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1.
J Oral Facial Pain Headache ; 33(4): 389­398, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31247061

RESUMO

AIMS: To investigate whether an international consensus exists among TMD experts regarding indications, performance, follow-up, and effectiveness of jaw exercises. METHODS: A questionnaire with 31 statements regarding jaw exercises was constructed. Fourteen international experts with some geographic dispersion were asked to participate in this Delphi study, and all accepted. The experts were asked to respond to the statements according to a 5-item verbal Likert scale that ranged from "strongly agree" to "strongly disagree." The experts could also leave free-text comments, which was encouraged. After the first round, the experts received a compilation of the other experts' earlier responses. Some statements were then rephrased and divided to clarify the essence of the statement. Subsequently, the experts were then asked to answer the questionnaire (32 statements) again for the second round. Consensus was set to 80% agreement or disagreement. RESULTS: There is consensus among TMD experts that jaw exercises are effective and can be recommended to patients with myalgia in the jaw muscles, restricted mouth opening capacity due to hyperactivity in the jaw closing muscles, and disc displacement without reduction. The patients should always be instructed in an individualized jaw exercise program and also receive both verbal advice and written information about the treatment modality. CONCLUSION: This Delphi study showed that there is an international consensus among TMD experts that jaw exercises are an effective treatment and can be recommended to patients with TMD pain and disturbed jaw function.


Assuntos
Transtornos da Articulação Temporomandibular , Consenso , Técnica Delfos , Terapia por Exercício , Humanos , Mialgia
2.
Arch Oral Biol ; 98: 52-60, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30448395

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim was to investigate relationships amongst interocclusal distances, masticatory muscle electromyographic (EMG) activity during isometric contraction of masticatory muscles, and craniofacial morphology. DESIGN: Twenty-eight women and 12 men (25.3 ± 3.8 years old) participated. After measuring maximal voluntary occlusal bite force (MVOBF) between the right-first premolars, the participants were asked to bite at submaximal levels of 0 (= holding the bite force transducer), 15, 22.5, and 30% MVOBF with the use of visual feedback. The thickness of a bite force transducer was set at 10, 12, 13, 14, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 22, and 24 mm (= interocclusal distance: IOD). Nine soft tissue craniofacial factors were assessed through digital photograph: face height, middle face height, lower face height, face width, inter-pupil distance and mandibular plane angle, lower face height / face height ratio, inter-pupil distance / facial width ratio and face width / face height ratio. RESULTS: In the masseter muscle, EMG activity decreased with increased IODs. The participants with higher mandibular plane angle had more negative slope coefficients of IOD-EMG graphs at 0% MVOBF especially in male temporalis and female masseter and temporalis muscles, suggesting that a greater mandibular plane angle is associated with lower EMG activity at longer IOD. CONCLUSIONS: Overall the findings support the notion that craniofacial morphology is associated with differences in neuromuscular activity of the masticatory muscles, and suggest that the neuromuscular effects of oral appliances may be dependent on patients' craniofacial morphology and the thickness of the device. (247/250 words).


Assuntos
Oclusão Dentária , Contração Isométrica/fisiologia , Músculos da Mastigação/patologia , Contração Muscular/fisiologia , Adulto , Análise de Variância , Antropometria , Força de Mordida , Eletromiografia , Face/anatomia & histologia , Face/diagnóstico por imagem , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Lineares , Masculino , Músculo Masseter/anatomia & histologia , Músculo Masseter/fisiologia , Músculos da Mastigação/anatomia & histologia , Análise de Regressão , Fatores Sexuais , Músculo Temporal , Nervo Trigêmeo/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
3.
Headache ; 58(4): 559-569, 2018 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29476530

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Repetitive jaw-muscle activity characterized by clenching or grinding of the teeth and/or by bracing or thrusting of the mandible, ie, bruxism, is traditionally linked to pain and unpleasantness in the active muscles. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of standardized craniofacial muscle contractions on self-reported symptoms. METHODS: Sixteen healthy volunteers performed six 5-minute bouts of 20% maximal voluntary contraction task of the jaw-closing (Jaw), the orbicularis-oris (O-oris), and the orbicularis-oculi (O-oculi) muscles. Participants rated their perceived pain, unpleasantness, fatigue, and mental stress levels before, during, and after the contraction tasks on 0-10 Numeric Rating Scales (NRS). Each muscle contraction task (= 1 session) was separated by at least 1 week and the order of the sessions was randomized in each subject. RESULTS: All muscle contraction tasks evoked significant increases in NRS scores of pain (mean ± SD: Jaw; 3.8 ± 2.7, O-oris; 1.9 ± 2.2, O-oculi; 1.4 ± 1.3, P < .014), unpleasantness (Jaw; 4.1 ± 2.5, O-oris; 2.1 ± 1.9, O-oculi; 2.9 ± 1.8, P < .001), fatigue (Jaw; 5.8 ± 2.0, O-oris; 3.2 ± 2.3, O-oculi; 3.6 ± 1.9, P < .001), and mental stress (Jaw; 4.1 ± 2.1, O-oris; 2.2 ± 2.7, O-oculi; 2.9 ± 2.2, P < .001). The Jaw contractions were associated with higher NRS scores compared with the O-oris and the O-oculi contractions (P < .005) without differences between the O-oris and the O-oculi (P > .063). All symptoms disappeared within 1 day (P > .469). CONCLUSIONS: The results showed that submaximal static contractions of different craniofacial muscle groups could evoke transient, mild to moderate levels of muscle pain and fatigue and increased stress scores. The fatigue resistance may differ between different muscle groups. Further studies are warranted to better understand the contribution of specific craniofacial muscle groups for the characteristic presentation of musculoskeletal pain conditions in the head.


Assuntos
Bruxismo/fisiopatologia , Músculos Faciais/fisiopatologia , Dor Facial/fisiopatologia , Fadiga/fisiopatologia , Contração Muscular/fisiologia , Estresse Psicológico/fisiopatologia , Adulto , Bruxismo/complicações , Estudos Cross-Over , Dor Facial/etiologia , Fadiga/etiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estresse Psicológico/etiologia , Adulto Jovem
4.
Eur J Oral Sci ; 125(6): 453-462, 2017 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29105170

RESUMO

This study aimed to investigate the effect of glutamate-evoked masseter muscle pain on intramuscular oxygenation during rest and sustained elevated muscle activity (SEMA). Seventeen healthy individuals participated in two sessions in which they were injected with glutamate and saline in random order. Each session was divided into three, 10-min periods. During the first (period 1) and the last (period 3) 10-min periods, participants performed five intercalated 1-min bouts of masseter SEMA with 1-min periods of 'rest'. At onset of the second 10-min period, glutamate (0.5 ml, 1 M; Ajinomoto, Tokyo, Japan) or isotonic saline (0.5 ml; 0.9%) was injected into the masseter muscle and the participants kept the muscle relaxed in a resting position for 10 min (period 2). The hemodynamic characteristics of the masseter muscle were recorded simultaneously during the experiment by a laser blood-oxygenation monitor. The results demonstrated that glutamate injections caused significant levels of self-reported pain in the masseter muscle; however, this nociceptive input did not have robust effects on intramuscular oxygenation during rest or SEMA tasks. Interestingly, these findings suggest an uncoupling between acute nociceptive activity and hemodynamic parameters in both resting and low-level active jaw muscles. Further studies are needed to explore the pathophysiological significance of blood-flow changes for persistent jaw-muscle pain conditions.


Assuntos
Ácido Glutâmico/farmacologia , Músculo Masseter/efeitos dos fármacos , Músculo Masseter/metabolismo , Contração Muscular/efeitos dos fármacos , Oxigênio/sangue , Adulto , Feminino , Voluntários Saudáveis , Hemodinâmica , Humanos , Masculino , Medição da Dor , Limiar da Dor
5.
J Oral Facial Pain Headache ; 31(1): 87-94, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28118425

RESUMO

AIMS: To test whether manipulation of mechanical pain sensitivity (MPS) of the masseter muscle is reflected in quantitative measures of entropy. METHODS: In a randomized, single-blinded, placebo-controlled design, 20 healthy volunteers had glutamate, lidocaine, and isotonic saline injected into the masseter muscle. Self-assessed pain intensity on a numeric rating scale (NRS) was evaluated up to 10 minutes following the injection, and MPS was evaluated after application (at 5 minutes and 30 minutes) of three different forces (0.5 kg, 1 kg, and 2 kg) to 15 different sites of the masseter muscle. Finally, the entropy and center of gravity (COG) of the pain sensitivity scores were calculated. Analysis of variance was used to test differences in means of tested outcomes and Tukey post hoc tests were used to adjust for multiple comparisons. RESULTS: The main findings were: (1) Compared with both lidocaine and isotonic saline, glutamate injections caused an increase in peak, duration, and area under the NRS pain curve (P < .01); (2) A pressure of 2 kg caused the highest NRS pain scores (P < .03) and entropy values (P < .02); (3) Glutamate injections caused increases in entropy values when assessed with 0.5 kg and 1.0 kg but not with 2.0 kg of pressure; and (4) COG coordinates revealed differences between the x coordinates for time (P < .01) and time and force for the y coordinates (P < .01). CONCLUSION: These results suggest that manipulation of MPS of the masseter muscle with painful glutamate injections can increase the diversity of MPS, which is reflected in entropy measures. Entropy allows quantification of the diversity of MPS, which may be important in clinical assessment of pain states such as myofascial temporomandibular disorders.


Assuntos
Entropia , Dor Facial/fisiopatologia , Músculo Masseter/fisiopatologia , Medição da Dor/métodos , Adulto , Feminino , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Masculino
6.
J Prosthodont Res ; 60(4): 250-257, 2016 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26876908

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Self-reported measures have been widely used to indicate the presence of possible and probable sleep bruxism (SB) in both research and clinical situations. However, few studies have attempted to assess the diagnostic validity of this approach. The aim of this study was to estimate the diagnostic validity of self-reported measures of SB using an ambulatory single-channel electromyographic (EMG) device. METHODS: A total of 115 participants were enrolled and examined by standardized Research Diagnostic Criteria for Temporomandibular Disorders (RDC/TMD) including two questions related to SB: self-reported SB and morning-jaw symptoms. An ambulatory single-channel EMG device (GrindCare3™, Medotech A/S) was used for measuring jaw-muscle EMG activity during sleep for seven consecutive nights. Cut-off values for different measures of EMG activity (average, maximum and minimum) and the coefficient of variation (CV) were selected to divide participants into two groups, with higher or lower EMG activity or CV values. The sensitivity and specificity for each question and combination of them were calculated. RESULTS: Self-reported SB had the highest sensitivity (compared with morning-jaw symptoms) for all measures of EMG activity and CV, although the values were low to modest (average: 76.0%, maximum: 76.9%, minimum: 77.3%, CV: 61.0%). The specificity was low for both the questions related to the different measures of EMG activity and CV (35.1-52.4%). CONCLUSIONS: This study indicated that the diagnostic validity of self-reported measures of SB was low to modest using an ambulatory EMG device assessment as a reference. Using only self-reported measures for the assessment of SB may not have a high validity, which should be taken into consideration in the clinical evaluation of patients.


Assuntos
Eletromiografia/instrumentação , Monitorização Ambulatorial/instrumentação , Medidas de Resultados Relatados pelo Paciente , Bruxismo do Sono/diagnóstico , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Adulto Jovem
7.
Headache ; 55(3): 381-94, 2015 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25754714

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The traditional view contends bruxism, such as tooth grinding/clenching, is part of the etiology of temporomandibular disorders (TMD) including some subtypes of headaches. The purpose of this study is to investigate if a low-level but long-lasting tooth-clenching task initiates TMD symptoms/signs. METHODS: Eighteen healthy participants (mean age ± SD, 24.0 ± 4.3 years) performed and repeated an experimental 2-hour tooth-clenching task at 10% maximal voluntary occlusal bite force at incisors (11.1 ± 4.6 N) for three consecutive days (Days 1-3). Pain and cardiovascular parameters were estimated during the experiment. RESULTS: The task evoked pain in the masseter/temporalis muscles and temporomandibular joint after 40.0 ± 18.0 minutes with a peak intensity of 1.6 ± 0.4 on 0-10 numerical rating scale (NRS) after 105.0 ± 5.0 minutes (Day 1). On Day 2 and Day 3, pain had disappeared but the tasks, again, evoked pain with similar intensities. The onset and peak levels of pain were not different between the experimental days (P = .977). However, the area under the curve of pain NRS in the masseter on Day 2 and Day 3 were smaller than that on Day 1 (P = .006). Cardiovascular parameters changed during the task but not during the days. CONCLUSIONS: Prolonged, low-level tooth clenching evoked short-lived pain like TMD. This intervention study proposes that tooth clenching alone is insufficient to initiate longer lasting and self-perpetuating symptoms of TMD, which may require other risk factors.


Assuntos
Força de Mordida , Dor Facial/etiologia , Músculo Masseter/fisiologia , Contração Muscular/fisiologia , Fadiga Muscular/fisiologia , Adulto , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Feminino , Frequência Cardíaca/fisiologia , Hemoglobinas/metabolismo , Humanos , Masculino , Análise Multivariada , Limiar da Dor/fisiologia , Globulina de Ligação a Hormônio Sexual , Espectroscopia de Luz Próxima ao Infravermelho , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto Jovem
8.
J Orofac Pain ; 27(2): 111-22, 2013.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23630683

RESUMO

AIMS: To combine empirical evidence and expert opinion in a formal consensus method in order to develop a quality-assessment tool for experimental bruxism studies in systematic reviews. METHODS: Tool development comprised five steps: (1) preliminary decisions, (2) item generation, (3) face-validity assessment, (4) reliability and discriminitive validity assessment, and (5) instrument refinement. The kappa value and phi-coefficient were calculated to assess inter-observer reliability and discriminative ability, respectively. RESULTS: Following preliminary decisions and a literature review, a list of 52 items to be considered for inclusion in the tool was compiled. Eleven experts were invited to join a Delphi panel and 10 accepted. Four Delphi rounds reduced the preliminary tool-Quality-Assessment Tool for Experimental Bruxism Studies (Qu-ATEBS)- to 8 items: study aim, study sample, control condition or group, study design, experimental bruxism task, statistics, interpretation of results, and conflict of interest statement. Consensus among the Delphi panelists yielded good face validity. Inter-observer reliability was acceptable (k = 0.77). Discriminative validity was excellent (phi coefficient 1.0; P < .01). During refinement, 1 item (no. 8) was removed. CONCLUSION: Qu-ATEBS, the seven-item evidence-based quality assessment tool developed here for use in systematic reviews of experimental bruxism studies, exhibits face validity, excellent discriminative validity, and acceptable inter-observer reliability. Development of quality assessment tools for many other topics in the orofacial pain literature is needed and may follow the described procedure.


Assuntos
Bruxismo , Pesquisa em Odontologia/normas , Garantia da Qualidade dos Cuidados de Saúde , Projetos de Pesquisa/normas , Técnica Delfos , Pesquisa em Odontologia/métodos , Análise Discriminante , Humanos , Variações Dependentes do Observador , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Literatura de Revisão como Assunto , Inquéritos e Questionários
9.
Eur J Oral Sci ; 120(4): 363-7, 2012 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22813228

RESUMO

This study aimed to determine autonomic and jaw-muscle activities, and haemodynamic responses, to acute experimental mental stress in humans. Eleven healthy men (25.2 ± 3.0 years of age) and five healthy women (23.0 ± 3.7 years of age) performed a standardized mental stress task, the Paced Auditory Serial Addition Task (PASAT). Autonomic function, such as heart rate variability (HRV), and haemodynamic changes were recorded simultaneously. The success rate of the PASAT decreased with increased pace and duration. Low-frequency (5.8 ± 1.1 ms(2)) and high-frequency (5.3 ± 0.6 ms(2)) components of HRV decreased during the PASAT (to 5.0 ± 0.9 ms(2) and 4.6 ± 1.1 ms(2), respectively) as an indication of acute stress. Oxygenated haemoglobin in the masseter muscle (14.6 ± 2.2 10(4) units mm(-3)) remained at an elevated level during the PASAT (15.5 ± 2.5 10(4) units mm(-3)), whereas deoxygenated haemoglobin (7.8 ± 2.3 10(4) units mm(-3)) showed a consistent decrease (to 6.8 ± 2.1 10(4) units mm(-3)). Total haemoglobin and jaw-muscle electromyographic (EMG) activity did not change during the PASAT. Thus, PASAT-induced mental stress changed the parasympathetic/sympathetic balance of the heart and had an acute influence on jaw-muscle haemodynamics, but not on jaw-muscle EMG activity. This non-invasive experimental set-up can be applied to study the effects of repeated or longer-lasting mental stress in order to further the understanding of pathophysiological mechanisms in craniofacial pain conditions.


Assuntos
Dor Facial/fisiopatologia , Hemodinâmica/fisiologia , Músculo Masseter/fisiologia , Estresse Psicológico/fisiopatologia , Adulto , Análise de Variância , Eletromiografia , Feminino , Frequência Cardíaca/fisiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Estatísticas não Paramétricas
10.
Acta Odontol Scand ; 70(2): 89-95, 2012 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21732741

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate variation of electromyographic (EMG) activity and sensitivity between different sites of anterior temporalis (AT) muscle. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Sixteen healthy subjects (eight men: 28.8 ± 5.2 year old and eight women: 29.1 ± 3.9) participated in one experimental session. EMG activity during masticatory muscle contraction was recorded from nine sites at the AT muscle in a 3 × 3 grid with 1 cm between. The subjects maintained steady 30% of maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) using visual feedback. The surface EMG electrode was moved sequentially between these nine test sites and the contractions were repeated. One site was tested four times to assess test-re-test variability. The sensory threshold to electrical stimulation and impedance was also measured at the same sites as the placement of EMG electrodes. RESULTS: The 30% MVC force values did not differ between sites (p = 0.863) or within the same site (p = 0.995) due to the feedback. The EMG activity during 30% MVC was highest at the anterior-superior site (p < 0.05) with a marginal difference within the same site (p = 0.044). Impedance was higher at the posterior-superior, posterior-middle and posterior-inferior sites (p < 0.05). The sensory threshold was highest at the posterior-superior site (p < 0.05). CONCLUSION: These findings showed that electrodes close to the hairline have higher impedance and sensory thresholds and should be avoided. The anterior-superior site produces the highest EMG activity and lower sensory thresholds and can be recommended as the optimal site to place the electrode for contingent stimulation.


Assuntos
Músculo Temporal/anatomia & histologia , Músculo Temporal/fisiologia , Adulto , Análise de Variância , Impedância Elétrica , Estimulação Elétrica , Eletromiografia , Retroalimentação , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Contração Muscular , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Limiar Sensorial , Músculo Temporal/inervação
11.
Exp Brain Res ; 212(2): 199-212, 2011 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21590261

RESUMO

Corticomotor pathways may undergo neuroplastic changes in response to acquisition of new motor skills. Little is known about the motor control strategies for learning new tongue tasks. The aim of this study was to investigate the longitudinal effect of novel tongue-task training on corticomotor neuroplasticity. Thirteen healthy, right-handed men, aged 24-35 years (mean age ± SD: 27.3 ± 0.3 years), performed a training task consisting of standardized tongue protrusion onto a force transducer. The tongue task consisted of a relax-protrude-hold-relax cycle with 1.0 N as the target at the hold phase lasting for 1.5 s. Subjects repeated this task for 1 h. Functional magnetic resonance imaging was carried out before the tongue-task training (baseline), 1-h after the training, and one-day and one-week follow-up. During scanning, the subjects performed tongue protrusion in blocks interspersed with rest. A region-of-interest (ROI) approach and an explorative search were implemented for the analysis of corticomotor activity across conditions. All subjects completed the tongue-task training (mean success rate 43.0 ± 13.2%). In the baseline condition, tongue protrusion resulted in bilateral activity in regions most typically associated with a motor task including medial frontal gyrus (supplementary motor area [SMA]), precentral gyrus (tongue motor cortex), putamen, thalamus, and cerebellum. The ROI analysis revealed increased activity in the precentral gyrus already 1 h post-training. One day after the training, increased activity was observed in the precentral gyrus, SMA, putamen, and cerebellum. No increase was found 1 week after training. Correlation analyses between changes in success rates and changes in the numbers of voxels showed robust associations for left Area 4a in primary motor cortex 1 h, 1 day, and 1 week after the tongue-task training and for the left Area 4p in primary motor cortex and the left lateral premotor cortex 1 day after the training. In the unrestricted analysis, increased activity was found in the parahippocampal gyrus 1 h after the tongue-task training and remained for a week. Decreased activity was found in right post-central and middle frontal gyri 1 h and 1 week post-training. The results verified the involvement of specific corticomotor areas in response to tongue protrusion. Short-term tongue-task training was associated with longer-lasting (up to 1 week) changes in motor-related brain activity. The results suggested that primary motor areas are involved in the early and late stages, while other motor areas mainly are engaged in the later stage of corticomotor neuroplasticity of the tongue.


Assuntos
Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Córtex Motor/fisiologia , Plasticidade Neuronal/fisiologia , Desempenho Psicomotor/fisiologia , Língua/fisiologia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
12.
Arch Oral Biol ; 54(3): 241-9, 2009 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19128796

RESUMO

AIM: To investigate effect of capsaicin-evoked masseter-muscle pain on intramuscular blood-flow (BF) at rest and during contractions. METHODS: Eight healthy men (22-31 years) participated. BF was measured with Laser Doppler (Moor Instruments, UK) using a single-fibre probe inserted into the right masseter. Three BF probes were attached to the skin above right and left masseter and the right-middle finger. Subjects performed 30 s isometric contractions at 5%, 15%, and 25% of maximal voluntary contraction. After the contractions, capsaicin (0.1 mL, 100 microg/mL) was injected into the right masseter close to the fibre probe. When the pain sensation had disappeared, the series of submaximal contractions were repeated. BF data were sampled continuously, processed in 10s bins, and analyzed with repeated-measures ANOVAs. RESULTS: Intramuscular BF significantly increased immediately after capsaicin injection (P < 0.050) and rapidly (30 s) decreased to pre-injection values. A significant increase in cutaneous BF above the right masseter was observed (P < 0.050) and lasted for 10 min, while a significant BF decrease in the finger (P < 0.050) was observed. The contractions were associated with increases in intramuscular BF before and after the injection (P < 0.022) and the contraction levels were also associated with increase in intramuscular BF before injection (P=0.008) but not after injection (P = 0.314). CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrated BF increased by muscle contraction but failed to show effects of contraction levels on BF in a muscle exposed to nociceptive stimuli. Neurogenic inflammation in muscles could possibly be mediated via antidromical effects and local release of vasoactive substances. The decreased BF in the finger could be due to involvement of central regulatory mechanisms.


Assuntos
Capsaicina/farmacologia , Dor Facial/tratamento farmacológico , Contração Isométrica/efeitos dos fármacos , Músculo Masseter/irrigação sanguínea , Músculo Masseter/efeitos dos fármacos , Limiar da Dor/efeitos dos fármacos , Adulto , Análise de Variância , Força de Mordida , Capsaicina/administração & dosagem , Dor Facial/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Injeções Intramusculares , Contração Isométrica/fisiologia , Masculino , Limiar da Dor/fisiologia , Fluxo Sanguíneo Regional/efeitos dos fármacos , Fluxo Sanguíneo Regional/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
13.
J Periodontal Res ; 38(5): 482-7, 2003 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-12941072

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to establish a reliable method for detecting the threshold for perception of force applied to tooth and to report the basic properties of force threshold in the normal dentition subjects. BACKGROUND: The perception of mechanical stimulation exerted to tooth is formed by input from periodontal ligament mechanoreceptors and intradental mechanoreceptors. Periodontal ligament mechanoreceptors respond to a wide range speed of stimulus, whereas intradental mechanoreceptors are activated only by a rapid stimulation. Reliable properties of perception have not been reported because of the difficulties to regulate velocity and degree of the stimulus. METHODS: Eighteen healthy subjects were observed in this study (mean age: 27.2 +/- 5.7 years). A loading device to generate slow speed loading was fabricated and measured as follows: (i) the fluctuation of the force threshold within a day, (ii) day-to-day fluctuation, (iii) changes in the force threshold by a transient mechanical loading. RESULTS: In the normal dentition, it was observed that the fluctuation within a day and day to day of the pressure sense showed no significant differences; however, a transient mechanical loading caused the sensitivity of the periodontal ligament to decrease significantly. CONCLUSIONS: The device examining the force threshold resulted from periodontal ligament mechanoreceptors was useful in evaluating the sensitivity of the periodontal ligament.


Assuntos
Análise do Estresse Dentário/métodos , Mecanorreceptores/fisiologia , Ligamento Periodontal/inervação , Ligamento Periodontal/fisiologia , Estimulação Física/métodos , Adulto , Análise de Variância , Feminino , Humanos , Análise dos Mínimos Quadrados , Masculino , Estimulação Física/instrumentação , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Limiar Sensorial , Estresse Mecânico
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