, tested in an at-risk population; 2) foods featured as key components of the MIND diet (i.e. extra-virgin olive oil, blueberries, and nuts) provided for participants; and 3) MRI scans of brain structure and volume that may provide potential mechanistic evidence on the effects of the diet. Results from the study will be crucial to the development of dietary guidelines for the prevention of AD.

6.
Neuropsychol Rev ; 30(4): 546-557, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33011894

RESUMO

Recent reports suggest declines in the age-specific risk of Alzheimer's dementia in higher income Western countries. At the same time, investigators believe that worldwide trends of increasing mid-life modifiable risk factors [e.g., cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors] coupled with the growth of the world's oldest age groups may nonetheless lead to an increase in Alzheimer's dementia. Thus, understanding the overlap in neuroanatomical profiles associated with CVD risk factors and AD may offer more relevant targets for investigating ways to reduce the growing dementia epidemic than current targets specific to isolated AD-related neuropathology. We hypothesized that a core group of common brain structural alterations exist between CVD risk factors and Alzheimer's dementia. Two co-authors conducted independent literature reviews in PubMed using search terms for CVD risk factor burden (separate searches for 'cardiovascular disease risk factors', 'hypertension', and 'Type 2 diabetes') and 'aging' or 'Alzheimer's dementia' with either 'grey matter volumes' or 'white matter'. Of studies that reported regionally localized results, we found support for our hypothesis, determining 23 regions commonly associated with both CVD risk factors and Alzheimer's dementia. Within this context, we outline future directions for research as well as larger cerebrovascular implications for these commonalities. Overall, this review supports previous as well as more recent calls for the consideration that both vascular and neurodegenerative factors contribute to the pathogenesis of dementia.

7.
Neuroimage ; 225: 117462, 2020 Oct 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33075560

RESUMO

Reporting white matter findings in voxel-wise neuroimaging studies typically lacks specificity in terms of brain connectivity. Therefore, the purpose of this work was to develop an approach for rapidly extracting standardized brain connectivity information for white matter regions with significant findings in voxel-wise neuroimaging studies. The new approach was named regionconnect and is based on precalculated average healthy adult brain connectivity information stored in standard space in a fashion that allows fast retrieval and integration. Towards this goal, the present work first generated and evaluated the white matter connectome of the IIT Human Brain Atlas v.5.0. It was demonstrated that the edges of the atlas connectome are representative of those of individual participants of the Human Connectome Project in terms of the spatial organization of streamlines and spatial patterns of track-density. Next, the new white matter connectome was used to develop multi-layer, connectivity-based labels for each white matter voxel of the atlas, consistent with the fact that each voxel may contain axons from multiple connections. The regionconnect algorithm was then developed to rapidly integrate information contained in the multi-layer labels across voxels of a white matter region and to generate a list of the most probable connections traversing that region. Usage of regionconnect does not require high angular resolution diffusion MRI or any MRI data. The regionconnect algorithm as well as the white matter tractogram and connectome, multi-layer, connectivity-based labels, and associated resources developed for the IIT Human Brain Atlas v.5.0 in this work are available at www.nitrc.org/projects/iit. An interactive, online version of regionconnect is also available at www.iit.edu/~mri.

8.
Stroke ; 51(9): 2825-2833, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32757750

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Enlarged perivascular spaces (EPVS) have been associated with aging, increased stroke risk, decreased cognitive function, and vascular dementia. However, the relationship of EPVS with age-related neuropathologies is not well understood. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to assess the neuropathologic correlates of EPVS in a large community-based cohort of older adults. The cognitive correlates of EPVS over and beyond those of other pathologies were also assessed. METHODS: This study included 654 older deceased and autopsied participants of 3 longitudinal community-based studies of aging that had available data on cognition, ex vivo brain magnetic resonance imaging, and detailed neuropathologic examination. EPVS seen on ex vivo magnetic resonance imaging were histologically validated. Experienced observers rated EPVS burden in ex vivo magnetic resonance imaging using a semiquantitative 4-level scale. Elastic-net regularized ordinal logistic regression was used to investigate associations of EPVS burden with age-related neuropathologies. Mixed-effects models of cognition controlling for neuropathologies, demographics, and clinical factors, were used to determine whether EPVS burden has additional contributions to cognitive decline. RESULTS: EPVS burden in the whole group was associated with gross infarcts (odds ratio=1.67, P=0.0017) and diabetes mellitus (odds ratio=1.73, P=0.004). When considering only nondemented participants (with mild or no cognitive impairment), EPVS burden was associated with gross infarcts (odds ratio=1.74, P=0.016) and microscopic infarcts (odds ratio=1.79, P=0.013). EPVS burden was associated with faster decline in visuospatial abilities (estimate=-0.009, P=0.028), in the whole group, as well as lower levels of semantic memory (estimate=-0.13, P=0.048) and visuospatial abilities (estimate=-0.11, P=0.016) at the time of death. CONCLUSIONS: EPVS and infarcts may share similar neurobiological pathways regardless of dementia status. EPVS burden is linked to diabetes mellitus independently of neuropathologies, extending recent findings in animal studies implicating diabetes mellitus in impairment of the glymphatic system. Finally, EPVS burden may reflect additional brain tissue injury that may contribute to cognitive decline, not captured with traditional neuropathologic measures.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/patologia , Disfunção Cognitiva , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso/patologia , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso/psicologia , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Envelhecimento/patologia , Infarto Cerebral/diagnóstico por imagem , Estudos de Coortes , Complicações do Diabetes/diagnóstico por imagem , Feminino , Humanos , Vida Independente , Estudos Longitudinais , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Memória , Exame Neurológico , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Desempenho Psicomotor
9.
Brain Imaging Behav ; 2020 Jul 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32720182

RESUMO

Self-reported experiences of discrimination are associated with a number of negative health outcomes. However, the neurobiological correlates of discrimination remain elusive. Recent neuroimaging work suggests that the amygdala is sensitive to forms of social adversity and the insula is involved in assessments of trust. We hypothesized that functional connectivity (FC) of these brain regions may be associated with discrimination in older Black adults. One-hundred and twenty-four nondemented older Black adults participating in the Minority Aging Research Study or the Clinical Core study of the Rush Alzheimer's Disease Center completed a measure of self-reported experiences of discrimination and a 3T MRI brain scan including structural T1 and resting-state fMRI EPIBOLD sequences. The right and left amygdala and insula regions were anatomically delineated as ROIs according to the Harvard-Oxford Brain Atlas and whole-brain voxelwise FC analyses were conducted using default parameters in the CONN toolbox. In regression analyses controlling for demographics and global cognition, self-reported experiences of discrimination were associated with greater FC between the left insula and the bilateral intracalcarine cortex, weaker FC between the left insula and the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, and weaker FC between the right insula and the left supplementary motor area. Amygdala analyses yielded no significant findings. Greater self-reported experiences of discrimination are associated with differential insula functional connectivity in older adults. More specifically, results suggest that discrimination is associated with differential connectivity of a key region (the insula) involved in trust perception.

10.
JAMA Psychiatry ; 2020 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32609320

RESUMO

Importance: Identifying genes and proteins for cognitive resilience (ie, targets that may be associated with slowing or preventing cognitive decline regardless of the presence, number, or combination of common neuropathologic conditions) provides a complementary approach to developing novel therapeutics for the treatment and prevention of Alzheimer disease and related dementias. Objective: To identify proteins associated with cognitive resilience via a proteome-wide association study of the human dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. Design, Setting, and Participants: This study used data from 391 community-dwelling older persons who participated in the Religious Orders Study and the Rush Memory and Aging Project. The Religious Orders Study began enrollment January 1, 1994, and the Rush Memory and Aging Project began enrollment September 1, 1997, and data were collected and analyzed through October 23, 2019. Exposures: Participants had undergone annual detailed clinical examinations, postmortem evaluations, and tandem mass tag proteomics analyses. Main Outcomes and Measures: The outcome of cognitive resilience was defined as a longitudinal change in cognition over time after controlling for common age-related neuropathologic indices, including Alzheimer disease, Lewy bodies, transactive response DNA-binding protein 43, hippocampal sclerosis, infarcts, and vessel diseases. More than 8000 high abundance proteins were quantified from frozen dorsolateral prefrontal cortex tissue using tandem mass tag and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Results: There were 391 participants (273 women); their mean (SD) age was 79.7 (6.7) years at baseline and 89.2 (6.5) years at death. Eight cortical proteins were identified in association with cognitive resilience: a higher level of NRN1 (estimate, 0.140; SE, 0.024; P = 7.35 × 10-9), ACTN4 (estimate, 0.321; SE, 0.065; P = 9.94 × 10-7), EPHX4 (estimate, 0.198; SE, 0.042; P = 2.13 × 10-6), RPH3A (estimate, 0.148; SE, 0.031; P = 2.58 × 10-6), SGTB (estimate, 0.211; SE, 0.045; P = 3.28 × 10-6), CPLX1 (estimate, 0.136; SE, 0.029; P = 4.06 × 10-6), and SH3GL1 (estimate, 0.179; SE, 0.039; P = 4.21 × 10-6) and a lower level of UBA1 (estimate, -0.366; SE, 0.076; P = 1.43 × 10-6) were associated with greater resilience. Conclusions and Relevance: These protein signals may represent novel targets for the maintenance of cognition in old age.

11.
Alzheimers Dement ; 16(1): 209-218, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31914231

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Reduced hippocampal volume is associated with late-life cognitive decline, but prior studies have not determined whether this association persists after accounting for Alzheimer's disease (AD) and other neuropathologies. METHODS: Participants were 531 deceased older adults from community-based cohort studies of aging who had undergone annual cognitive evaluations. At death, brain tissue underwent neuropathologic examination and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Linear mixed models examined whether hippocampal volume measured via MRI accounted for variation in decline rate of global cognition and five cognitive domains, above and beyond neuropathologic indices. RESULTS: Demographics and indices of AD, cerebrovascular disease, Lewy body disease, hippocampal sclerosis, TDP-43, and atherosclerosis accounted for 42.6% of the variation in global cognitive decline. Hippocampal volume accounted for an additional 5.4% of this variation and made similar contributions in four of the five cognitive domains. DISCUSSION: Hippocampal volume is associated with late-life cognitive decline, above and beyond contributions from common neuropathologic indices.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento , Disfunção Cognitiva/patologia , Hipocampo/patologia , Neuropatologia , Idoso , Envelhecimento/patologia , Encéfalo/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Lobo Temporal/patologia
12.
J Alzheimers Dis ; 73(1): 333-345, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31771057

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The association of white matter hyperintensities (WMH) with age-related vascular and neurodegenerative pathologies remains incompletely understood. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this work was to elucidate the neuropathologic correlates of WMH in a large community-based cohort of older adults. METHODS: Cerebral hemispheres from 603 community-based older adults were imaged with MRI ex vivo. All participants underwent annual clinical evaluation, cognitive assessment, and neuropathologic examination. WMH burden was assessed using a modified Fazekas rating scale. Multiple ordinal logistic regression was used to test the association of WMH burden with an array of age-related neuropathologies, adjusting for demographics. Mixed effects models of cognition controlling for neuropathologies and demographics were used to determine whether WMH burden contributes to cognitive decline beyond measured pathologies. RESULTS: WMH burden in the whole group was associated with both vascular and Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathologies: arteriolosclerosis (p < 10-4), gross (p < 10-4), and microscopic infarcts (p = 0.04), and amyloid-ß plaques (p = 0.028). In non-demented participants (mild or no cognitive impairment) (N = 332), WMH burden was related to gross infarcts (p = 10-4) and arteriolosclerosis (p < 10-4), but not to AD pathology. Similarly, in those with no cognitive impairment (N = 178), WMH burden was related to gross infarcts (p = 8×10-4) and arteriolosclerosis (p = 0.014). WMH burden was associated with faster decline in perceptual speed in both the whole (p = 0.038) and non-demented (p = 0.006) groups. CONCLUSION: WMH burden has independent associations with vascular pathologies in older adults regardless of clinical status, and with AD pathology later in the progression of AD. Moreover, WMH burden may reflect additional tissue injury not captured with traditional neuropathologic indices.

13.
Neurology ; 94(2): e142-e152, 2020 01 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31757868

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the contribution of Alzheimer disease (AD) vs non-AD neuropathologies to hippocampal atrophy. METHODS: The Religious Orders Study and Rush Memory and Aging Project are clinicopathologic cohort studies of aging. The current study included 547 participants who had undergone brain autopsy and postmortem hippocampal volume measurement by November 1, 2018. Hippocampal volume was measured with postmortem MRI via a 3D region of interest applied to the hippocampal formation. Neuropathologies were measured via uniform structured evaluations. Linear regression analyses estimated the proportion of variance of hippocampal volume attributable to AD and non-AD neuropathologies. RESULTS: The average age at death was 90 years, and the average hippocampal volume was 2.1 mL. AD, transactive response DNA-binding protein 43 (TDP), hippocampal sclerosis (HS), and atherosclerosis were associated with hippocampal volume. After demographics and total hemisphere volume were controlled for, 7.0% of the variance (95% bootstrapped confidence interval [CI] 4.3%-10.5%) of hippocampal volume was attributable to AD pathology. TDP/HS explained an additional 4.5% (95% CI 2.2%-7.6%). Among individuals with Alzheimer dementia (n = 232), 3.1% (95% CI 0.6%-7.7%) of the variance was attributable to AD pathology, and TDP/HS explained an additional 6.1% (95% CI 2.2%-11.6%). Among those without Alzheimer dementia (n = 307), 3.2% (95% CI 0.9%-7.3%) of the variance was attributable to AD pathology, and TDP/HS explained an additional 1.1%, which did not reach statistical significance. Lewy bodies and vascular diseases had modest contribution to the variance of hippocampal volume. CONCLUSIONS: Both AD and TDP/HS contribute to hippocampal volume loss in older-old persons, with TDP/HS more strongly associated with hippocampal volume than AD in Alzheimer dementia.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer/patologia , Hipocampo/patologia , Proteinopatias TDP-43/patologia , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Atrofia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Esclerose
14.
Brain Imaging Behav ; 14(5): 1521-1530, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30895444

RESUMO

Scam susceptibility places older adults - even those with intact cognition - at great risk. Lower grey matter volumes, particularly within right medial temporal regions, are associated with higher scam susceptibility; however, very little is known about white matter associates. We investigated associations between white matter integrity measured using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and scam susceptibility in 302 non-demented older adults (75% female; mean years: age = 81.3 + 7.5, education = 15.7 + 2.9). Participants completed comprehensive neuroimaging (including DTI, T1- and T2-weighted imaging), a self-report measure of scam susceptibility, and neuropsychological testing. Tract-Based Spatial Statistics (TBSS) investigated associations of DTI-derived measures of fractional anisotropy (FA), trace of the diffusion tensor, axial and radial diffusivity (separately) with scam susceptibility adjusting for age, sex, education, and white matter hyperintensities (WMH; total volume and voxelwise separately). Statistical significance was determined at p < 0.05, Family Wise Error corrected. TBSS revealed significant negative associations between FA in tracts connecting a number of right hemisphere white matter regions and scam susceptibility, particularly after additional adjustment for global cognitive functioning. The pathways implicated were mainly in right temporal-parietal and temporal-occipital regions. Association of trace, axial, and radial diffusivity with scam susceptibility were not significant in fully-adjusted models. Lower white matter integrity within right hemisphere tracts was associated with higher scam susceptibility independent of relevant confounds including global cognition. Thus, a right hemisphere brain network that includes key structures implicated in multi-sensory processing of immediate and future consequences may serve as a neurobiologic substrate of scam susceptibility in vulnerable older adults.

15.
Neurobiol Aging ; 84: 17-25, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31479860

RESUMO

The associations of 4 proteins-AK4, ITPK1, HSPB2, and IGFBP5-with cognitive function in older adults were largely unexplained by known brain pathologies. We examined the extent to which individual protein associations with cognitive decline were attributable to microstructural changes in the brain. This study included 521 participants (mean age 90.3, 65.9-108.3) with the postmortem reciprocal of transverse relaxation time (R2) magnetic resonance image. All participants came from one of the 2 ongoing longitudinal cohorts of aging and dementia, the Religious Orders Study and Rush Memory and Aging Project. Higher abundance of AK4, HSPB2, and IGFBP5 was associated with faster cognitive decline and mediated through lower postmortem R2 in the frontal and temporal white matter regions. In contrast, higher abundance of ITPK1 was associated with slower cognitive decline and mediated through higher postmortem R2 in the frontal and temporal white matter regions. The associations of 4 proteins-AK4, ITPK1, IGFBP5, and HSPB2-with cognition in late life were explained via microstructural changes in the brain.


Assuntos
Adenilato Quinase/genética , Encéfalo/patologia , Disfunção Cognitiva/genética , Estudos de Associação Genética , Proteínas de Choque Térmico HSP27/genética , Proteína 5 de Ligação a Fator de Crescimento Semelhante à Insulina/genética , Fosfotransferases (Aceptor do Grupo Álcool)/genética , Estudos de Coortes , Humanos
16.
Commun Biol ; 2: 285, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31396565

RESUMO

Brain lobar volumes are heritable but genetic studies are limited. We performed genome-wide association studies of frontal, occipital, parietal and temporal lobe volumes in 16,016 individuals, and replicated our findings in 8,789 individuals. We identified six genetic loci associated with specific lobar volumes independent of intracranial volume. Two loci, associated with occipital (6q22.32) and temporal lobe volume (12q14.3), were previously reported to associate with intracranial and hippocampal volume, respectively. We identified four loci previously unknown to affect brain volumes: 3q24 for parietal lobe volume, and 1q22, 4p16.3 and 14q23.1 for occipital lobe volume. The associated variants were located in regions enriched for histone modifications (DAAM1 and THBS3), or close to genes causing Mendelian brain-related diseases (ZIC4 and FGFRL1). No genetic overlap between lobar volumes and neurological or psychiatric diseases was observed. Our findings reveal part of the complex genetics underlying brain development and suggest a role for regulatory regions in determining brain volumes.


Assuntos
Lobo Frontal/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Loci Gênicos , Variação Genética , Lobo Occipital/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Lobo Parietal/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Lobo Temporal/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Lobo Frontal/diagnóstico por imagem , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Genótipo , Hereditariedade , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Lobo Occipital/diagnóstico por imagem , Tamanho do Órgão/genética , Lobo Parietal/diagnóstico por imagem , Fenótipo , Lobo Temporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Reino Unido
18.
Neuroepidemiology ; 53(1-2): 100-107, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31067547

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Few data are available on associations of antiphospholipid (aPL) antibodies with cognitive and motor decline in aging, and cerebrovascular disease on in vivo neuroimaging and postmortem neuropathology. METHODS: This longitudinal, clinical-pathologic study (aPL antibodies, brain infarcts, and cognitive and motor decline in aging), was derived from 2 ongoing community-based cohort studies. A panel of 3 aPL antibodies was assayed in serum from 956 older individuals (mean age = 81.1 years; 72% women). Serum was also tested in a subset for markers of inflammation (C-reactive protein [CRP]) and blood-brain barrier breakdown (matrix metalloproteinases, MMPs). Annual clinical evaluations documented cognitive (17 neuropsychological tests) and motor function including parkinsonism. Cerebrovascular disease data were derived from in vivo neuroimaging and postmortem neuropathologic evaluations (699 individuals). We examined associations of aPL with cognitive and motor decline, other serum markers, neuroimaging, and neuropathology. RESULTS: Of 956 individuals, 197 (20.6%) had aPL positivity, defined as positivity on any of the assays, at the time of first measurement. During a mean follow-up of 6.6 years (SD 4), overall aPL positivity was not associated with change in global cognition (estimate = -0.005, SE 0.011; p = 0.622) or parkinsonian signs (estimate = -0.003, SE 0.017; p = 0.860). aPL were not associated with serum CRP or MMPs (both p > 0.268). aPL were not associated with in vivo brain magnetic resonance imaging white matter hyperintensities or infarcts (both p > 0.376). Among those autopsied, aPL were not associated with pathologically confirmed brain infarcts, or cerebral atherosclerosis or arteriolosclerosis (all p≥ 0.447). CONCLUSIONS: In older individuals followed longitudinally, aPL do not relate to cognitive or motor decline, inflammation, or cerebrovascular disease on in vivo neuroimaging or postmortem neuropathology.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antifosfolipídeos/sangue , Disfunção Cognitiva/sangue , Disfunção Cognitiva/diagnóstico por imagem , Transtornos Motores/sangue , Transtornos Motores/diagnóstico por imagem , Neuroimagem/métodos , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Biomarcadores/sangue , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Neuropatologia
19.
Brain ; 142(6): 1503-1527, 2019 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31039256

RESUMO

We describe a recently recognized disease entity, limbic-predominant age-related TDP-43 encephalopathy (LATE). LATE neuropathological change (LATE-NC) is defined by a stereotypical TDP-43 proteinopathy in older adults, with or without coexisting hippocampal sclerosis pathology. LATE-NC is a common TDP-43 proteinopathy, associated with an amnestic dementia syndrome that mimicked Alzheimer's-type dementia in retrospective autopsy studies. LATE is distinguished from frontotemporal lobar degeneration with TDP-43 pathology based on its epidemiology (LATE generally affects older subjects), and relatively restricted neuroanatomical distribution of TDP-43 proteinopathy. In community-based autopsy cohorts, ∼25% of brains had sufficient burden of LATE-NC to be associated with discernible cognitive impairment. Many subjects with LATE-NC have comorbid brain pathologies, often including amyloid-ß plaques and tauopathy. Given that the 'oldest-old' are at greatest risk for LATE-NC, and subjects of advanced age constitute a rapidly growing demographic group in many countries, LATE has an expanding but under-recognized impact on public health. For these reasons, a working group was convened to develop diagnostic criteria for LATE, aiming both to stimulate research and to promote awareness of this pathway to dementia. We report consensus-based recommendations including guidelines for diagnosis and staging of LATE-NC. For routine autopsy workup of LATE-NC, an anatomically-based preliminary staging scheme is proposed with TDP-43 immunohistochemistry on tissue from three brain areas, reflecting a hierarchical pattern of brain involvement: amygdala, hippocampus, and middle frontal gyrus. LATE-NC appears to affect the medial temporal lobe structures preferentially, but other areas also are impacted. Neuroimaging studies demonstrated that subjects with LATE-NC also had atrophy in the medial temporal lobes, frontal cortex, and other brain regions. Genetic studies have thus far indicated five genes with risk alleles for LATE-NC: GRN, TMEM106B, ABCC9, KCNMB2, and APOE. The discovery of these genetic risk variants indicate that LATE shares pathogenetic mechanisms with both frontotemporal lobar degeneration and Alzheimer's disease, but also suggests disease-specific underlying mechanisms. Large gaps remain in our understanding of LATE. For advances in prevention, diagnosis, and treatment, there is an urgent need for research focused on LATE, including in vitro and animal models. An obstacle to clinical progress is lack of diagnostic tools, such as biofluid or neuroimaging biomarkers, for ante-mortem detection of LATE. Development of a disease biomarker would augment observational studies seeking to further define the risk factors, natural history, and clinical features of LATE, as well as eventual subject recruitment for targeted therapies in clinical trials.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer/patologia , Encéfalo/patologia , Degeneração Lobar Frontotemporal/patologia , Proteinopatias TDP-43/patologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Encefalopatias/patologia , Feminino , Demência Frontotemporal/patologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neuroimagem/métodos , Estudos Retrospectivos
20.
Cell Stem Cell ; 24(6): 974-982.e3, 2019 06 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31130513

RESUMO

Whether hippocampal neurogenesis persists throughout life in the human brain is not fully resolved. Here, we demonstrate that hippocampal neurogenesis is persistent through the tenth decade of life and is detectable in patients with mild cognitive impairments and Alzheimer's disease. In a cohort of 18 participants with a mean age of 90.6 years, Nestin+Sox2+ neural progenitor cells (NPCs) and DCX+ neuroblasts and immature neurons were detected, but their numbers greatly varied between participants. Nestin+ cells localize in the anterior hippocampus, and NPCs, neuroblasts, and immature neurons are evenly distributed along the anterior to posterior axis. The number of DCX+PCNA+ cells is reduced in mild cognitive impairments, and higher numbers of neuroblasts are associated with better cognitive status. The number of DCX+PCNA+ cells correlates with functional interactions between presynaptic SNARE proteins. Our results suggest that hippocampal neurogenesis persists in the aged and diseased human brain and that it is possibly associated with cognition.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/fisiologia , Doença de Alzheimer/patologia , Hipocampo/patologia , Células-Tronco Neurais/fisiologia , Neurônios/fisiologia , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Células Cultivadas , Cognição , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Proteínas Associadas aos Microtúbulos/metabolismo , Nestina/metabolismo , Neurogênese , Neuropeptídeos/metabolismo , Antígeno Nuclear de Célula em Proliferação/metabolismo , Proteínas SNARE/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição SOXB1/metabolismo
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