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1.
J Nutr ; 2020 Apr 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32321175

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Postpartum weight trajectories and its implications on later cardiometabolic health are not entirely understood. OBJECTIVES: Our objectives were: 1) to characterize maternal weight trajectories from 1 to 24 mo postpartum, 2) to determine the association of prepregnancy BMI, gestational weight gain (GWG), and pregnancy behaviors with the trajectories, and 3) to evaluate the association of weight trajectories with BMI, waist circumference (WC), lipid profile, glucose, insulin resistance, blood pressure, and inflammatory markers at 3 y postpartum. METHODS: We studied 1359 mothers from the prospective cohort Project Viva. Using weights at 1, 6, 12, and 24 mo postpartum, we characterized weight trajectories using a latent class growth model. For objectives 2 and 3, we used multinomial logistic regression and multiple linear regression models, respectively. RESULTS: Around 85% of women fell into a trajectory of sustained weight loss (1-12 mo) + maintenance (12-24 mo) (reference), 5.7% followed a trajectory characterized by fast weight loss + slight gain, and 9.7% fell into a trajectory of little weight loss + slight gain. Prepregnancy overweight and obesity increased the odds of falling into the fast weight loss + slight gain trajectory, compared with the reference. Prepregnancy overweight [OR 1.57 (95% CI: 1.01, 2.46)] and a higher total GWG rate [3.69 (2.90, 4.68)] increased the odds of falling into the little weight loss + slight gain trajectory, whereas a higher Prudent dietary pattern score was protective [0.73 (0.54, 0.98)]. Women in this trajectory had higher BMI, WC, weight gain from prepregnancy, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and inflammatory markers at 3 y postpartum. CONCLUSIONS: Women following a trajectory of little weight loss + slight gain during the first 2 y postpartum had an adverse cardiometabolic profile 3 y after delivery. Targeting diet and GWG during pregnancy and facilitating postpartum weight loss could improve women's long-term health.

2.
Int J Obes (Lond) ; 2020 Apr 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32321980

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In animal studies early life antibiotic exposure causes metabolic abnormalities including obesity through microbiota disruption, but evidence from human studies is scarce. We examined involvement of gut microbiota in the associations between infant antibiotic exposure and childhood adiposity. METHODS: Infant antibiotic exposure in the first year of life was ascertained using parental reports during interviewer-administered questionnaires. Primary outcomes were childhood obesity [body mass index (BMI) z-score > 95th percentile] and adiposity [abdominal circumference (AC) and skinfold (triceps + subscapular (SST)) measurements] determined from ages 15-60 months. At age 24 months, when the gut microbiota are more stable, stool samples (n = 392) were collected for the gut microbiota profiling using co-abundancy networks. Associations of antibiotic exposure with obesity and adiposity (n = 1016) were assessed using multiple logistic and linear mixed effects regressions. Key bacteria associated with antibiotics exposure were identified by partial redundancy analysis and multivariate association with linear models. RESULTS: Antibiotic exposure was reported in 38% of study infants. In a fully adjusted model, a higher odds of obesity from 15-60 months of age was observed for any antibiotic exposure [OR(95% CI) = 1.45(1.001, 2.14)] and exposure to ≥3 courses of antibiotics [2.78(1.12, 6.87)]. For continuous adiposity indicators, any antibiotic exposure was associated with higher BMI z-score in boys [ß = 0.15(0.01, 0.28)] but not girls [ß = -0.04(-0.19, 0.11)] (P interaction = 0.026). Similarly, exposure to ≥3 courses of antibiotics was associated with higher AC in boys [1.15(0.05, 2.26) cm] but not girls [0.57(-1.32, 2.45) cm] (P interaction not significant). Repeated exposure to antibiotics was associated with a significant reduction (FDR-corrected P values < 0.05) in a microbial co-abundant group (CAG) represented by Eubacterium hallii, whose proportion was negatively correlated with childhood adiposity. Meanwhile, a CAG represented by Tyzzerella 4 was positively correlated with the repeated use of antibiotics and childhood adiposity. CONCLUSIONS: Infant antibiotic exposure was associated with disruption of the gut microbiota and the higher risks of childhood obesity and increased adiposity.

3.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 9(7): e014654, 2020 Apr 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32248764

RESUMO

Background Retinal arteriolar narrowing and venular widening has been widely suggested to be associated with subclinical changes in cardiac structure. The novel retinal vascular geometric indices might reflect more comprehensive information on microvasculature other than vascular caliber alone. However, the association between suboptimal retinal vascular geometry and cardiac structural alteration has not been studied. Methods and Results We recruited 50 participants without cardiovascular disease from the Cardiac Aging Study conducted between 2014 and 2016. We performed transthoracic echocardiography imaging to measure cardiac structure indices such as left ventricular internal diameter end diastole index, left ventricular internal diameter end systole index, left ventricular mass index, and left atrial volume index, and retinal imaging to measure retinal vascular geometric indices including branching angle, curvature tortuosity, and fractal dimension. We applied multiple linear regressions to examine associations between indices of cardiac structure and retinal vascular geometry, adjusting for age, sex, body mass index, mean blood pressure, and comorbidity. The average age of all participants was 62.54 years old and slightly more than half were male (27; 54%). Each unit increase in a set of cardiac structure indices was associated with larger retinal arteriolar branching angle (ß and 95% CI: for left ventricular internal diameter end systole index, 26.93°; 6.00-47.86; for left ventricular internal diameter end diastole index, 17.86°; 1.61-34.11; for left ventricular mass index, 0.39°; 0.10-0.67; for left atrial volume index, 0.91°; 0.24-1.58). Conclusions Adverse retinal arteriolar geometric morphology mirrored suboptimal cardiac structural alteration.

4.
Appetite ; 150: 104653, 2020 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32151607

RESUMO

Individual differences in children's eating behaviours emerge early. We examined the relationship between breastfeeding exposure and subsequent eating behaviours among children from the Growing Up in Singapore Towards healthy Outcomes (GUSTO) cohort. Children (n = 970) were grouped according to their breastfeeding exposure: high (full breastfeeding ≥ 4 months with continued breastfeeding ≥ 6 months), low (any breastfeeding < 3 months or no breastfeeding) and intermediate (between low and high breastfeeding categories). Aspects of eating behaviour from ages 15 months to 6 years were captured using a combination of maternal reports (Child Eating Behaviour Questionnaire; Infant Feeding Questionnaire; Preschooler Feeding Questionnaire) and laboratory-based measures of meal size, oral processing behaviours (e.g. average eating speed and bite size) and tendency to eat in the absence of hunger. Most children had low (44%) or intermediate (44%) breastfeeding exposure; only 12% had high exposure. After adjusting for confounders, multivariable linear regression analyses indicated the high (but not intermediate) breastfeeding group was associated with significantly lower reported food fussiness at 3 years compared to low breastfeeding group (-0.38 [-0.70, -0.06]), with similar but non-significant trends observed at 6 years (-0.27 [-0.66, 0.11]). At 3 years, mothers in the high breastfeeding group also reported the least difficulty in child feeding compared to low breastfeeding group (-0.22 [-0.43, -0.01]). However, high breastfeeding was not associated with any other maternal-reports of child feeding or eating behaviours, and no significant associations were observed between breastfeeding exposure and any of the laboratory measures of eating behaviour at any of the time points. These results do not strongly support the view that increased breastfeeding exposure alone has lasting and consistent associations with eating behaviours in early childhood.

5.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 2020 Mar 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32219421

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Gestational diabetes is associated with unfavorable body fat distribution in offspring. However, less is known about the effects across the range of maternal gestational glycemia on offspring abdominal adiposity (AA) in infancy and early childhood. OBJECTIVES: This study determined the association between gestational glycemia and offspring AA measured by MRI in the neonatal period and during the preschool years. METHODS: Participants were mother-offspring pairs from the GUSTO (Growing Up in Singapore Towards healthy Outcomes) prospective cohort study. Children who underwent MRI within 2 wk postdelivery (n = 305) and/or at preschool age, 4.5 y (n = 273), and whose mothers had a 2-h 75-g oral-glucose-tolerance test (OGTT) at 26-28 weeks of gestation were included. AA measured by adipose tissue compartment volumes-abdominal superficial (sSAT), deep subcutaneous (dSAT), and internal (IAT) adipose tissue-was quantified from MRI images. RESULTS: Adjusting for potential confounders including maternal prepregnancy BMI, each 1-mmol/L increase in maternal fasting glucose was associated with higher SD scores for sSAT (0.66; 95% CI: 0.45, 0.86), dSAT (0.65; 95% CI: 0.44, 0.87), and IAT (0.64; 95% CI: 0.42, 0.86) in neonates. Similarly, each 1-mmol/L increase in 2-h OGTT glucose was associated with higher neonatal sSAT (0.11; 95% CI: 0.03, 0.19) and dSAT (0.09; 95% CI: 0.00, 0.17). These associations were stronger in female neonates but only persisted in girls between fasting glucose, and sSAT and dSAT at 4.5 y. CONCLUSIONS: A positive association between maternal glycemia and neonatal AA was observed across the whole range of maternal mid-gestation glucose concentrations. These findings may lend further support to efforts toward optimizing maternal hyperglycemia during pregnancy. The study also provides suggestive evidence on sex differences in the impact of maternal glycemia, which merits further confirmation in other studies.This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01174875.

6.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 111(5): 997-1006, 2020 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32219418

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Several risk factors in the first 1000 d are linked with increased obesity risk in later childhood. The role of potentially modifiable eating behaviors in this association is unclear. OBJECTIVES: This study examined whether the association between cumulated risk factors in the first 1000 d and adiposity at 6 y is moderated by eating behaviors. METHODS: Participants were 302 children from the GUSTO (Growing Up in Singapore Towards healthy Outcomes) cohort. Risk factors included maternal prepregnancy and paternal overweight, excessive gestational weight gain, raised fasting plasma glucose during pregnancy, short breastfeeding duration, and early introduction of solid foods. Composite risk scores reflecting the prevalence and the importance of the risk factors present were computed. Adiposity outcomes were child BMI and sum of skinfolds (SSF), and candidate eating behavior moderators were portion size, eating rate, and energy intake during lunch and in an eating in the absence of hunger task. RESULTS: Higher composite risk score predicted higher BMI z scores (B = 0.08; 95% CI: 0.04, 0.13) and larger SSF (0.70 mm; 0.23, 1.18 mm), and was associated with larger self-served food portions (5.03 kcal; 0.47, 9.60 kcal), faster eating rates (0.40 g/min; 0.21, 0.59 g/min), and larger lunch intakes (7.05 kcal; 3.37, 10.74 kcal). Importantly, the association between composite risk score and adiposity was moderated by eating behaviors. The composite risk score was unrelated to SSF in children who selected smaller food portions, ate slower, and consumed less energy, but was positively associated with SSF among children who selected larger food portions, ate faster, and consumed more energy (eating behavior × risk score interactions: P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: The association between risk factors in the first 1000 d and adiposity at 6 y varies by eating behaviors, highlighting modifiable behavioral targets for interventions.This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01174875.

7.
Pediatrics ; 144(6)2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31757860

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To examine associations of the timing of complementary feeding (CF) introduction with adiposity throughout childhood. METHODS: We studied 1013 children from Project Viva. Our exposure was CF introduction, categorized as <4 months (19%), 4 to <6 months (68%; reference group), and ≥6 months of age (14%). Our outcomes included adiposity measures in midchildhood (mean: 7.9 years; SD 0.8; n = 896) and early adolescence (mean: 13.2 years; SD 0.9; n = 850). We used linear regression models adjusted for potential confounders and ran separate models for infants who were breastfed at least partly for ≥4 months (categorized as breastfed; 69%) and infants who were never breastfed or stopped breastfeeding at <4 months (categorized as formula fed; 31%). RESULTS: CF initiated at <4 months was associated with higher adiposity in midchildhood in breastfed children; associations persisted into adolescence for waist circumference, truncal fat mass, and the sum of subscapular and triceps skinfolds (eg, waist circumference: confounder-adjusted ß 2.97 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.47 to 5.47] cm). The effect estimates were larger in formula-fed children, with more associations persisting into adolescence (eg, waist circumference: adjusted ß 3.42 [95% CI 0.12 to 6.71] cm). CF initiated at ≥6 months was associated with a higher subscapular/triceps skinfold ratio in midchildhood and adolescence (adjusted ß 0.13 [95% CI 0.02 to 0.25]) in formula-fed children. CONCLUSIONS: We found associations of early CF introduction with higher adiposity measurements in breastfed and formula-fed children and associations of late introduction of CF with higher adiposity in formula-fed children.


Assuntos
Adiposidade , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição do Lactente , Adolescente , Aleitamento Materno , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Humanos , Lactente , Fórmulas Infantis , Estudos Longitudinais , Obesidade Pediátrica/epidemiologia , Obesidade Pediátrica/prevenção & controle , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Tempo
8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31681170

RESUMO

Background: In the past decade, continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) has been proven to have similar accuracy to self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) and yet provides better therapy optimization and detects trends in glucose values due to higher frequency of testing. Even though the feasibility and utility of CGM has been proven successfully in Type 1 and 2 diabetes, there is a lack of knowledge of its application and effectiveness in pregnancy, especially in gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). In this review, we aimed to summarize and evaluate the updated scientific evidence on the application of CGM in pregnancies complicated with GDM. Methods: A search using keywords related to CGM and GDM on PubMed was conducted and articles were filtered based on full text, year of publication (Jan 1998-Dec 2018), human subject studies, and written in English. Reviews and duplicate articles were removed. A final total of 29 articles were included in this review. Results: In terms of maternal and fetal outcomes, inconsistent evidence was reported. Among GDM patients using CGM and SMBG, two randomized controlled trials (RCTs) found no significant differences in macrosomia, birth weight (BW), and gestational age (GA) at delivery between these two groups, while one prospective cohort found a lower incidence of cesarean section and macrosomia in CGM use subjects. Furthermore, CGM use was consistently found to have increased detection in dysglycemia and glycemic variability compared to SMBG. In terms of clinical utility, CGM use led to more treatment adjustments and lower gestational weight gain (GWG). Lastly, CGM use showed higher postprandial glucose levels in GDM-complicated pregnancies than in normal pregnancies. Conclusion: Current updated evidence suggests that CGM is superior to SMBG among GDM pregnancies in terms of detecting hypoglycemic and hyperglycemic episodes, which might result in an improvement of maternal and fetal outcomes. In addition, CGM detects a wider glycemic variability in GDM mothers than non-GDM controls. Further research with larger sample sizes and complete pregnancy coverage is needed to explore the clinical utility such as screening and predictive values of CGM for GDM.

9.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 16714, 2019 Nov 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31723195

RESUMO

About a quarter of children with new onset of Kawasaki disease (KD) encounter coronary arterial involvement. While KD is known to cause vasculitis of medium-sized vessels, few studies have been done to study the involvement of the microcirculation. We aimed to investigate the association between coronary arterial dilatation and retinal microvasculature in a pilot setting, in order to further study the pathophysiological mechanism of KD from the perspective of small vessels changes. We performed a cross-sectional, observational, hospital-based study on 11 children aged 2 years and above with new-onset KD. Cardiac imaging technicians performed the echocardiographic examinations and recorded right coronary artery (RCA), left coronary artery (LCA) and left anterior descending artery (LAD). Qualified retinal graders reviewed and graded standardised retinal photographs to assess retinal microvascular parameters. Among 11 participants, there were 7 boys and 4 girls. Median and interquartile range of participants' age were 5.92 (3.08) years. After adjusting for age and sex, each unit increase in LAD (mm) was significantly associated with increment of retinal arteriolar tortuosity (4.25 × 10-5 units, 95% Confidence Interval: 1.19, 7.32). Retinal arteriolar geometric changes were associated with LAD dilatation in 11 children with new onset of KD. Our pilot provided proof-of-concept that retinal imaging might be useful for detecting coronary arterial involvement in young children with KD and it needs further investigation.

10.
Am J Epidemiol ; 2019 Oct 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31595955

RESUMO

The evidence that fetal life and early infancy are "critical" or "sensitive" ages for later cardiometabolic disease is based on flawed methods for comparing different age periods. Moreover, most previous studies have limited their focus to weight gain, rather than growth in length/height or body mass index (BMI). We undertook a secondary analysis of PROBIT (1996-2010), a birth cohort study nested within a large cluster-randomized trial in the Republic of Belarus, with repeated measures of weight and length/height from birth to 11.5 years of age. We used mixed effects linear models to analyze associations of changes in standardized weight, length/height, and BMI during five age periods (conception to birth, birth to 3 months, 3 to 12 months, 12 months to 6.5 years, and 6.5 to 11.5 years) with fasting glucose, insulin, insulin resistance, ß-cell function, and adiponectin at age 11.5 years. We observed strong associations between the metabolic markers and all three growth measures, with the largest magnitudes observed during the latest age period (6.5 to 11.5 years) and negligible associations during gestation and the first year of life. Later age-periods appear more "sensitive" than earlier periods to the adverse metabolic association of rapid growth in childhood.

11.
J Pediatr ; 215: 123-131.e2, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31604633

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association of preconception parental obesity (body mass index [BMI] ≥30 kg/m2) with offspring pubertal development. STUDY DESIGN: Among 1377 children from a prospective prebirth cohort in Boston, we examined markers of puberty (age at peak height velocity [PHV], age at menarche, self-reported pubertal development score), and adrenarche (pictograph Tanner pubic hair staging). We used multivariable regression models to examine associations of maternal and paternal obesity with offspring pubertal indices, and applied marginal structural models to estimate the controlled direct effect not mediated by offspring prepubertal BMI. RESULTS: The prevalence of paternal obesity alone, maternal obesity alone, and biparental obesity were 10.5%, 10.1%, and 5%, respectively. After adjusting for demographic and socioeconomic factors, parental heights and maternal age at menarche, maternal obesity alone (vs neither parent with obesity) was associated with earlier age at PHV (ß -0.30 years; 95% CI -0.57, -0.03) and higher early adolescent pubertal score (0.29 units; 0.10, 0.48) in boys, but not with pubertal or adrenarchal outcomes in girls. Paternal obesity alone was not associated with any outcomes in either boys or girls. Biparental obesity was associated with earlier age at PHV in boys and earlier menarche in girls. Using marginal structural models with stabilized inverse probability weighting, maternal obesity alone had significant controlled direct effects on age at PHV (-0.31 years; -0.62, 0.00) and on pubertal score (0.22 units; 0.00, 0.44) in boys, independent of prepubertal BMI. CONCLUSION: Maternal, but not paternal, obesity is associated with earlier pubertal development in boys, and such association is independent of prepubertal BMI.

12.
JMIR Form Res ; 3(4): e13013, 2019 Oct 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31651407

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Traditional dietary recommendations for achieving optimal gestational weight gain are ineffective for pregnant women due to the lack of real-time communication and tedious consultation processes. OBJECTIVE: In this pilot study, we aimed to determine the feasibility of a novel food-coaching smartphone app for controlling gestational weight gain and macronutrient intake among overweight and obese pregnant women. METHODS: We designed a randomized controlled trial and recruited 30 overweight and obese pregnant women (1:1 ratio) during 18-20 weeks of gestation and followed them up after 4 and 8 weeks, respectively. Both groups received standard pregnancy dietary orientation at recruitment, while the intervention group received 8 weeks of real-time food coaching via a smartphone app. This food-coaching smartphone app (Glycoleap, Holmusk, Singapore) aimed to improve care and outcomes for people with diabetes. Pregnant women using this app were able to upload food images (eg, a picture of a meal, a drink, or a dessert) and received real-time and detailed food-coaching comments and guidance provided by professional dietitians during the day (8 AM to 8 PM). We recorded detailed characteristics during recruitment and examined anthropometry at all visits. We compared the mean differences of the 8-week gestational weight gain and macronutrient intake between the two groups. RESULTS: Upon study completion, three subjects dropped out from the intervention, and one gave birth prematurely in the control group. The acceptance rate of the smartphone app was 90%. More participants achieved optimal gestational weight gain per week in the intervention group (8/12, 67%) than in the control group (5/14, 36%). After the 8-week intervention, women in the intervention group appeared to have lower gestational weight gain (mean difference=-0.08 kg; 95% CI -1.80 to 1.63) and cholesterol intake (mean difference=-31.73 mg; 95% CI -102.91 to 39.45) than those in the control group. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings showed that this food-coaching smartphone app is feasible and favorable for weight gain control and cholesterol intake control among overweight and obese pregnant women. Although our results were not significant (perhaps, attributed to the small sample size), it provided proof of concept for the feasibility of applying such technology in future randomized controlled trials with a larger sample size, an earlier intervention onset, and a longer follow-up for overweight and obese pregnant women.

13.
Br J Nutr ; 122(11): 1303-1312, 2019 Dec 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31477198

RESUMO

Consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB) by infants and young children are less explored in Asian populations. The Growing Up in Singapore Towards healthy Outcomes cohort study examined associations between SSB intake at 18 months and 5 years of age, with adiposity measures at 6 years of age. We studied Singaporean infants/children with SSB intake assessed by FFQ at 18 months of age (n 555) and 5 years of age (n 767). The median for SSB intakes is 28 (interquartile range 5·5-98) ml at 18 months of age and 111 (interquartile range 57-198) ml at 5 years of age. Association between SSB intake (100 ml/d increments and tertile categories) and adiposity measures (BMI standard deviation scores (sd units), sum of skinfolds (SSF)) and overweight/obesity status were examined using multivariable linear and Poisson regression models, respectively. After adjusting for confounders and additionally for energy intake, SSB intake at age 18 months were not significantly associated with later adiposity measures and overweight/obesity outcomes. In contrast, at age 5 years, SSB intake when modelled as 100 ml/d increments were associated with higher BMI by 0·09 (95 % CI 0·02, 0·16) sd units, higher SSF thickness by 0·68 (95 % CI 0·06, 1·44) mm and increased risk of overweight/obesity by 1·2 (95 % CI 1·07, 1·23) times at age 6 years. Trends were consistent with SSB intake modelled as categorical tertiles. In summary, SSB intake in young childhood is associated with higher risks of adiposity and overweight/obesity. Public health policies working to reduce SSB consumption need to focus on prevention programmes targeted at young children.

14.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 110(5): 1049-1050, 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31504113
15.
Am J Epidemiol ; 188(11): 1913-1922, 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31497850

RESUMO

Childhood blood pressure (BP) is a strong predictor of later risk of cardiovascular disease. However, few studies have assessed dynamic BP trajectories throughout the early-life period. We investigated the relationship between early-life factors and systolic BP (SBP) from infancy to adolescence using linear spline mixed-effects models among 1,370 children from Project Viva, a Boston, Massachusetts-area cohort recruited in 1999-2002. After adjusting for confounders and child height, we observed higher SBP in children exposed to gestational diabetes mellitus (vs. normoglycemia; age 3 years: ß = 3.16 mm Hg (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.28, 6.04); age 6 years: ß = 1.83 mm Hg (95% CI: 0.06, 3.60)), hypertensive disorders of pregnancy (vs. normal maternal BP; age 6 years: ß = 1.39 mm Hg (95% CI: 0.10, 2.67); age 9 years: ß = 1.84 mm Hg (95% CI: 0.34, 3.34); age 12 years: ß = 1.70 mm Hg (95% CI: 0.48, 2.92)), higher neonatal SBP (per 10-mm Hg increase; age 3 years: ß = 1.26 mm Hg (95% CI: 0.42, 2.09); age 6 years: ß = 1.00 mm Hg (95% CI: 0.49, 1.51); age 9 years: ß = 0.75 mm Hg (95% CI: 0.17, 1.33)), and formula milk in the first 6 months of life (vs. breast milk only; age 12 years: ß = 2.10 mm Hg (95% CI: 0.46, 3.74); age 15 years: ß = 3.52 mm Hg (95% CI: 1.40, 5.64); age 18 years: ß = 4.94 mm Hg (95% CI: 1.88, 7.99)). Our findings provide evidence of programming of offspring SBP trajectories by gestational diabetes, hypertensive disorders of pregnancy, and formula milk intake and of neonatal BP being a potentially useful marker of childhood BP. These factors could be relevant in identifying children who are at risk of developing elevated BP.

16.
Obesity (Silver Spring) ; 27(10): 1661-1670, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31479205

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship of BMI with subsequent statural growth among children born in the era of the obesity epidemic. METHODS: Among 18,271 children from Belarus (n = 16,781, born 1996 to 1997) and the United States (n = 1,490, born 1999 to 2002), multivariable linear and ordinal logistic regression was used to analyze associations of BMI z score from infancy to adolescence with subsequent standardized length and height velocity, standing height and its components (trunk and leg lengths), and pubertal timing. RESULTS: The prevalence of early adolescent obesity was 6.2% in Belarus and 12.8% in the United States. In both Belarusian and US children, higher BMI z scores in infancy and childhood were associated with faster length and height velocity in early life, while higher BMI z scores during middle childhood were associated with slower length and height velocity during adolescence. Associations with greater standing height and trunk length and earlier pubertal development in adolescence were stronger for BMI z scores at middle childhood than BMI z scores at birth or infancy. CONCLUSIONS: These findings in both Belarus and the United States support the role of higher BMI in accelerating linear growth in early life (taller stature and longer trunk length) but earlier pubertal development and slower linear growth during adolescence.

18.
Int J Obes (Lond) ; 2019 Aug 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31462692

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Accumulation of lipid droplets inside skeletal muscle fibers (intramyocellular lipids or IMCL) with increasing obesity has been linked to skeletal muscle insulin resistance and risk of type 2 diabetes in both adults and prepubertal children. We aimed to evaluate the associations of race, genotype, prenatal factors, and postnatal factors with IMCL in early childhood. SUBJECTS/METHODS: This study was a secondary analysis performed on the GUSTO birth cohort. Soleus muscle IMCL of 392 children at 4.5 years of age was measured by magnetic resonance spectroscopy, of which usable imaging data were obtained from 277 children (137 Chinese, 87 Malays, and 53 Indians). Metabolic assessments (fasting glucose, insulin, and HOMA-IR) were performed at age 6. RESULTS: The mean IMCL level at 4.5 years was 0.481 ± 0.279% of water resonance (mean ± sd). Corroborating with results from adults, Indian children had the highest IMCL levels compared with Malay and Chinese children. Among the prenatal factors, the rate of gestational weight gain (GWG rate) was associated with offspring IMCL (B = 0.396 (0.069, 0.724); p = 0.018). Both race and GWG rate continued to be associated with offspring IMCL even after accounting for current offspring BMI. Postnatally, IMCL was associated with shorter breastfeeding duration (B = 0.065 (0.001, 0.128); p = 0.045) and conditional relative weight gain between ages 2 and 3 (B = 0.052 (0.012, 0.093); p = 0.012). The associations with postnatal factors were attenuated after adjusting for current offspring BMI. IMCL was positively associated with offspring BMI (B = 0.028 (0.012, 0.044); p = 0.001). IMCL levels were not associated with fasting glucose, fasting insulin, and HOMA-IR at age 6. CONCLUSION: This study provides evidence that IMCL accumulation occurs in early childhood and that developmental factors and race are associated with it. We also show that early childhood IMCL accumulation is well tolerated, suggesting that the adverse associations between IMCL and insulin resistance may emerge at older ages.

19.
Appetite ; 142: 104371, 2019 11 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31323246

RESUMO

Parents' feeding practices have been shown to be associated with children's food intake and weight status, but little is known about feeding practices in Asian countries. This study used behavioral observation to explore the feeding practices of 201 mothers of 4.5 year-old children in Singapore during an ad libitum buffet lunch. Feeding practices were coded from videos, focusing on behaviors used to prompt the child to eat more food (autonomy-supportive and coercive-controlling prompts to eat, suggesting items from buffet), those to reduce intake (restriction, questioning food choice), and those related to eating rate (hurrying or slowing child eating). Child outcome measures included energy consumed, variety of food items selected, and BMI. Maternal restriction and trying to slow child eating rate were associated with higher energy consumed by the child (r = 0.19 and 0.13, respectively; p < 0.05). Maternal autonomy-supportive prompts and restriction were associated with a greater variety of items selected by children (r = 0.19 and 0.15, respectively; p < 0.05). The frequency of maternal feeding practice use differed across ethnic groups, with Malay mothers using the most prompts to eat (p < 0.05), Chinese mothers most likely to question a child's food choice (p < 0.01), and Indian mothers the last likely to tell the child to eat faster (p < 0.001). There were no differences between ethnic groups for other feeding practices. No associations were found between feeding practices and child BMI. It is possible that feeding practices related to restriction and slowing child eating are adopted in response to children who consume larger portions, although longitudinal or intervention studies are needed to confirm the direction of this relationship and create local recommendations.

20.
Pediatrics ; 144(1)2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31201230

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To provide an updated birth weight-for-gestational age (BW-for-GA) reference in the United States by using the most recent, nationally representative birth data with obstetric estimates of gestational age (GA). METHODS: We abstracted 3 285 552 singleton births between 22 and 42 weeks' gestation with nonmissing race and/or ethnicity, infant sex, parity, birth weight, and obstetric estimate of GA from the 2017 US natality files. We used 2 techniques (nonlinear, resistant smoothing [4253H] and lambda-mu-sigma) to derive smoothed BW-for-GA curves and compared resulting BW-for-GA cut-points at the third, 10th, 90th, and 97th percentiles with US references from 1999 to 2009. RESULTS: The smoothed BW-for-GA curves from both techniques overlapped considerably with each other, with strong agreements seen between the 2 techniques (>99% agreement; κ-statistic >0.9) for BW-for-GA cut-points at the third, 10th, 90th, and 97th percentiles across all GAs. Cut-points from 2017 using the lambda-mu-sigma method captured 9.8% to 10.2% of births <10th and >90th percentiles and 2.6% to 3.3% of births below the third and above the 97th percentile across all GAs. However, cut-points from US references in 1999 and 2009 (when GA was based on last menstrual period) captured a much larger range of proportions of 2017 births at these thresholds, especially among preterm and postterm GA categories. CONCLUSIONS: We have provided an updated BW-for-GA reference in the United States using the most recent births with obstetric estimates of GA and information to calculate continuous measures of birth size that are sex or parity specific.


Assuntos
Peso ao Nascer , Idade Gestacional , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Valores de Referência , Estados Unidos
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