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1.
Arthritis Rheumatol ; 2019 Nov 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31769217

RESUMO

In their letter (1), Dr. Rodrigues Fonseca and colleagues refer to their analysis of the new EULAR/ACR 2019 criteria in a group of 122 patients with childhood onset SLE and 89 patients with other diagnoses mimicking SLE (2). This analysis was published before the full contents of the EULAR/ACR 2019 manuscript (3;4) were available, which may have led to not taking important aspects into account.

3.
Rheum Dis Clin North Am ; 45(4): 537-548, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31564295

RESUMO

The treat-to-target principle of controlling inflammatory disease activity by means of disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs or immunosuppressive drugs also pertains to systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). However, in SLE, intensifying immunosuppression with higher-dose glucocorticoids may worsen outcomes. Therefore, all current recommendations favor better disease control while limiting daily glucocorticoid doses to a maximum of 5 or 7.5 mg of prednisolone daily. Hydroxychloroquine and other prophylactic measures are added, and antiphospholipid syndrome is treated with anticoagulation and not with immunosuppression, which makes the approach of treat to target slightly more complex, mirroring the complexity of the disease.

5.
Clin Lab ; 65(9)2019 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31532087

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Based on advances over several decades, a significant number of autoantibodies are aiding the diagnosis, differential diagnosis and even prognostic estimates of patients with connective tissue diseases (CTD). Based on cost and time constraints, multiplex assays are used more and more in routine practice. Here we describe the evaluation results of a novel spot immunoassay (SeraSpot® ANA) for multiplex analysis of the main CTD specific autoantibodies, which is based on autoantigens immobilized on microtitration plates. METHODS: For evaluation of the ANA spot immunoassay, comprising dsDNA, histone, nucleosome, Scl-70, U1-RNP (mixture of U1-RNP-A, C, and 70k), Sm (SmD), RibP (P0), Ro52/TRIM21, Ro60, La/SS-B, CENP-B, Jo-1, PM/ Scl-100, and Ku as target antigens, sera of 489 patients with systemic autoimmune rheumatic disease (SARD), sera of 54 patients with herpes virus infections, and sera of 202 apparently healthy individuals (AHI) were tested. RESULTS: The concordance between the SeraSpot and EIA results of disease specific autoantibodies (AABs) was high (94 - 97% for CENP-B, Jo-1, Scl-70, Sm, La, Ro52 and Ro60 antibodies) to moderate (86.7% for dsDNA antibodies), and no major differences in the frequency of these AABs in patients with CTD were observed. In SLE patients, the SeraSpot results of dsDNA antibodies correlate better with CLIFT results and HEp-2 cell pattern than the EIA results. The diagnostic specificities of SLE, SSc, SjS, and myositis specific AABs are very high (96.5 - 100%) compared to apparently healthy individuals, but lower with regard to serological differentiation of the SARD entities (86.6 - 99.1%). However, very high positive likelihood ratios (10 up to infinite) could be obtained by disease specific AAB profiles. CONCLUSIONS: The SeraSpot® ANA assay allows the detection of 14 AAB specificities used for the diagnosis and dif-ferentiation of CTD in one approach. Although the concordance between the SeraSpot® assay and EIA is moderate for most of the tested AAB specificities, defined AAB profiles are suitable for the correct diagnosis of the CTD entities. If time matters, the authors suggest the parallel employment of immunofluorescence on HEp-2 cells and the SeraSpot® ANA assay for screening and specific AAB determination of patients with suspected CTD.

7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31560454

RESUMO

A project towards new SLE classification criteria supported by both EULAR and the ACR is based on weighted criteria that include both laboratory and clinical items. Combinations of certain symptoms may occur commonly in SLE, which would argue against independently counting these items. However, these interrelationships have not been formally investigated. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the interrelationship between candidate criteria items in an international early SLE cohort and in the Euro-Lupus cohort. METHODS: The international early SLE cohort included 389 patients, who were diagnosed within the last 3 years. Data on ACR 1997, SLICC 2012 and 30 additional items were collected. To evaluate the inter-relationship of criteria, a tetrachoric correlation was used to assess the degree of association between different manifestations of the same organ-system. The correlations identified in the international early SLE cohort were validated in the Euro-Lupus cohort. RESULTS: A few relevant correlations were observed among specific clinical cutaneous manifestations (in particular, malar rash correlated with photosensitivity, alopecia, and oral ulcers) and serologic manifestations (anti-Sm and anti-dsDNA and anti-RNP, anti-Ro with anti-La, and between anti-phospholipid antibodies), and these results were validated in the Euro-Lupus cohort. The associations within the mucocutaneous domain, hematologic and the specific autoantibodies suggest that within a single domain only the highest ranking item should be counted to avoid overrepresentation. CONCLUSIONS: Some of the candidate SLE criteria do cluster within domains. Given these interrelationships, multiple criteria within a domain should not be independently counted. These results are important for the structure of new SLE classification criteria.

8.
Ann Rheum Dis ; 78(9): 1151-1159, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31383717

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To develop new classification criteria for systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) jointly supported by the European League Against Rheumatism (EULAR) and the American College of Rheumatology (ACR). METHODS: This international initiative had four phases. (1) Evaluation of antinuclear antibody (ANA) as an entry criterion through systematic review and meta-regression of the literature and criteria generation through an international Delphi exercise, an early patient cohort and a patient survey. (2) Criteria reduction by Delphi and nominal group technique exercises. (3) Criteria definition and weighting based on criterion performance and on results of a multi-criteria decision analysis. (4) Refinement of weights and threshold scores in a new derivation cohort of 1001 subjects and validation compared with previous criteria in a new validation cohort of 1270 subjects. RESULTS: The 2019 EULAR/ACR classification criteria for SLE include positive ANA at least once as obligatory entry criterion; followed by additive weighted criteria grouped in seven clinical (constitutional, haematological, neuropsychiatric, mucocutaneous, serosal, musculoskeletal, renal) and three immunological (antiphospholipid antibodies, complement proteins, SLE-specific antibodies) domains, and weighted from 2 to 10. Patients accumulating ≥10 points are classified. In the validation cohort, the new criteria had a sensitivity of 96.1% and specificity of 93.4%, compared with 82.8% sensitivity and 93.4% specificity of the ACR 1997 and 96.7% sensitivity and 83.7% specificity of the Systemic Lupus International Collaborating Clinics 2012 criteria. CONCLUSION: These new classification criteria were developed using rigorous methodology with multidisciplinary and international input, and have excellent sensitivity and specificity. Use of ANA entry criterion, hierarchically clustered and weighted criteria reflect current thinking about SLE and provide an improved foundation for SLE research.

9.
Arthritis Rheumatol ; 71(9): 1400-1412, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31385462

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To develop new classification criteria for systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) jointly supported by the European League Against Rheumatism (EULAR) and the American College of Rheumatology (ACR). METHODS: This international initiative had four phases. 1) Evaluation of antinuclear antibody (ANA) as an entry criterion through systematic review and meta-regression of the literature and criteria generation through an international Delphi exercise, an early patient cohort, and a patient survey. 2) Criteria reduction by Delphi and nominal group technique exercises. 3) Criteria definition and weighting based on criterion performance and on results of a multi-criteria decision analysis. 4) Refinement of weights and threshold scores in a new derivation cohort of 1,001 subjects and validation compared with previous criteria in a new validation cohort of 1,270 subjects. RESULTS: The 2019 EULAR/ACR classification criteria for SLE include positive ANA at least once as obligatory entry criterion; followed by additive weighted criteria grouped in 7 clinical (constitutional, hematologic, neuropsychiatric, mucocutaneous, serosal, musculoskeletal, renal) and 3 immunologic (antiphospholipid antibodies, complement proteins, SLE-specific antibodies) domains, and weighted from 2 to 10. Patients accumulating ≥10 points are classified. In the validation cohort, the new criteria had a sensitivity of 96.1% and specificity of 93.4%, compared with 82.8% sensitivity and 93.4% specificity of the ACR 1997 and 96.7% sensitivity and 83.7% specificity of the Systemic Lupus International Collaborating Clinics 2012 criteria. CONCLUSION: These new classification criteria were developed using rigorous methodology with multidisciplinary and international input, and have excellent sensitivity and specificity. Use of ANA entry criterion, hierarchically clustered, and weighted criteria reflects current thinking about SLE and provides an improved foundation for SLE research.

10.
Z Rheumatol ; 78(5): 479-485, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31087134

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Many regions in the middle of Germany have a deficit in specialized rheumatological care. A survey was undertaken to investigate whether the regional capacities for rheumatological advanced training are sufficient to provide an adequate number of rheumatologists in the future. METHODS: All 91 rheumatologists registered in Saxony, Saxony-Anhalt and Thuringia received a questionnaire that was sent back by 66% of the recipients (23 responses from Saxony, 19 from Saxony-Anhalt, 18 from Thuringia). Of the rheumatologists 41 were in private practice, 19 worked in an inpatient department and the mean duration of professional activity was 18 years. RESULTS: Over the last decade the number of patients treated by rheumatologists in private practices increased from 1200 to 1500 per quarter year (p < 0.001), whereas the number of first consultations rose from 100 to 130 per quarter year (p = 0.06). The waiting time for a first consultation rose from 8 to 11 weeks (p = 0.01), 32% of the responders indicated that the conditions for outpatient treatment had either improved or had remained constant during the last 10 years, whereas 60% reported a mild or marked deterioration and 48% stated that the number of rheumatologists had decreased within the same time frame. Only 20% indicated that they had a definite successor in the practice after retirement. All inpatient departments also had an outpatient office. During the last 10 years, the number of consultations per quarter year decreased from 1100 to 700 (not significant), while the waiting time doubled from 6 to 12 weeks (rounded mean). Of the rheumatologists in private practice eight are currently entitled to provide advanced education in rheumatology, with a median training period of 18 months; however, none of the responding physicians had actually brought assistant doctors to the final examination during the last decade and only one prospective rheumatologist was currently completing training in a private practice setting. Only 6 out of 12 inpatient rheumatological facilities are entitled to educate rheumatologists over the whole training period, 5 facilities were not involved in training at all and 7 indicated that they lacked applications for rheumatology training. During the last 10 years, 37 rheumatologists completed the training of which 18 went into private practice, 8 worked as general practitioners and 29 remained in the region of their initial training. CONCLUSION: Given the increase in the number of outpatients served, the volume of training activities in rheumatology is hardly sufficient to improve the deficit of rheumatological care in the middle of Germany.


Assuntos
Necessidades e Demandas de Serviços de Saúde , Reumatologistas/psicologia , Reumatologia/educação , Reumatologia/estatística & dados numéricos , Alemanha , Humanos , Estudos Prospectivos , Doenças Reumáticas/epidemiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários
11.
PLoS One ; 14(5): e0217412, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31136632

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To investigate the prevalence of depressive symptoms in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients using two previously validated questionnaires in a large patient sample, and to evaluate depressive symptoms in the context of clinical characteristics (e.g. remission of disease) and patient-reported impact of disease. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, the previously validated Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) and Beck-Depression Inventory II (BDI-II) were used to assess the extent of depressive symptoms in RA patients. Demographic background, RA disease activity score (DAS28), RA impact of disease (RAID) score, comorbidities, anti-rheumatic therapy and antidepressive treatment, were recorded. Cut-off values for depressive symptomatology were PHQ-9 ≥5 or BDI-II ≥14 for mild depressive symptoms or worse and PHQ-9 ≥ 10 or BDI-II ≥ 20 for moderate depressive symptoms or worse. Prevalence of depressive symptomatology was derived by frequency analysis while factors independently associated with depressive symptomatology were investigated by using multiple logistic regression analyses. Ethics committee approval was obtained, and all patients provided written informed consent before participation. RESULTS: In 1004 RA-patients (75.1% female, mean±SD age: 61.0±12.9 years, mean disease duration: 12.2±9.9 years, DAS28 (ESR): 2.5±1.2), the prevalence of depressive symptoms was 55.4% (mild or worse) and 22.8% (moderate or worse). Characteristics independently associated with depressive symptomatology were: age <60 years (OR = 1.78), RAID score >2 (OR = 10.54) and presence of chronic pain (OR = 3.25). Of patients classified as having depressive symptoms, only 11.7% were receiving anti-depressive therapy. CONCLUSIONS: Mild and moderate depressive symptoms were common in RA patients according to validated tools. In routine clinical practice, screening for depression with corresponding follow-up procedures is as relevant as incorporating these results with patient-reported outcomes (e.g. symptom state), because the mere assessment of clinical disease activity does not sufficiently reflect the prevalence of depressive symptoms. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: This study is registered in the Deutsches Register Klinischer Studien (DRKS00003231) and ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT02485483).

12.
Ann Rheum Dis ; 78(6): 736-745, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30926722

RESUMO

Our objective was to update the EULAR recommendations for the management of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), based on emerging new evidence. We performed a systematic literature review (01/2007-12/2017), followed by modified Delphi method, to form questions, elicit expert opinions and reach consensus. Treatment in SLE aims at remission or low disease activity and prevention of flares. Hydroxychloroquine is recommended in all patients with lupus, at a dose not exceeding 5 mg/kg real body weight. During chronic maintenance treatment, glucocorticoids (GC) should be minimised to less than 7.5 mg/day (prednisone equivalent) and, when possible, withdrawn. Appropriate initiation of immunomodulatory agents (methotrexate, azathioprine, mycophenolate) can expedite the tapering/discontinuation of GC. In persistently active or flaring extrarenal disease, add-on belimumab should be considered; rituximab (RTX) may be considered in organ-threatening, refractory disease. Updated specific recommendations are also provided for cutaneous, neuropsychiatric, haematological and renal disease. Patients with SLE should be assessed for their antiphospholipid antibody status, infectious and cardiovascular diseases risk profile and preventative strategies be tailored accordingly. The updated recommendations provide physicians and patients with updated consensus guidance on the management of SLE, combining evidence-base and expert-opinion.

13.
Arthritis Rheumatol ; 71(8): 1329-1338, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30835950

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study was undertaken to evaluate glucocorticoid dosages and serologic findings in patients with giant cell arteritis (GCA) flares. METHODS: Patients with GCA were randomly assigned to receive double-blind dosing with either subcutaneous tocilizumab (TCZ) 162 mg weekly plus 26-week prednisone taper (TCZ-QW + Pred-26), every-other-week TCZ plus 26-week prednisone taper (TCZ-Q2W + Pred-26), placebo plus 26-week prednisone taper (PBO + Pred-26), or placebo plus 52-week prednisone taper (PBO + Pred-52). Outcome measures were prednisone dosage, C-reactive protein (CRP) level, and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) at the time of flare. RESULTS: One hundred patients received TCZ-QW + Pred-26, 49 received TCZ-Q2W + Pred-26, 50 received PBO + Pred-26, and 51 received PBO + Pred-52. Of the 149 TCZ-treated patients, 36 (24%) experienced flare, 23 (64%) of whom were still receiving prednisone (median dosage 2.0 mg/day). Among 101 PBO + Pred-treated patients, 59 (58%) experienced flare, 45 (76%) of whom were receiving prednisone (median dosage 5.0 mg/day). Many flares occurred while patients were taking >10 mg/day prednisone: 9 (25%) in the TCZ groups and 13 (22%) in the placebo groups. Thirty-three flares (92%) in TCZ-treated groups and 20 (34%) in PBO + Pred-treated groups occurred with normal CRP levels. More than half of the PBO + Pred-treated patients had elevated CRP levels without flares. Benefits of the TCZ and prednisone combination over prednisone alone for remission induction were apparent by 8 weeks. CONCLUSION: Most GCA flares occurred while patients were still receiving prednisone. Acute-phase reactant levels were not reliable indicators of flare in patients treated with TCZ plus prednisone or with prednisone alone. The addition of TCZ to prednisone facilitates earlier GCA control.

14.
Ann Rheum Dis ; 78(5): 634-640, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30692164

RESUMO

European League Against Rheumatism and are jointly supporting multiphase development of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) classification criteria based on weighted criteria and a continuous probability scale. Prior steps included item generation, item reduction and hierarchical organisation of candidate criteria using an evidence-based approach. Our objectives were to determine relative weights using multicriteria decision analysis (MCDA) and to set a provisional threshold score for SLE classification. An SLE Expert Panel (8 European, 9 North American) submitted 164 real, unique cases with a wide range of SLE probability in a standardised format. Using the candidate criteria, experts scored and rank-ordered 20 representative cases. At an in-person meeting, experts reviewed inter-rater reliability of scoring, further refined criteria definitions and participated in an MCDA exercise. Based on expert consensus decisions on pairwise comparisons of criteria, 1000minds software calculated criteria weights and rank-ordered the remaining 144 cases based on their additive scores. The score of the lowest-ranked case for which complete expert consensus was achieved defined the provisional threshold classification score. Inter-rater reliability of scoring cases with the candidate criteria was good. MCDA involved 74 pairwise decisions and was repeated for the arthritis and mucocutaneous domains when the initial ranking of some cases did not match expert opinion. After criteria weights and additive scores were recalculated once, experts reached consensus for SLE classification for all cases scoring>83. Using an iterative process, the candidate criteria definitions were refined, preliminary weights were calculated and a provisional threshold score for SLE classification was determined.

15.
J Rheumatol ; 46(7): 721-726, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30554156

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Given the complexity and heterogeneity of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), high-performing classification criteria are critical to advancing research and clinical care. A collaborative effort by the European League Against Rheumatism and the American College of Rheumatology was undertaken to generate candidate criteria, and then to reduce them to a smaller set. The objective of the current study was to select a set of criteria that maximizes the likelihood of accurate classification of SLE, particularly early disease. METHODS: An independent panel of international SLE experts and the SLE classification criteria steering committee (conducting SLE research in Canada, Mexico, United States, Austria, Germany, Greece, France, Italy, and Spain) ranked 43 candidate criteria. A consensus meeting using nominal group technique (NGT) was conducted to reduce the list of criteria for consideration. RESULTS: The expert panel NGT exercise reduced the candidate criteria for SLE classification from 43 to 21. The panel distinguished potential "entry criteria," which would be required for classification, from potential "additive criteria." Potential entry criteria were antinuclear antibody (ANA) ≥ 1:80 (HEp-2 immunofluorescence), and low C3 and/or low C4. The use of low complement as an entry criterion was considered potentially useful in cases with negative ANA. Potential additive criteria included lupus nephritis by renal biopsy, autoantibodies, cytopenias, acute and chronic cutaneous lupus, alopecia, arthritis, serositis, oral mucosal lesions, central nervous system manifestations, and fever. CONCLUSION: The NGT exercise resulted in 21 candidate SLE classification criteria. The next phases of SLE classification criteria development will require refinement of criteria definitions, evaluation of the ability to cluster criteria into domains, and evaluation of weighting of criteria.

16.
Arthritis Rheumatol ; 2018 Dec 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30511817

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To identify single cell transcriptional signatures of dendritic cells (DCs) associated with autoimmunity and determine if those signatures correlate with the clinical heterogeneity of autoimmune disease. METHODS: Blood-derived DCs were single-cell sorted from patients with rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, and type 1 diabetes and were analyzed using single-cell gene expression assays immediately after isolation or after in vitro stimulation. Protein expression was also measured using fluorescence activated cell sorting. RESULTS: CD1c+ conventional DCs and plasmacytoid DCs from healthy individuals exhibited diverse transcriptional signatures, which were altered in patients with autoimmune disease. In particular, distinct DC clusters characterized by upregulation of TAP1, IRF7 and IFNAR1 were abundant in patients with systemic autoimmune disease, whereas DCs from patients with type 1 diabetes had decreased expression of the regulatory genes, PTPN6, TGFB and TYROBP. The frequency of CD1c+ cDCs that expressed a systemic autoimmune profile directly correlated with disease activity in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. CONCLUSION: Dendritic cell transcriptional signatures are altered in autoimmune patients and are associated with disease activity suggesting that immune cell transcriptional profiles could improve our ability to detect and understand the heterogeneity of disease pathology, as well as guide treatment choices in patients with complex autoimmune disease. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

18.
Arthritis Res Ther ; 20(1): 174, 2018 Aug 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30092827

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In the present study, we explored the effects of immediate induction therapy with the anti-tumour necrosis factor (TNF)α antibody infliximab (IFX) plus methotrexate (MTX) compared with MTX alone and with placebo (PL) in patients with very early inflammatory arthritis. METHODS: In an investigator-initiated, double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled, multi-centre trial (ISRCTN21272423, http://www.isrctn.com/ISRCTN21272423 ), patients with synovitis of 12 weeks duration in at least two joints underwent 1 year of treatment with IFX in combination with MTX, MTX monotherapy, or PL randomised in a 2:2:1 ratio. The primary endpoint was clinical remission after 1 year (sustained for at least two consecutive visits 8 weeks apart) with remission defined as no swollen joints, 0-2 tender joints, and an acute-phase reactant within the normal range. RESULTS: Ninety patients participated in the present study. At week 54 (primary endpoint), 32% of the patients in the IFX + MTX group achieved sustained remission compared with 14% on MTX alone and 0% on PL. This difference (p < 0.05 over all three groups) was statistically significant for IFX + MTX vs PL (p < 0.05), but not for IFX + MTX vs MTX (p = 0.10), nor for MTX vs PL (p = 0.31). Remission was maintained during the second year on no therapy in 75% of the IFX + MTX patients compared with 20% of the MTX-only patients. CONCLUSIONS: These results indicate that patients with early arthritis can benefit from induction therapy with anti-TNF plus MTX compared with MTX alone, suggesting that intensive treatment can alter the disease evolution. TRIAL REGISTRATION: The trial was registered at http://www.isrctn.com/ISRCTN21272423 on 4 October 2007 (date applied)/12 December 2007 (date assigned). The first patient was included on 24 October 2007.

19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30044538

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To study JIA long-term outcomes in relation to the time of biological (b)DMARD initiation. METHODS: Outcomes of JIA patients prospectively followed by the BiKeR/JuMBO registers were analyzed with regard to i) drug-free remission and inactive disease, ii) functional status and quality of life, iii) surgery. To analyze the influence of early bDMARD therapy on outcomes, patients were assigned to three groups based on the time from symptom onset to bDMARD start (G1: ≤2 years, G2: >2-≤5 years, G3: >5 years). Propensity score-adjusted outcome differences were analyzed by multinomial logistic regression analyses among the groups. RESULTS: A total of 701 JIA patients were observed for 9.1±3.7 years. At the last follow-up (disease duration 14.3±6.1 years), 11.7% of patients were in drug-free remission, 40.0% had inactive disease. More than half reported no functional limitation, while 5% had undergone arthroplasty and 3% eye surgery. At the 10-year time point, patients in G1 (n=108) were significantly more likely to be in drug-free remission than those who began treatment later (G2: n=199; G3: n=259): 18.5%, 10.1%, 4.9%. Patients in G1 had significantly lower disease activity (cJADAS-10=4.9), a better overall well-being (18.2% patient global=0) and higher functional status (59.2% HAQ=0) compared to patients in G3 (7.1, 8.4%, 43.7%, respectively). G1 patients required arthroplasty significantly less frequently than G3 patients and had significantly lower disease activity over time than patients in both G2 and G3. CONCLUSION: Early DMARD treatment is associated with better disease control and outcomes, which supports the concept of a 'window of opportunity' for JIA. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30035362

RESUMO

Most patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) are ANA positive - but some are not (1). Although this is clearly a small number of patients, the size of this minor population is still debated. A fundamental question regarding this subset of patients is whether SLE can develop in the absence of an autoantibody response to nuclear antigens, with the alternative concept that ANA negativity reflects a testing anomaly. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

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