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1.
BMC Vet Res ; 16(1): 321, 2020 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32873288

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In an era of unprecedented socio-ecological changes, managing wildlife health demands high-quality data collection and the engagement of local communities. Blastocerus dichotomus, the largest South American deer, is Vulnerable to extinction mainly due to habitat loss. Diseases have been recognised as a potential threat, and winter mortality has been historically described in marsh deer populations from Argentina. Field difficulties have, however, prevented in-depth studies of their health status. RESULTS: Between May 2014 and April 2017, we investigated marsh deer morbidity and mortality in the two largest populations in Argentina. We collected data by means of a passive surveillance system that involved a network of researchers, field partners (veterinarians, park rangers, and local community), and decision makers. We sampled marsh deer during as well as outside mortality events. A total of 44 marsh deer with different body condition scores were evaluated. We obtained haematology and biochemistry values from animals with good body condition score. Marsh deer with poor body condition had a high burden of the ticks Amblyomma triste and Rhipicephalus microplus. Vector-borne agents such as Theileria cervi, Trypanosoma theileri, Trypanosoma evansi, Ehrlichia chaffeensis, Anaplasma platys, Anaplasma odocoilei, Anaplasma marginale, and Candidatus Anaplasma boleense were also found. Haemonchus spp., Ostertagia spp., and Trichostrongylus spp. were the most frequent gastrointestinal parasites in deer with poor body condition. A Multiple Correspondence Analysis reinforced a possible association of winter period with lower body score condition, high tick loads, infection with E. chaffeensis, and presence of harmful gastrointestinal parasites. CONCLUSIONS: Our approach allowed the establishment of a participatory surveillance network of marsh deer morbidity and mortality in Argentina. We report and analyse the first data obtained opportunistically within the framework of this network, providing information on the infectious and parasitic agents in marsh deer populations. The occurrence of Fasciola hepatica and Leptospira interrogans serovar pyrogenes is reported for the first time in wild marsh deer from Argentina. Our data will be useful to improve the interpretation of future mortality events. The field implementation of a surveillance network is key to a holistic approach to wildlife diseases.

2.
Mol Phylogenet Evol ; 152: 106920, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32768453

RESUMO

Among primates, susceptibility to yellow fever (YFV), a single-stranded (ss) RNA virus, ranges from complete resistance to high susceptibility. Howler monkeys (genus Alouatta) are the most susceptible to YFV. In order to identify Alouatta-specific genetic factors that may be responsible for their susceptibility, we collected skin samples from howler monkey museum specimens of the species A. caraya and A. guariba clamitans. We compared the rate of nonsynonymous to synonymous (dN/dS) changes of Toll-like receptor (TLR) 7 and TLR8, the two genes responsible for detecting all ssRNA viruses, across the Primate order. Overall, we found that the TLR7 gene is under stronger purifying selection in howler monkeys compared to other New World and Old World primates, but TLR8 is under the same selective pressure. When we evaluated dN/dS at each codon, we found six codons under positive selection in Alouatta TLR8 and two codons under positive selection in TLR7. The changes in TLR7 are unique to A. guariba clamitans and are found in functionally important regions likely to affect detection of ssRNA viruses by TLR7/TLR8, as well as downstream signaling. These amino acid differences in A. guariba clamitans may play a role in YFV susceptibility. These results have implications for identifying genetic factors affecting YFV susceptibility in primates.

3.
Am J Phys Anthropol ; 173(1): 50-60, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32583896

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In 2007-2009, a major yellow fever virus (YFV) outbreak in Northern Argentina decimated the local howler monkey (Alouatta) population. AIMS: To evaluate whether the surviving howler monkeys possess advantageous genetic variants inherited from monkeys alive prior to the YFV outbreak, we explored the relationship between Toll-like receptor (TLR) 7 and TLR8 gene variation and YFV susceptibility. METHODS: We used samples from Alouatta individuals in Misiones, Argentina alive before the YFV outbreak, individuals that died during the outbreak, and individuals that survived the outbreak and are alive today. We measured genetic divergence between Alouatta YFV exposure groups and evaluated Alouatta-specific substitutions for functional consequences. RESULTS: We did not find different allele frequencies in the post-YFV exposure Alouatta group compared to the pre-exposure group. We identified three nonsynonymous variants in TLR7 in Alouatta guariba clamitans. Two of these substitutions are under positive selection in functionally important regions of the gene. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS: Our results did not indicate that surviving howler monkey spossess advantageous genetic variants at greater frequency than those alive before the YFV outbreak. However, the positively selected unique coding differences in A. guariba clamitans are in the region important in pathogen detection which may affect YFV resistance. Morework is necessary to fully explore this hypothesis.

4.
Arch Virol ; 164(12): 3073-3079, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31555902

RESUMO

A canine parvovirus (CPV)-like virus was detected by PCR and isolated from dead coatis in Argentina. Analysis of the full-length genome sequence revealed that it resembled CPV-but also contained a mutation in the VP2 protein (Arg377Ser) that has not been described previously. This is the first report of a CPV-like virus producing clinical disease in coatis. Genetic similarity to CPV-2c viruses detected in Brazil suggests a strong relationship between these viruses. Although the pathogenic potential of CPV- and feline panleukopenia virus (FPV)-like strains in wild animals is still not completely understood, this study highlights the importance of parvoviruses as a threat to wildlife if proper conditions are present.


Assuntos
Proteínas do Capsídeo/genética , Infecções por Parvoviridae/mortalidade , Parvovirus Canino/classificação , Procyonidae/virologia , Animais , Argentina , Brasil , Tamanho do Genoma , Mutação , Infecções por Parvoviridae/veterinária , Parvovirus Canino/genética , Parvovirus Canino/isolamento & purificação , Filogenia , Análise de Sequência de DNA/métodos
5.
Integr Comp Biol ; 59(5): 1176-1189, 2019 11 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30873523

RESUMO

Quantifying how the environment shapes host immune defense is important for understanding which wild populations may be more susceptible or resistant to pathogens. Spatial variation in parasite risk, food and predator abundance, and abiotic conditions can each affect immunity, and these factors can also manifest at both local and biogeographic scales. Yet identifying predictors and the spatial scale of their effects is limited by the rarity of studies that measure immunity across many populations of broadly distributed species. We analyzed leukocyte profiles from 39 wild populations of the common vampire bat (Desmodus rotundus) across its wide geographic range throughout the Neotropics. White blood cell differentials varied spatially, with proportions of neutrophils and lymphocytes varying up to six-fold across sites. Leukocyte profiles were spatially autocorrelated at small and very large distances, suggesting that local environment and large-scale biogeographic factors influence cellular immunity. Generalized additive models showed that bat populations closer to the northern and southern limits of the species range had more neutrophils, monocytes, and basophils, but fewer lymphocytes and eosinophils, than bats sampled at the core of their distribution. Habitats with access to more livestock also showed similar patterns in leukocyte profiles, but large-scale patterns were partly confounded by time between capture and sampling across sites. Our findings suggest that populations at the edge of their range experience physiologically limiting conditions that predict higher chronic stress and greater investment in cellular innate immunity. High food abundance in livestock-dense habitats may exacerbate such conditions by increasing bat density or diet homogenization, although future spatially and temporally coordinated field studies with common protocols are needed to limit sampling artifacts. Systematically assessing immune function and response over space will elucidate how environmental conditions influence traits relevant to epidemiology and help predict disease risks with anthropogenic disturbance, land conversion, and climate change.


Assuntos
Distribuição Animal , Quirópteros/imunologia , Ecossistema , Imunidade Inata , Leucócitos/imunologia , Animais
6.
Int J Parasitol Parasites Wildl ; 8: 45-49, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30619709

RESUMO

Vector-borne pathogens are responsible for serious emerging diseases and have been widely described in wildlife. Ehrlichia chaffeensis causes the zoonotic "monocytic ehrlichiosis" in humans, is transmitted by the tick Amblyomma americanum and its reservoir host is the white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in North America. Little is known about the native reservoir and the tick vectors involved in the transmission cycle in South America. We report here the detection of E. chaffeensis in a study on marsh deer (Blastocerus dichotomus) mortality in Argentina, in different time periods between 2007 and 2016. Four deer, from two distinct populations, were positive for E. chaffeensis through molecular methods. Additionally, the variable-length PCR target (VLPT) region of positive samples was genotyped. Our results provide the first evidence of E. chaffeensis in autochthonous Cervidae from Argentina, contributing to uncover the distribution of this tick-borne infection in South America.

7.
J Zoo Wildl Med ; 49(4): 1054-1060, 2018 12 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30592932

RESUMO

Since its emergence in the 1970s, canine parvovirus (CPV) has spread worldwide and infects a wide variety of mammalian hosts, including domestic and nondomestic carnivores. Today it is one of the most important pathogenic viruses associated with high morbidity and mortality in domestic dogs ( Canis familiaris). In South America, the range of wild hosts has been scarcely studied and the epidemiology of CPV in wildlife is still unclear. In 2011, feces from five wild carnivores (bush dog [ Speothos venaticus] , jaguar [ Panthera onca], puma [ Puma concolor], oncilla [ Leopardus guttulus], and ocelot [ Leopardus pardalis]) were collected in Misiones, Argentina, using a detection dog. Of the 289 feces collected, 209 (72.3%) had sufficient sample remaining to be used in this study and the majority of these were genetically confirmed to individual (81.3%) and sex (78.4%) level. In fact, these samples represent a minimum of 115 individuals (10 jaguars, 13 pumas, 33 ocelots, 38 oncillas, and 21 bush dogs). Through polymerase chain reaction, a 583-bp fragment in the VP2 gene of CPV was amplified in these samples. While no samples showed evidence of infection, this does not exclude the occurrence of CPV in wild carnivores in the area, as intermittent viral shedding could condition the diagnosis of CPV in feces of infected wild mammals. Locally, it is recommended that long-term monitoring of parvovirus be continued in wildlife and expanded to domestic carnivores. Internationally, this study provides a useful contribution to the approach to the sylvatic cycle of parvovirus in wild carnivores.


Assuntos
Carnívoros , Fezes/virologia , Infecções por Parvoviridae/veterinária , Parvovirus Canino/fisiologia , Eliminação de Partículas Virais , Animais , Argentina/epidemiologia , Espécies em Perigo de Extinção , Infecções por Parvoviridae/epidemiologia , Infecções por Parvoviridae/virologia
8.
Parasitology ; 143(11): 1358-68, 2016 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27220254

RESUMO

Establishing the putative links between sylvatic and domestic transmission cycles of Trypanosoma cruzi, the etiological agent of Chagas disease, is of public health relevance. We conducted three surveys to assess T. cruzi infection in wild mammals from a rural and a preserved area in Misiones Province, Northeastern Argentina, which had recently been declared free of vector- and blood-borne transmission of human T. cruzi infection. A total of 200 wild mammals were examined by xenodiagnosis (XD) and/or polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification of the hyper-variable region of kinetoplast DNA minicircles of T. cruzi (kDNA-PCR). The overall prevalence of T. cruzi infection was 8%. Nine (16%) of 57 Didelphis albiventris opossums and two (7%) of 29 Desmodus rotundus vampire bats were positive by both XD and kDNA-PCR. Additionally, one D. rotundus positive for T. cruzi by kDNA-PCR tested positive by satellite-DNA-PCR (SAT-DNA-PCR). The T. cruzi-infected bats were captured indoors and in the yard of a vacant dwelling. All D. albiventris were infected with TcI and both XD-positive D. rotundus by TcII. Fifty-five opossum cubs within the marsupium were negative by XD. The mean infectiousness to the vector was 62% in D. albiventris and 50% in D. rotundus. Mice experimentally infected with a parasite isolate from a vampire bat displayed lesions typically caused by T. cruzi. Our study documents the presence of the genotype TcII in a sylvatic host for the first time in Argentina, and the occurrence of two transmission cycles of T. cruzi in a district free of domestic vector-borne transmission.


Assuntos
Doença de Chagas/veterinária , Quirópteros/parasitologia , Reservatórios de Doenças , Mamíferos/parasitologia , Trypanosoma cruzi/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Animais Selvagens/parasitologia , Argentina/epidemiologia , Doença de Chagas/epidemiologia , Doença de Chagas/parasitologia , Doença de Chagas/transmissão , DNA de Protozoário/genética , Vetores de Doenças , Gambás/parasitologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Prevalência , Xenodiagnóstico
9.
Ecohealth ; 11(4): 603-9, 2014 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25106849

RESUMO

We evaluated the prevalence of WNV and SLEV neutralizing antibodies in captive and free-ranging raptors from Argentina by plaque-reduction neutralization test. Eighty plasma samples from 12 species were analyzed. Only one captive adult Crowned Eagle (Harpyhaliaetus coronatus) was WNV seropositive (prevalence: 1.25%; antibody titer of 1:80). Two captive Crowned Eagles were SLEV seropositive (prevalence: 2.50%; antibody titers: 1:80 and 1:40).These findings expand the geographic distribution of WNV and SLEV and confirm their activity in central and northeastern Argentina. West Nile virus activity in Argentina may represent a potential threat to Crowned Eagles and other endangered raptors in this country.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Doenças das Aves/epidemiologia , Vírus da Encefalite de St. Louis/imunologia , Aves Predatórias , Vírus do Nilo Ocidental/imunologia , Animais , Argentina , Doenças das Aves/imunologia , Prevalência
10.
J Avian Med Surg ; 27(3): 180-6, 2013 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24344508

RESUMO

To determine the dosage of enrofloxacin in southern crested caracaras (Caracara plancus), plasma concentrations of enrofloxacin were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography after intravenous (IV) (5 mg/kg) and intramuscular (IM) (10 mg/kg) administration. This compound presented a relatively high volume of distribution (2.09 L/kg), a total body clearance of 0.24 L/kg x h, and a long permanence as shown by an elimination half-life of 7.81 hours after IV administration and a terminal half-life of 6.58 hours after IM administration. The areas under the concentration-time curves (AUC) were 21.92 and 34.38 microg x h/mL for IM and IV administration, respectively. Enrofloxacin was rapidly absorbed after IM administration with a time to reach maximum concentration of 0.72 hours and bioavailability of 78.76%. After IM administration, the peak drug concentration (C(max)) was 3.92 microg/mL. Values of minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), C(max), and AUC have been used to predict the clinical efficacy of a drug in treating bacterial infections, with a C(max)/MIC value of 10 and an AUC/MIC ratio of 125-250 associated with optimal bactericidal effects. By using the study data and a MIC breakpoint of 0.25 microg/mL, values of C(max)/MIC were 13.74 and 15.94 and for AUC/MIC were 90.73 and 139.63, for the IV and IM routes respectively. For the treatment of infectious diseases caused by microorganisms with MIC < or = 0.25 microg/mL, the calculated optimal dosages were 7.5 and 9.5 mg/kg q24h by the IV and IM routes, respectively. For less susceptible bacteria, a dose increase should be evaluated. To treat caracara by the IV route against microorganisms with MIC < or = 0.25 microg/mL, the dose should be higher than the 5 mg/kg used in our study, but possible side effects derived from an increase in the IV dose and efficacy in sick birds should be assessed.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacocinética , Aves/sangue , Fluoroquinolonas/farmacocinética , Animais , Antibacterianos/sangue , Área Sob a Curva , Campylobacter jejuni/efeitos dos fármacos , Ciprofloxacino/sangue , Ciprofloxacino/metabolismo , Ciprofloxacino/farmacocinética , Enrofloxacina , Escherichia coli/efeitos dos fármacos , Fluoroquinolonas/sangue , Meia-Vida , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana
11.
J Wildl Dis ; 48(2): 512-3, 2012 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22493133

RESUMO

Serum from four black howler monkeys (Alouatta caraya) was screened for antibodies to seven viruses by dot immunoassay. Cytomegalovirus antibodies were detected in three of four individuals and provide the first evidence of exposure by black howler monkeys to this virus.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Infecções por Citomegalovirus/veterinária , Citomegalovirus/imunologia , Doenças dos Macacos/epidemiologia , Saimiri , Animais , Argentina/epidemiologia , Infecções por Citomegalovirus/epidemiologia , Masculino , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos
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