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1.
Nat Commun ; 8(1): 62, 2017 07 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28680129

RESUMO

River flow is mainly controlled by climate, physiography and regulations, but their relative importance over large landmasses is poorly understood. Here we show from computational modelling that hydropower regulation is a key driver of flow regime change in snow-dominated regions and is more important than future climate changes. This implies that climate adaptation needs to include regulation schemes. The natural river regime in snowy regions has low flow when snow is stored and a pronounced peak flow when snow is melting. Global warming and hydropower regulation change this temporal pattern similarly, causing less difference in river flow between seasons. We conclude that in snow-fed rivers globally, the future climate change impact on flow regime is minor compared to regulation downstream of large reservoirs, and of similar magnitude over large landmasses. Our study not only highlights the impact of hydropower production but also that river regulation could be turned into a measure for climate adaptation to maintain biodiversity on floodplains under climate change.Global warming and hydropower regulations are major threats to future fresh-water availability and biodiversity. Here, the authors show that their impact on flow regime over a large landmass result in similar changes, but hydropower is more critical locally and may have potential for climate adaptation in floodplains.

2.
J Environ Monit ; 11(3): 506-14, 2009 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19280030

RESUMO

In EUROHARP, an EC Framework V project, which started in 2002 with 21 partners in 17 countries across Europe, a detailed intercomparison of contemporary catchment-scale modelling approaches was undertaken to characterise the relative importance of point and diffuse pollution of nutrients in surface freshwater systems. The study focused on the scientific evaluation of different modelling approaches, which were validated on three core catchments (the Ouse, UK; the Vansjo-Hobøl, Norway; and the Enza, Italy), and the application of each tool to three additional, randomly chosen catchments across Europe. The tools involved differ profoundly in their complexity, level of process representation and data requirements. The tools include simple loading models, statistical, conceptual and empirical model approaches, and physics-based (mechanistic) models. The results of a scientific intercomparison of the characteristics of these different model approaches are described. This includes an analysis of potential strengths and weaknesses of the nutrient models.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Modelos Teóricos , Poluição Química da Água/prevenção & controle , Agricultura , Simulação por Computador , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/economia , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/métodos , Monitoramento Ambiental/economia , Europa (Continente) , Rios , Movimentos da Água , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Poluição Química da Água/economia , Abastecimento de Água
3.
J Environ Monit ; 11(3): 526-39, 2009 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19280032

RESUMO

Models' abilities to predict nutrient losses at subannual timesteps is highly significant for evaluating policy measures, as it enables trends and the frequency of exceedance of water quality thresholds to be predicted. Subannual predictions also permit assessments of seasonality in nutrient concentrations, which are necessary to determine susceptibility to eutrophic conditions and the impact of management practices on water quality. Predictions of subannual concentrations are pertinent to EC Directives, whereas load estimates are relevant to the 50% target reduction in nutrient loading to the maritime area under OSPAR. This article considers the ability of four models (ranging from conceptual to fully mechanistic), to predict river flows, concentrations and loads of nitrogen and phosphorus on a subannual basis in catchments in Norway, England, and Italy. Results demonstrate that model performance deemed satisfactory on an annual basis may conceal considerable divergence in performance when scrutinised on a weekly or monthly basis. In most cases the four models performed satisfactorily, and mismatches between measurements and model predictions were primarily ascribed to the limitations in input data (soils in the Norwegian catchment; weather in the Italian catchment). However, results identified limitations in model conceptualisation associated with the damping and lagging effect of a large lake leading to contrasts in model performance upstream and downstream of this feature in the Norwegian catchment. For SWAT applied to the Norwegian catchment, although flow predictions were reasonable, the large number of parameters requiring identification, and the lack of familiarity with this environment, led to poor predictions of river nutrient concentrations.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Modelos Teóricos , Rios , Movimentos da Água , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/métodos , Europa (Continente) , Fatores de Tempo , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Poluição Química da Água/prevenção & controle
4.
J Environ Monit ; 11(3): 540-53, 2009 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19280033

RESUMO

The capability of eight nutrient models to predict annual nutrient losses (nitrogen and phosphorus) at catchment scale have been studied in the EUROHARP project. The methodologies involved in these models differ profoundly in their complexity, level of process representation and data requirements. This evaluation is focused on model performance in three core catchments: the Vansjø-Hobøl (Norway), the Ouse (Yorkshire, UK) and the Enza (Italy). These three different model applications have been evaluated by comparing calculated annual nutrient loads (total N or nitrate and total P), based on observed flow and total nitrogen or nitrate and total phosphorus concentrations, and the annual nutrient loads that were simulated by the eight nutrient models. Four statistics have been applied for this purpose: the root mean squared error (RMSE), the mean absolute error (MAE), the mean error (ME), and Nash-Sutcliffe's model efficiency (NS). The results show that all model approaches can predict the calculated annual discharges. Depending on the observed statistics (RMSE, MAE, ME and NS) the scores of the model application differed, therefore no overall 'best model' could be identified. Although the water and nutrient loads from (sub)catchments can be predicted, the modelled pathways of nutrients within agricultural land and the nutrient losses to surface waters from agricultural land vary among the catchments and among those model approaches which are able to make this distinction.


Assuntos
Agricultura , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Modelos Teóricos , Rios , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/métodos , Europa (Continente) , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Solo/análise , Movimentos da Água , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Poluição Química da Água
5.
J Environ Monit ; 11(3): 554-71, 2009 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19280034

RESUMO

The application of diffuse pollution models included in EUROHARP encompassed varying levels of parameterisation and approaches to the preparation of input data depending on the model and modelling team involved. Modellers consistently faced important decisions in relation to data interpretation, especially in those catchments with unfamiliar physical or climatic characteristics, where catchment conditions were beyond the range for which a particular model was originally developed, or where only limited input data were available. In addition to a broad discussion of data issues, this paper compares the performance of the four sub-annual output models tested in EUROHARP (EveNFlow, NL-CAT, SWAT and TRK) in three test catchments without the modelling teams having sight of measured flow and nitrate concentration data. Model performance in this "blind test" indicate that the range of predictions generated by any individual models pre and post calibration exceed the differences between the estimates yielded by all four models. Comparison of Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) statistics for simulated and observed flow, concentration and loads underscores the benefits of calibration for these intermediate and complex model formulations. Interpretation of input data (e.g. rainfall interpolation method and pedotransfer functions selected) appeared equally (or more) important than process representation. In the absence of calibration data, modeller unfamiliarity with a particular catchment and its environmental processes sometimes resulted in questionable assumptions and input errors which highlight the problems facing modellers charged with implementing policies under the Water Framework Directive (2000/60/EC) in poorly monitored catchments. Catchment data owners and modellers must therefore work more closely given that the output from diffuse pollution models is clearly modeller-limited as well as model-limited.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Modelos Teóricos , Rios , Poluição Química da Água , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/métodos , Europa (Continente) , Movimentos da Água , Poluentes Químicos da Água
6.
J Environ Monit ; 11(3): 572-83, 2009 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19280035

RESUMO

An ensemble of nutrient models was applied in 17 European catchments to analyse the variation that appears after simulation of net nutrient loads and partitioning of nutrient loads at catchment scale. Eight models for N and five models for P were applied in three core catchments covering European-wide gradients in climate, topography, soil types and land use (Vansjø-Hobøl (Norway), Ouse (Yorkshire, UK) and Enza (Italy)). Moreover, each of the models was applied in 3-14 other EUROHARP catchments in order to inter-compare the outcome of the nutrient load partitioning at a wider European scale. The results of the nutrient load partitioning show a variation in the computed average annual nitrogen and phosphorus loss from agricultural land within the 17 catchments between 19.1-34.6 kg N ha(-1) and 0.12-1.67 kg P ha(-1). All the applied nutrient models show that the catchment specific variation (range and standard deviation) in the model results is lowest when simulating the net nutrient load and becomes increasingly higher for simulation of the gross nutrient loss from agricultural land and highest for the simulations of the gross nutrient loss from other diffuse sources in the core catchments. The average coefficient of variation for the model simulations of gross P loss from agricultural land is nearly twice as high (67%) as for the model simulations of gross N loss from agricultural land (40%). The variation involved in model simulations of net nutrient load and gross nutrient losses in European catchments was due to regional factors and the presence or absence of large lakes within the catchment.


Assuntos
Modelos Teóricos , Rios/química , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Agricultura , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/métodos , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Europa (Continente) , Nitrogênio/química , Fósforo/química , Movimentos da Água , Poluição Química da Água
7.
J Environ Monit ; 11(3): 584-93, 2009 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19280036

RESUMO

Nitrogen and phosphorus retention estimates in streams and standing water bodies were compared for four European catchments by a series of catchment-scale modelling tools of different complexity, ranging from a simple, equilibrium input-output type to dynamic, physical-based models: source apportionment, MONERIS, EveNFlow, TRK, SWAT, and NL-CAT. The four catchments represent diverse climate, hydrology, and nutrient loads from diffuse and point sources in Norway, the UK, Italy, and the Czech Republic. The models' retention values varied largely, with tendencies towards higher scatters for phosphorus than for nitrogen, and for catchments with lakes (Vansjø-Hobøl, Zelivka) compared to mostly or entirely lakeless catchments (Ouse or Enza, respectively). A comparison of retention values with the size of nutrient sources showed that the modelled nutrient export from diffuse sources was directly proportional to retention estimates, hence implying that the uncertainty in quantification of diffuse catchment sources of nutrients was also related to the uncertainty in nutrient retention determination. This study demonstrates that realistic modelling of nutrient export from large catchments is very difficult without a certain level of measured data. In particular, even complex process oriented models require information on the retention capabilities of water bodies within the receiving surface water system and on the nutrient export from micro-catchments representing the major types of diffuse sources to surface waters.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Modelos Teóricos , Nitrogênio/química , Fósforo/química , Rios/química , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/métodos , Europa (Continente) , Fatores de Tempo , Poluentes Químicos da Água/química
8.
Water Sci Technol ; 56(1): 21-8, 2007.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17710996

RESUMO

A participatory modelling process (DEMO) has been developed and applied in a 350 km2 catchment in southern Sweden. The overall goal is to improve the dialogues between experts and local stakeholders by using numerical models as a platform for discussions. The study is focused on reducing nutrient load and on the development of a locally established measure plan, which is requested by the European Water Framework Directive. The HBV-NP model was chosen as it can calculate effects and costs for different allocations of several combined measures in a catchment. This paper shows the impact of including local data in the modelling process vs. using more general data. It was found that modelled diffuse nutrient pollution was highly modified when including local know-how, soft information and more detailed field investigations. Leaching from arable land was found to be 35% higher using more detailed information on for instance, agricultural practices, crop and soil distribution. Moreover, the stakeholders' acceptance of model results and reliance on experts was increased by applying the participatory process and involving stakeholders in the modelling procedure.


Assuntos
Modelos Teóricos , Abastecimento de Água/análise , Suécia
9.
Water Sci Technol ; 56(1): 207-14, 2007.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17711017

RESUMO

The authors are involved in a project aiming at the development of a methodology for participatory modeling as a tool for public participation in water resource management. In this paper, some examples of different degrees of stakeholder influence in six key dimensions of participatory modeling are identified and discussed. Arnstein's (A ladder of citizen participation. Journal of the American Institute of Planners, 1969, 4, 216-224) critical discussion of different degrees of "real" decision-making power is taken as a point of departure to assess possible degrees of stakeholder influence. Can we as participatory modelers be sure that we are really inviting our research objects to an equal communicative relationship where local perspectives, knowledge and priorities are respected to the same extent as central and/or expert perspectives? This paper presents an approach that could be used as a tool for structured reflection to avoid unreflective tendencies towards expert knowledge dominance and low degree of stakeholders' real influence over the process.


Assuntos
Modelos Teóricos , Abastecimento de Água/normas , Participação da Comunidade , Tomada de Decisões
10.
Water Sci Technol ; 51(3-4): 19-29, 2005.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-15850170

RESUMO

The mean annual transfer (loss and retention) of nitrogen in a river system was estimated using a conceptual approach based on water surface area and runoff. Two different approaches for the calculation of water surface area were applied to determine riverine nitrogen retention in four European catchments, ranging between 860-14,000 km2 in area, and differing considerably in the proportion and distribution of surface waters, specific runoff and specific nutrient emissions. The transfer rate was estimated sequentially as either the mean value for the total catchment, on a sub-catchment scale, or considering the distribution of water surface area within a sub-catchment. For the latter measure, nitrogen retention in larger lakes was calculated separately. Nitrogen emissions modelled with MONERIS and HBV-N were used to calculate nitrogen river loads and compare those with observed loads. Inclusion of the proportion of water area within a sub-catchment improved modelled results in catchment with large lakes in sub-catchments, but not where there was a homogenous distribution of surface waters among sub-catchments.


Assuntos
Água Doce , Nitrogênio/análise , Rios , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Alemanha , Irlanda , Modelos Teóricos , Suécia , Movimentos da Água , Abastecimento de Água
11.
Water Sci Technol ; 49(3): 37-45, 2004.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-15053097

RESUMO

The Swedish Water Management Research Programme (VASTRA) focuses on the development and demonstration of tools for more efficient eutrophication control when implementing the EU water framework directive in Sweden. During the first half of the programme, models for nitrogen flow were developed, and at present, similar models for phosphorus are under construction (e.g. HBV-P). The programme is interdisciplinary, and scientists are collaborating in actor-games and focus group evaluations including scenario analysis. The scenarios modelled in VASTRA phase I, show that (i) changed agricultural practices can be the most effective and least expensive way to reduce nitrogen transport from land to the sea; (ii) constructed agricultural wetlands may only have small impact on riverine nitrogen transport in some regions, due to natural hydrometeorological dynamics; (iii) removing planktivorous fish may be an efficient way of reducing the algal concentrations in lakes without the undesired side-effect of increased nutrient load to the down-stream river system. In VASTRA phase II, one of the highlights will be interdisciplinary scenario-modelling of different measure strategies in a pilot catchment of southern Sweden (Rönne å).


Assuntos
Eutrofização , Modelos Teóricos , Nitrogênio/análise , Fósforo/análise , Poluição da Água/prevenção & controle , Agricultura , Difusão , Ecossistema , Conceitos Meteorológicos , Movimentos da Água
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