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1.
Respir Investig ; 2019 Oct 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31591069

RESUMO

Asthma is an allergic disorder with dominant type 2 airway inflammation, and its prevalence is increasing worldwide. Inhalation of corticosteroids is the primary treatment for asthma along with add-on drugs, including long-acting ß2 agonists and/or cysteinyl leukotriene (cys-LT) receptor antagonists, in patients with poorly controlled asthma. Cys-LTs are composed of leukotriene C4 (LTC4), LTD4, and LTE4, which are enzymatically metabolized from arachidonic acid. These molecules act as inflammatory mediators through different types of high-affinity receptors, namely, CysLT1, CysLT2, and CysLT3 (also named as GPR99). CysLT1 antagonists possessing anti-inflammatory and bronchodilatory effects can be orally administered to patients with asthma. Recently, molecular biology-based studies have revealed the mechanism of inflammatory responses via other receptors, such as CysLT2 and CysLT3, as well as the importance of upstream inflammatory regulators, including type 2 cytokines (e.g., interleukins 4 and 5), in controlling cys-LT metabolism. These findings indicate the therapeutic potential of pharmacological agents targeting cys-LT metabolism-related receptors and enzymes, and antibody drugs neutralizing or antagonizing type 2 cytokines. This review focuses on the current state and future prospect of the therapeutic strategy targeting cys-LT metabolism.

2.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 4007, 2019 Sep 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31488836

RESUMO

Gut microbiota mediates the effects of diet, thereby modifying host metabolism and the incidence of metabolic disorders. Increased consumption of omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) that is abundant in Western diet contributes to obesity and related diseases. Although gut-microbiota-related metabolic pathways of dietary PUFAs were recently elucidated, the effects on host physiological function remain unclear. Here, we demonstrate that gut microbiota confers host resistance to high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity by modulating dietary PUFAs metabolism. Supplementation of 10-hydroxy-cis-12-octadecenoic acid (HYA), an initial linoleic acid-related gut-microbial metabolite, attenuates HFD-induced obesity in mice without eliciting arachidonic acid-mediated adipose inflammation and by improving metabolic condition via free fatty acid receptors. Moreover, Lactobacillus-colonized mice show similar effects with elevated HYA levels. Our findings illustrate the interplay between gut microbiota and host energy metabolism via the metabolites of dietary omega-6-FAs thereby shedding light on the prevention and treatment of metabolic disorders by targeting gut microbial metabolites.

3.
Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol ; 39(9): 1802-1816, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31366219

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, especially eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), have beneficial effects on atherosclerosis. Although specific salutary actions have been reported, the detailed distribution of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in plaque and their relevance in disease progression are unclear. Our aim was to assess the pharmacodynamics of EPA and DHA and their metabolites in atherosclerotic plaques. Approach and Results: Apolipoprotein E-deficient (Apoe-/-) mice were fed a Western diet supplemented with EPA (1%, w/w) or DHA (1%, w/w) for 3 weeks. Imaging mass spectrometry analyses were performed in the aortic root and arch of the Apoe-/- mice to evaluate the distribution of EPA, DHA, their metabolites and the lipids containing EPA or DHA in the plaques. Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry and histological analysis were also performed. The intima-media thickness of atherosclerotic plaque decreased in plaques containing free EPA and EPAs attached with several lipids. EPA was distributed more densely in the thin-cap plaques than in the thick-cap plaques, while DHA was more evenly distributed. In the aortic root, the distribution of total EPA level and cholesteryl esters containing EPA followed a concentration gradient from the vascular endothelium to the media. In the aortic arch, free EPA and 12-hydroxy-EPA colocalized with M2 macrophage. CONCLUSIONS: Administered EPA tends to be incorporated from the vascular lumen side and preferentially taken into the thin-cap plaque.

4.
FASEB J ; : fj201900477RR, 2019 Jul 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31355683

RESUMO

Chronic activation of the IL-1ß system in adipose tissue on metabolic disorders is well demonstrated. However, a mechanism for its expression and activation in the tissue has remained unexplored. Here, we demonstrate that IL-1ß transcript was enriched in neutrophils of white adipose tissue (WAT) from lean mice. Mechanistically, the interaction of neutrophils with adipocytes induced IL-1ß expression via NF-κB pathway. Lipolysis of adipocytes accumulated neutrophils prior to macrophages in WAT and produced high levels of IL-1ß via an inflammasome pathway. Leukotriene B4 (LTB4) production in WAT also contributed to neutrophil accumulation. Furthermore, an LTB4-inflammasome axis contributed to the expression of chemotactic molecules involved in high-fat diet-induced macrophage infiltration into WAT. We have identified previously unappreciated roles for neutrophils in the development of adipose tissue inflammation: robust IL-1ß production and infiltration of macrophages to initiate chronic inflammation.-Watanabe, Y., Nagai, Y., Honda, H., Okamoto, N., Yanagibashi, T., Ogasawara, M., Yamamoto, S., Imamura, R., Takasaki, I., Hara, H., Sasahara, M., Arita, M., Hida, S., Taniguchi, S., Suda, T., Takatsu, K. Bidirectional crosstalk between neutrophils and adipocytes promotes adipose tissue inflammation.

5.
Allergol Int ; 2019 Jun 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31248811

RESUMO

Eosinophils are multifaceted immune cells with diverse functions that enhance allergic inflammation. Cysteinyl leukotrienes (cys-LTs), mainly synthesized in eosinophils, are a class of inflammatory lipid mediators produced via multiple enzymatic reactions from arachidonic acid. Multiple clinical studies have reported dysregulated fatty acid metabolism in severe asthma and aspirin-exacerbated respiratory diseases. Therefore, understanding the mechanism responsible for this metabolic abnormality has attracted a lot of attention. In eosinophils, various stimuli (including cytokines, chemokines, and pathogen-derived factors) prime and/or induce leukotriene generation and secretion. Cell-cell interactions with component cells (endothelial cells, epithelial cells, fibroblasts) also enhance this machinery to augment allergic responses. Nasal polyp-derived eosinophils from patients with eosinophilic rhinosinusitis present a characteristic fatty acid metabolism with selectively higher production of leukotriene D4. Interestingly, type 2 cytokines and microbiome components might be responsible for this metabolic change with altered enzyme expression. Here, we review the regulation of fatty acid metabolism, especially cys-LT metabolism, in human eosinophils toward allergic inflammatory status.

7.
Int Immunol ; 31(9): 559-567, 2019 Aug 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30772915

RESUMO

Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), including eicosapentaenoic acid, docosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid, display a wide range of beneficial effects in humans and animals. Many of the biological functions of PUFAs are mediated via bioactive metabolites produced by fatty acid oxygenases such as cyclooxygenases, lipoxygenases and cytochrome P450 monooxygenases. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry-based mediator lipidomics revealed a series of novel bioactive lipid mediators derived from omega-3 PUFAs. Here, we describe recent advances on omega-3 PUFA-derived mediators, mainly focusing on their enzymatic oxygenation pathway, and their biological functions in controlling inflammation and tissue homeostasis.

8.
Life Sci Alliance ; 2(1)2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30683688

RESUMO

Stimulator of interferon genes (STING) plays a key role in detecting cytosolic DNA and induces type I interferon (IFN-I) responses for host defense against pathogens. Although T cells highly express STING, its physiological role remains unknown. Here, we show that costimulation of T cells with the STING ligand cGAMP and TCR leads to IFN-I production and strongly inhibits T-cell growth. TCR-mediated mTORC1 activation and sustained activation of IRF3 are required for cGAMP-induced IFN-I production, and the mTORC1 activity is partially counteracted by cGAMP, thereby blocking proliferation. This mTORC1 inhibition in response to costimulation depends on IRF3 and IRF7. Effector T cells produce much higher IFN-I levels than innate cells in response to cGAMP. Finally, we demonstrated that STING stimulation in T cells is effective in inducing antitumor responses in vivo. Our studies demonstrate that the outputs of STING and TCR signaling pathways are mutually regulated through mTORC1 to modulate T-cell functions.

9.
Allergy ; 74(6): 1113-1124, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30667533

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Eosinophils are multifunctional granulocytes capable of releasing various cytokines, chemokines, and lipid mediators. We previously reported dysregulated fatty acid metabolism in peripheral blood-derived eosinophils from patients with severe asthma. However, functional characteristics of eosinophils present in allergic inflammatory tissues remain largely uncharacterized. METHODS: We established a method for isolating CD69hi CCR3low CXCR4- siglec-8int eosinophils from nasal polyps of patients with eosinophilic rhinosinusitis (NP-EOS). Multi-omics analysis including lipidomics, proteomics, and transcriptomics was performed to analyze NP-EOS as compared to peripheral blood-derived eosinophils from healthy subjects (PB-EOS). RESULTS: Lipidomic analysis revealed impaired synthesis of prostaglandins and 15-lipoxygenase (15-LOX)-derived mediators, and selective upregulation of leukotriene D4 production. Furthermore, proteomics and transcriptomics revealed changes in the expression of specific enzymes (GGT5, DPEP2, and 15-LOX) responsible for dysregulated lipid metabolism. Ingenuity pathway analysis indicated the importance of type 2 cytokines and pattern recognition receptor pathways. Stimulation of PB-EOS with eosinophil activators IL-5, GM-CSF, and agonists of TLR2 and NOD2 mimicked the observed changes in lipid metabolism. CONCLUSION: Inflammatory tissue-derived eosinophils possess a specific phenotype with dysregulated fatty acid metabolism that may be targeted therapeutically to control eosinophilic inflammatory diseases.

10.
J Proteome Res ; 2018 Nov 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30394753

RESUMO

Protein and RNA profiles are highly informative when generating a comprehensive understanding of the dynamics of complex biological systems. Quantitative correlations between protein and RNA profiles are not always high, yet simultaneous acquisition of both profiles remains challenging, in part because of the limited availability of samples and the inconvenience of separately preparing protein and RNA fractions. In a previous study, protein, DNA, and RNA fractions were simultaneously prepared from the same sample using phenol-guanidinium isothiocyanate reagent (P/GTC), although the performance of P/GTC-extracts in proteogenomic analyses remains poorly understood. We therefore evaluated the performance of the P/GTC-extraction method in proteogenomic analyses using standard HEK293-F cells and human peripheral blood neutrophils. The latter cell type is renowned for its extreme vulnerability to protein/RNA degradation, reflecting high protease and RNase activities. Our data indicate that the P/GTC extraction method provides superior protein profiles from neutrophil and HEK293-F cell samples for simultaneous preparation of RNA and protein, as compared with those from conventional protein extraction methods. The P/GTC extraction method therefore provides a powerful and robust tool for a broad range of proteogenomic studies.

11.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun ; 505(1): 81-86, 2018 Oct 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30241938

RESUMO

Reelin is a secreted protein essential for the development and function of the mammalian brain. The receptors for Reelin, apolipoprotein E receptor 2 and very low-density lipoprotein receptor, belong to the low-density lipoprotein receptor family, but it is not known whether Reelin is involved in the brain lipid metabolism. In the present study, we performed lipidomic analysis of the cerebral cortex of wild-type and Reelin-deficient (reeler) mice, and found that reeler mice exhibited several compositional changes in phospholipids. First, the ratio of phospholipids containing one saturated fatty acid (FA) and one docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) or arachidonic acid (ARA) decreased. Secondly, the ratio of phospholipids containing one monounsaturated FA (MUFA) and one DHA or ARA increased. Thirdly, the ratio of phospholipids containing 5,8,11-eicosatrienoic acid, or Mead acid (MA), increased. Finally, the expression of stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1 (SCD-1) increased. As the increase of MA is seen as an index of polyunsaturated FA (PUFA) deficiency, and the expression of SCD-1 is suppressed by PUFA, these results strongly suggest that the loss of Reelin leads to PUFA deficiency. Hence, MUFA and MA are synthesized in response to this deficiency, in part by inducing SCD-1 expression. This is the first report of changes of FA composition in the reeler mouse brain and provides a basis for further investigating the new role of Reelin in the development and function of the brain.

12.
Carcinogenesis ; 2018 Sep 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30184109

RESUMO

Melanoma has a high propensity to metastasize and exhibits a poor response to classical therapies. Dysregulation of the chemokine receptor gene CXCR4 is associated with melanoma progression, and although n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are known to be beneficial for melanoma prevention, the underlying mechanism of this effect is unclear. Here, we used the n-3 fatty acid desaturase (Fat-1) transgenic mouse model of endogenous n-3 PUFA synthesis to investigate the influence of elevated n-3 PUFA levels in a mouse model of metastatic melanoma. We found that relative to wild-type (WT) mice, Fat-1 mice exhibited fewer pulmonary metastatic colonies and improved inflammatory indices, including reduced serum TNF-α levels and pulmonary myeloperoxidase activity. Differential PUFA metabolites in serum were considered a key factor to alter cancer cell travelling to lung and we found that n-6 PUFAs such as arachidonic acid induced CXCR4 protein expression while n-3 PUFAs such as EPA decreased CXCR4 levels. In addition, serum levels of the bioactive eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) metabolite, 18-HEPE, were elevated in Fat-1 mice relative to WT mice, and 18-HEPE suppressed CXCR4 expression in B16-F0 cells. Moreover, relative to controls, numbers of pulmonary metastatic colonies were reduced in WT mice receiving intravenous injections either of 18-HEPE or 18-HEPE-pretreated melanoma cells. Our results indicate that 18-HEPE is a potential anticancer metabolite that mediates, at least in part, the preventive effect of n-3 PUFA on melanoma metastasis.

13.
Int J Cancer ; 2018 Aug 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30152542

RESUMO

Although recent studies revealed that adipose tissue accelerates pancreatic tumor progression with excessive extracellular matrix, key players for desmoplasia in the adipose microenvironment remains unknown. Here, we investigated the roles of adipose tissue-derived stromal cells (ASCs) in desmoplastic lesions and tumor progression by in vitro and in vivo experiments. In a three-dimensional (3-D) organotypic fat invasion model using visceral fat from CAG-EGFP mice, GFP-positive fibroblastic cells infiltrated toward cancer cells. When tumor cells were inoculated into transplanted visceral fat pads in vivo, tumor weights and stromal components were enhanced compared to subcutaneous and orthotopic tumor cells inoculated without fat pads. Expression of αSMA in established human ASCs was lower compared to cancer associated fibroblasts, and the 3-D collagen matrices produced by ASCs cultured in cancer cell-conditioned medium changed from loose to dense structures that affected the motility of cancer cells. Microarray analyses revealed upregulation of S100A4 in ASCs, while S100A4-positive stromal cells were observed at extrapancreatic invasion sites of human pancreatic cancer. The present findings indicate that ASCs are recruited to extrapancreatic invasion sites and produce dense collagen matrices that lead to enhanced tumor progression. Both inhibition of ASCs recruitment and activation could lead to a novel antistromal therapy.

14.
J Lipid Res ; 59(10): 2001-2017, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30115755

RESUMO

Human blood is a self-regenerating lipid-rich biological fluid that is routinely collected in hospital settings. The inventory of lipid molecules found in blood plasma (plasma lipidome) offers insights into individual metabolism and physiology in health and disease. Disturbances in the plasma lipidome also occur in conditions that are not directly linked to lipid metabolism; therefore, plasma lipidomics based on MS is an emerging tool in an array of clinical diagnostics and disease management. However, challenges exist in the translation of such lipidomic data to clinical applications. These relate to the reproducibility, accuracy, and precision of lipid quantitation, study design, sample handling, and data sharing. This position paper emerged from a workshop that initiated a community-led process to elaborate and define a set of generally accepted guidelines for quantitative MS-based lipidomics of blood plasma or serum, with harmonization of data acquired on different instrumentation platforms across independent laboratories as an ultimate goal. We hope that other fields may benefit from and follow such a precedent.

15.
Materials (Basel) ; 11(7)2018 Jul 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30011826

RESUMO

Aluminium-tin-based alloys with different compositions were synthesized by a high-pressure torsion (HPT) method. The effect of different alloying elements and processing routes on the hydrogen generation performance of the alloys was investigated. The results show that Zn can enhance the hydrogen generation rate and yield by promoting pitting corrosion. The highest reactivity in water was achieved for an Al-30wt %Sn-10wt %Zn alloy. Detailed analysis of the Al-30wt %Sn-10wt %Zn alloy shows that increasing the shear strain and the resultant formation of ultrafine grains and phase mixing enhance the hydrogen generation rate through the effects of both nanogalvanic cells and pitting corrosion.

16.
Sci Rep ; 8(1): 9008, 2018 Jun 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29899364

RESUMO

Several studies have demonstrated the remarkable properties of microbiota and their metabolites in the pathogenesis of several inflammatory diseases. 10-Hydroxy-cis-12-octadecenoic acid (HYA), a bioactive metabolite generated by probiotic microorganisms during the process of fatty acid metabolism, has been studied for its protective effects against epithelial barrier impairment in the intestines. Herein, we examined the effect of HYA on gingival epithelial barrier function and its possible application for the prevention and treatment of periodontal disease. We found that GPR40, a fatty acid receptor, was expressed on gingival epithelial cells; activation of GPR40 by HYA significantly inhibited barrier impairment induced by Porphyromonas gingivalis, a representative periodontopathic bacterium. The degradation of E-cadherin and beta-catenin, basic components of the epithelial barrier, was prevented in a GPR40-dependent manner in vitro. Oral inoculation of HYA in a mouse experimental periodontitis model suppressed the bacteria-induced degradation of E-cadherin and subsequent inflammatory cytokine production in the gingival tissue. Collectively, these results suggest that HYA exerts a protective function, through GPR40 signaling, against periodontopathic bacteria-induced gingival epithelial barrier impairment and contributes to the suppression of inflammatory responses in periodontal diseases.

17.
Anal Bioanal Chem ; 2018 May 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29740670

RESUMO

Extraction and analysis of sphingolipids from biological samples is a critical step in lipidomics, especially for minor species such as sphingoid bases and sphingosine-1-phosphate. Although several liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry methods enabling the determination of sphingolipid molecular species have been reported, they were limited in analytical sensitivity and reproducibility by causing significant peak tailing, especially by the presence of phosphate groups, and most of the extraction techniques are laborious and do not cover a broad range of sphingolipid metabolites. In this study, we developed a rapid single-phase extraction and highly sensitive analytical method for the detection and quantification of sphingolipids (including phosphates) comprehensively using liquid chromatography-triple quadruple mass spectrometry. After validating the reliability of the method, we analyzed the intestinal tissue sphingolipids of germ-free (GF) and specific pathogen-free (SPF) mice and found significantly higher levels of free sphingoid bases and sphingosine-1-phosphate in the GF condition as compared to the SPF condition. This method enables a rapid extraction and highly sensitive determination of sphingolipids comprehensively at low femtomolar ranges. Graphical abstract Diagrammatic comparision of sphingolipid (phosphates) analysis between conventional and this method.

18.
Sci Rep ; 8(1): 7954, 2018 May 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29784972

RESUMO

Metabolites generated via oxygenation of the omega-3 double bond (omega-3 oxygenation) in eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) have recently been identified as novel anti-inflammatory lipid mediators. Therefore, oxygenase(s) responsible for this metabolic pathway are of particular interest. We performed genome-wide screening of mouse cytochrome P450 (CYP) isoforms to explore enzymes involved in omega-3 oxygenation of EPA. As a result, 5 CYP isoforms (mouse Cyp1a2, 2c50, 4a12a, 4a12b, and 4f18) were selected and identified to confer omega-3 epoxidation of EPA to yield 17,18-epoxyeicosatetraenoic acid (17,18-EpETE). Stereoselective production of 17,18-EpETE by each CYP isoform was confirmed, and molecular modeling indicated that chiral differences stem from different EPA binding conformations in the catalytic domains of respective CYP enzymes.

20.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 115(15): 3936-3941, 2018 04 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29581279

RESUMO

Bietti's crystalline dystrophy (BCD) is an intractable and progressive chorioretinal degenerative disease caused by mutations in the CYP4V2 gene, resulting in blindness in most patients. Although we and others have shown that retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) cells are primarily impaired in patients with BCD, the underlying mechanisms of RPE cell damage are still unclear because we lack access to appropriate disease models and to lesion-affected cells from patients with BCD. Here, we generated human RPE cells from induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) derived from patients with BCD carrying a CYP4V2 mutation and successfully established an in vitro model of BCD, i.e., BCD patient-specific iPSC-RPE cells. In this model, RPE cells showed degenerative changes of vacuolated cytoplasm similar to those in postmortem specimens from patients with BCD. BCD iPSC-RPE cells exhibited lysosomal dysfunction and impairment of autophagy flux, followed by cell death. Lipidomic analyses revealed the accumulation of glucosylceramide and free cholesterol in BCD-affected cells. Notably, we found that reducing free cholesterol by cyclodextrins or δ-tocopherol in RPE cells rescued BCD phenotypes, whereas glucosylceramide reduction did not affect the BCD phenotype. Our data provide evidence that reducing intracellular free cholesterol may have therapeutic efficacy in patients with BCD.


Assuntos
Colesterol/metabolismo , Distrofias Hereditárias da Córnea/metabolismo , Doenças Retinianas/metabolismo , Animais , Colesterol/análise , Distrofias Hereditárias da Córnea/dietoterapia , Distrofias Hereditárias da Córnea/enzimologia , Distrofias Hereditárias da Córnea/genética , Família 4 do Citocromo P450/genética , Família 4 do Citocromo P450/metabolismo , Humanos , Camundongos , Mutação , Fenótipo , Doenças Retinianas/dietoterapia , Doenças Retinianas/enzimologia , Doenças Retinianas/genética , Epitélio Pigmentado da Retina/enzimologia , Epitélio Pigmentado da Retina/metabolismo
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