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1.
Heart Rhythm ; 2020 May 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32389682

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Electrical posterior wall isolation (PWI) is increasingly utilized for the treatment of patients with atrial fibrillation (AF). Little data exists on the durability of PWI using current technology. OBJECTIVE: To characterize the frequency and location of posterior wall reconnection at the time of repeat catheter ablation for AF. METHODS: We performed a single center retrospective cohort study of 50 patients undergoing repeat AF ablation after prior PWI. Durability of PWI was assessed at the time of repeat ablation based on posterior wall entrance and exit block. Sites of posterior wall reconnection were characterized based on review of recorded electrical signals and electroanatomic maps. RESULTS: At the time of repeat ablation, mean age was 67±10 years, 31 of 50 had persistent AF, and mean CHA2DS2-VASc score was 3.0±1.8. Of 50 patients, 30 had durable PWI at repeat ablation, 1.4±1.6 years following the index procedure. Patients with posterior wall reconnection required repeat ablation earlier (0.9±0.6 vs1.8±1.9 years from index PWI, p=0.048) and were more likely to have atypical atrial flutter (55 vs 27%, p=0.043). Among patients with posterior wall reconnection, the roof was the most common site of reconnection (14/20) and 12 patients had multiple regions of reconnection noted. CONCLUSIONS: Posterior wall reconnection is noted in 40% of patients undergoing repeat ablation following an index PWI. The roof of the left atrium is the most common site of posterior wall reconnection.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32298038

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: In patients with nonischemic cardiomyopathy (NICM) little is known about the clinical impact of catheter ablation (CA) of septal ventricular tachycardia (VT) resulting in the collateral injury of the conduction system (CICS). METHODS AND RESULTS: Ninety-five consecutive patients with NICM underwent CA of septal VT. Outcomes in patients with no baseline conduction abnormalities who developed CICS (group 1, n = 28 [29%]) were compared to patients with no CICS (group 2, n = 17 [18%]) and to patients with preexisting conduction abnormalities or biventricular pacing (group 3, n = 50 [53%]). Group-1 patients were younger, had a higher left ventricular ejection fraction and a lower prevalence of New York Heart Association III/IV class compared to group 3 while no significant differences were observed with group 2. After a median follow-up of 15 months, VT recurred in 14% of patients in group 1, 12% in group 2 (P = .94) and 32% in group 3 (P = .08) while death/transplant occurred in 14% of patients in group 1, 18% in group 2 (P = .69) and 28% in group 3 (P = .15). A worsening of left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) (median LVEF variation, -5%) was observed in group 1 compared to group 2 (median LVEF variation, 0%; P < .01) but not group-3 patients (median LVEF variation, -4%; P = .08) with a consequent higher need for new biventricular pacing in group 1 (43%) compared to group 2 (12%; P = .03) and group 3 (16%; P < .01). CONCLUSIONS: In patients with NICM and septal substrate, sparing the abnormal substrate harboring the conduction system provides acceptable VT control while preventing a worsening of the systolic function.

3.
JACC Clin Electrophysiol ; 6(2): 221-230, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32081227

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study sought to examine clinical characteristics of procedural and long-term outcomes in patients undergoing catheter ablation (CA) of outflow tract ventricular arrhythmias (OT-VAs) over 16 years. BACKGROUND: CA is an effective treatment strategy for OT-VAs. METHODS: Patients undergoing CA for OT-VAs from 1999 to 2015 were divided into 3 periods: 1999 to 2004 (early), 2005 to 2010 (middle), and 2011 to 2015 (recent). Successful ablation site (right ventricular OT, aortic cusps/left ventricular OT, or coronary venous system/epicardium), VA morphology (right bundle branch block or left bundle branch block), and acute and clinical success rates were assessed. RESULTS: Six hundred eighty-two patients (336 female) were included (early: n = 97; middle: n = 204; recent: n = 381). Over time there was increase in use of irrigated ablation catheters and electroanatomic mapping, and more VAs were ablated from the aortic cusp/left ventricular OT or coronary venous system/epicardium (14% vs. 45% vs. 56%; p < 0.0001). Acute procedural success was achieved in 585 patients (86%) and was similar between groups (82% vs. 84% vs. 88%; p = 0.27). Clinical success was also similar between groups (86% vs. 87% vs. 88%; p = 0.94), but more patients in earlier periods required repeat ablation (18% vs. 17% vs. 9%; p = 0.02). Overall complication rate was 2% (similar between groups). CONCLUSIONS: Over a 16-year period there was an increase in patients undergoing CA for OT-VTs, with more ablations performed at non-right ventricular outflow tract locations using electroanatomic mapping and irrigated-tip catheters. Over time, single procedure success has improved and complications have remained limited.

4.
JACC Clin Electrophysiol ; 6(2): 231-240, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32081228

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study sought to evaluate the prevalence, mapping features, and ablation outcomes of non-scar-related ventricular tachycardia (NonScar-VT) and Purkinje-related VT (Purkinje-VT) in patients with structural heart disease. BACKGROUND: VT in structural heart disease is typically associated with scar-related myocardial re-entry. NonScar-VTs arising from areas of normal myocardium or Purkinje-VTs originating from the conduction system are less common. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed 690 patients with structural heart disease who underwent VT ablation between 2013 and 2017. RESULTS: A total of 37 (5.4%) patients (16 [43%] with ischemic cardiomyopathy, 16 [43%] with nonischemic dilated cardiomyopathy, and 5 [14%] others) demonstrated NonScar/Purkinje-VTs, which represented the clinical VT in 76% of cases. Among the 37 VTs, 31 (84%) were Purkinje-VTs (28 bundle branch re-entrant VT). The remaining 6 (16%) VTs were NonScar-VTs and included 4 idiopathic outflow tract VTs. A total of 16 patients had prior history of VT ablations: empirical scar substrate modification was performed in 6 (38%) patients and residual inducibility of VT had not been assessed in 7 (44%). In all 37 patients, the NonScar/Purkinje-VT was successfully ablated. After a median follow-up of 18 months, the targeted NonScar/Purkinje-VT did not recur in any patients, and 28 (76%) of patients were free from any recurrent VT episodes. CONCLUSIONS: NonScar/Purkinje-VTs can be identified in 5.4% of patients undergoing VT ablation in the setting of structural heart disease. Careful effort to induce, characterize, and map these VTs is important because substrate-based ablation strategies would fail to eliminate these types of VT.

5.
Circ Arrhythm Electrophysiol ; 13(2): e007586, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31940244

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Conflicting data have been reported on the association of left atrial (LA) late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) with atrial voltage in patients with atrial fibrillation. The association of LGE with electrogram fractionation and delay remains to be examined. We sought to examine the association between LA LGE on cardiac magnetic resonance and electrogram abnormalities in patients with atrial fibrillation. METHODS: High-resolution LGE cardiac magnetic resonance was performed before electrogram mapping and ablation in atrial fibrillation patients. Cardiac magnetic resonance features were quantified using LA myocardial signal intensity Z score (SI-Z), a continuous normalized variable, as well as a dichotomous LGE variable based on previously validated methodology. Electrogram mapping was performed pre-ablation during sinus rhythm or LA pacing, and electrogram locations were coregistered with cardiac magnetic resonance images. Analyses were performed using multilevel patient-clustered mixed-effects regression models. RESULTS: In the 40 patients with atrial fibrillation (age, 63.2±9.2 years; 1312.3±767.3 electrogram points per patient), lower bipolar voltage was associated with higher SI-Z in patients who had undergone previous ablation (coefficient, -0.049; P<0.001) but not in ablation-naive patients (coefficient, -0.004; P=0.7). LA electrogram activation delay was associated with SI-Z in patients with previous ablation (SI-Z: coefficient, 0.004; P<0.001 and LGE: coefficient, 0.04; P<0.001) but not in ablation-naive patients. In contrast, increased LA electrogram fractionation was associated with SI-Z (coefficient, 0.012; P=0.03) and LGE (coefficient, 0.035; P<0.001) only in ablation-naive patients. CONCLUSIONS: The association of LA LGE with voltage is modified by ablation. Importantly, in ablation-naive patients, atrial LGE is associated with electrogram fractionation even in the absence of voltage abnormalities.

6.
J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol ; 31(2): 423-431, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31916273

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We have previously demonstrated the feasibility of a nurse-led risk factor modification (RFM) program for improving weight loss and obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) care among patients with atrial fibrillation (AF). OBJECTIVE: We now report its impact on arrhythmia outcomes in a subgroup of patients undergoing catheter ablation. METHODS: Participating patients with obesity and/or need for OSA management (high risk per Berlin Questionnaire or untreated OSA) underwent in-person consultation and monthly telephone calls with the nurse for up to 1 year. Arrhythmias were assessed by office ECGs and ≥2 wearable monitors. Outcomes, defined as Arrhythmia control (0-6 self-terminating recurrences, with ≤1 cardioversion for nonparoxysmal AF) and Freedom from arrhythmias (no recurrences on or off antiarrhythmic drugs), were compared at 1 year between patients undergoing catheter ablation who enrolled and declined RFM. RESULTS: Between 1 November 2016 and 1 April 2018, 195 patients enrolled and 196 declined RFM (body mass index, 35.1 ± 6.7 vs 34.3 ± 6.3 kg/m2 ; 50% vs 50% paroxysmal AF; P = NS). At 1 year, enrolled patients demonstrated significant weight loss (4.7% ± 5.3% vs 0.3% ± 4.4% in declined patients; P < .0001) and improved OSA care (78% [n = 43] of patients diagnosed with OSA began treatment). However, outcomes were similar between enrolled and declined patients undergoing ablation (arrhythmia control in 80% [n = 48] vs 79% [n = 38]; freedom from arrhythmia in 58% [n = 35] vs 71% [n = 34]; P = NS). CONCLUSION: Despite improving weight loss and OSA care, our nurse-led RFM program did not impact 1-year arrhythmia outcomes in patients with AF undergoing catheter ablation.

7.
JACC Clin Electrophysiol ; 5(11): 1292-1299, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31753435

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study sought to compare efficacy and safety of the septal mitral isthmus line (SMIL) with that of the lateral mitral isthmus line (LMIL) for treatment of mitral annular flutter (MAF). BACKGROUND: MAF is the most common left atrial macro-re-entrant organized atrial tachycardia (OAT) occurring after catheter ablation of atrial fibrillation. The 2 most common lesion sets for treating MAF include linear ablation from the anteroseptal mitral annulus to the right superior pulmonary vein (SMIL) and from the lateral mitral annulus to left inferior pulmonary vein (LMIL). METHODS: The study included all mitral isthmus ablations performed at the Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania in 2016 and 2017. Acute procedural results and long-term arrhythmia-free survival were compared between groups. RESULTS: Of 114 total MILs, conduction block was achieved across 73 (93.6%) SMILs compared with 29 (80.6%) LMILs (p = 0.05). Although the length of the SMIL was longer (48.9 ± 12.8 cm vs. 38.7 ± 12.8 cm; p = 0.001), time required to achieve block was shorter (25.2 ± 15.9 min vs. 36.6 ± 21.3 min; p = 0.03). Coronary sinus ablation was required in 58.3% of LMILs due to inability to achieve conduction block with left atrial ablation alone. In multivariate analysis, only failure to achieve acute MIL block remained significantly associated with subsequent OAT recurrence (hazard ratio: 6.39; 95% confidence interval: 1.37 to 29.9; p = 0.02). CONCLUSIONS: The SMIL requires less time to complete and more frequently results in acute MIL block than the LMIL. Additionally, ablation is rarely required outside the left atrium. Failure to achieve acute MIL block is strongly associated with subsequent OAT recurrence.

8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31440875

RESUMO

PURPOSE: In arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy (ARVC), abnormal electroanatomic mapping (EAM) areas are proportional to extent of T-wave inversion on 12-lead ECG. We aimed to evaluate local repolarization changes and their relationship to EAM substrate in ARVC. METHODS: Using unipolar recordings, we analyzed the proportion of negative T waves ≥ 1 mV in depth (NegT), NegT area, Q-Tpeak (QTP), Tpeak-Tend (TPE) intervals and their relationship to bipolar (< 1.5 mV ENDO, < 1.0 mV EPI) and unipolar (< 5.5 mV) endocardial (ENDO) and epicardial (EPI) low-voltage area (LVA) in 21 pts. (15 men, mean age 39 ± 14) with ARVC. Control group included 5 pts. with normal hearts and idiopathic PVCs. RESULTS: On ENDO, the % of NegT (7 ± 5% vs 30 ± 20%, p = 0.004) and the NegT area (12.9 ± 9.7 c m2 vs 61.4 ± 30.0 cm2, p = 0.001) were smaller in ARVC compared to controls. On EPI, the % of NegT was similar (5 ± 7% vs 3 ± 4%, p = 0.323) and the NegT area, larger (11.0 ± 8.4 cm2 vs 2.7 ± 0.9 cm2, p = 0.027) in ARVC group. In ARVC group, the % of NegT area inside LVA was larger on EPI compared to ENDO for both bipolar (81 ± 27% vs 31 ± 33%, p < 0.001) and unipolar (90 ± 19% vs 73 ± 28%, p = 0.036) recordings. Compared to normal voltage regions, QTP inside ENDO abnormal LVA was on average 58 ± 26 ms shorter and TPE, 25 ± 56 ms longer (97 ± 26 ms and 56 ± 86 ms on EPI, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: In ARVC, NegT areas are more closely associated with abnormal depolarization LVA on the EPI and QTP is shorter and TPE longer inside ENDO and EPI abnormal LVA compared to normal voltage regions. The results add to our understanding of ARVC arrhythmia substrate.

9.
Circ Arrhythm Electrophysiol ; 12(7): e007249, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31296041

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There has been increasing awareness of the 3-dimensional nature of ventricular tachycardia (VT) circuits. VT circuits in patients with ischemic cardiomyopathies (ICM) and non-ICM (NICM) may differ in this regard. METHODS: Among patients with structural heart disease and at least 1 hemodynamically tolerated VT undergoing ablation, we retrospectively analyzed responses to all entrainment maneuvers. RESULTS: Of 445 patients (ICM 228, NICM 217) undergoing VT ablation, detailed entrainment mapping of at least 1 tolerated VT was performed in 111 patients (ICM 71, NICM 40). Of 89 ICM VTs, the isthmus could be identified by endocardial entrainment in 55 (62%), compared with only 8 of 47 (17%) NICM VTs ( P<0.01). With combined endocardial and epicardial mapping, the isthmus could be identified in 56 (63%) ICM VTs and 12 (26%) NICM VTs ( P<0.01), whereas any critical component (defined as entrance, isthmus or exit) could be identified in 76 (85%) ICM VTs and 37 (79%) NICM VTs ( P=0.3). Complete success (no inducible VT at the end of ablation, 82% versus 65%, P=0.04) and 1-year, single-procedure VT-free survival (82% versus 55%, P<0.01) were both higher among patients with ICM. CONCLUSIONS: Among mappable ICM VTs, critical circuit components can usually be identified on the endocardium. In contrast, among mappable NICM VTs, although some critical component can typically be identified with the addition of epicardial mapping, the isthmus is less commonly identified, possibly due to midmyocardial location.

10.
JACC Clin Electrophysiol ; 5(7): 833-842, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31320012

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study sought to characterize ventricular arrhythmia (VA) ablated from the basal inferoseptal left ventricular endocardium (BIS-LVe) and identify electrocardiographic characteristics to differentiate from inferobasal crux (IBC) VA. BACKGROUND: The inferior basal septum is an uncommon source of idiopathic VAs, which can arise from its endocardial or epicardial (crux) aspect. Because the latter are often targeted from the coronary venous system or epicardium, distinguishing between the 2 is important for successful ablation. METHODS: Consecutive patients undergoing ablation of idiopathic VA from the BIS-LVe or IBC from 2009 to 2018 were identified and clinical characteristics and electrocardiographs of VA were compared. RESULTS: Of 931 patients undergoing idiopathic VA ablation, Virginia was eliminated from the BIS-LVe in 19 patients (2%) (17 male, age 63.7 ± 9.2 years, LV ejection fraction: 45.0 ± 9.3%). QRS complexes typically manifested right bundle branch block morphology with "reverse V2 pattern break" and left superior axis (more negative in lead III than II). VA elimination was achieved after median of 2 lesions (interquartile range [IQR]: 1-6; range 1 to 20) (radiofrequency ablation time: 123 s [IQR: 75-311]). Compared with 7 patients with IBC VA (3 male, age 51.9 ± 20.1 years, LV ejection fraction: 51.4 ± 17.7%), BIS-LVe VA less frequently had initial negative forces (QS pattern) in leads II, III, and/or aVF (p < 0.001), R-S ratio <1 in lead V1 (p = 0.005), and notching in lead II (p = 0.006) were narrower (QRS duration: 178.2 ± 22.4 vs. 221.1 ± 41.9 ms; p = 0.04) and more frequently had maximum deflection index of <0.55 (p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: The BIS-LVe region is an uncommon source of idiopathic VA. Distinguishing these from IBC VA is important for procedural planning and ablation success.

11.
JACC Clin Electrophysiol ; 5(6): 719-727, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31221360

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study sought to determine the impact of repeat catheter ablation (CA) prior to hospital discharge based on inducibility of clinical ventricular tachycardia (VT) during noninvasive programmed ventricular stimulation (NIPS). BACKGROUND: Inducibility of clinical VT during NIPS performed several days after CA identifies patients at high risk of recurrence. The impact of NIPS-guided repeat CA has not been reported. METHODS: Consecutive patients with structural heart disease undergoing CA of VT followed by NIPS were studied. Clinical VT was defined by comparison with 12-lead electrocardiograms and stored implantable cardioverter-defibrillator electrograms from spontaneous VT episodes. Among those with inducible clinical VT at NIPS, VT-free survival was compared between those in whom ablation was repeated (group 1) versus those in whom ablation was not repeated (group 2) prior to hospital discharge. RESULTS: Among 469 patients (64 ± 12 years of age; 85% males; 60% ischemic), 216 patients (46%) underwent NIPS 3 days (interquartile range: 2 to 4 days) after CA. Clinical VT was induced in 45 patients (21%). Among those 45, CA was repeated in 11 patients (24%). There were no significant differences in baseline clinical or index CA characteristics between groups 1 and 2. Over a median 36-month follow-up, only 1 patient (9%) in group 1 experienced VT recurrence compared to 24 patients (71%) in group 2 (p < 0.01). In univariate Cox regression, repeat CA guided by NIPS (hazard ratio: 0.07; 95% confidence interval: 0.01 to 0.58; p = 0.01) was the only predictor of VT-free survival. CONCLUSIONS: In patients with inducible clinical VT during post-ablation NIPS, repeat CA was associated with significantly lower risk of subsequent recurrence.

12.
JACC Clin Electrophysiol ; 5(7): 789-800, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31068260

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study describes the use of septal coronary venous mapping to facilitate substrate characterization and ablation of intramural septal ventricular arrhythmia (VA). BACKGROUND: Intramural septal VA represents a challenge for substrate definition and catheter ablation. METHODS: Between 2015 and 2018, 12 patients with structural heart disease, recurrent VA, and suspected intramural septal substrate underwent a septal coronary venous procedure in which mapping was performed by advancement of a wire into the septal perforator branches of the anterior interventricular vein. A total of 5 patients with idiopathic VA were also included as control subjects to compare substrate characteristics. RESULTS: Patients were 63 ± 14 years of age, and 11 (92%) were men. Most patients with structural heart disease had nonischemic cardiomyopathy (83%). Six patients underwent ablation for premature ventricular contractions (PVC) and 6 for ventricular tachycardia. All patients had larger septal unipolar voltage abnormalities than bipolar voltage abnormalities (mean area 35.3 ± 16.8 cm2 vs. 10.7 ± 8.4 cm2, respectively; p = 0.01), Patients with idiopathic VA had normal voltage. Septal coronary venous mapping revealed low-voltage, fractionated, and multicomponent electrograms in sinus rhythm in all patients with substrate compared to that in patients with idiopathic VA (amplitude 0.9 ± 0.9 mV vs. 4.4 ± 3.7 mV, respectively; p = 0.007; and duration 147 ± 48 ms vs. 92 ± 10 ms, respectively; p = 0.03). Ablation targeted early activation, pace map match, and/or good entrainment sites from intraseptal recording. Over a mean follow-up of 339 ± 240 days, the PVC and insertable cardioverter-defibrillator therapies burden were significantly reduced (from a mean of 22 ± 11% to 4 ± 8%; p = 0.005; and a mean 5 ± 2 to 1 ± 1; p = 0.001, respectively). Most patients (80%) with idiopathic VA remained arrhythmia free. CONCLUSIONS: In patients with suspected intramural septal VA, mapping of the septal coronary veins may be helpful to characterize the arrhythmia substrate, identify ablation targets, and guide endocardial ablation.

13.
Heart Rhythm ; 16(8): 1174-1181, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31085181

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In patients with ischemic ventricular tachycardia (VT), substrate may be "protected" by the posteromedial papillary muscle (PMPM), explaining failure of endocardial-only ablation. OBJECTIVE: We sought to characterize the arrhythmogenic substrate and ablation approach in patients with ischemic VT mapped to the inferior left ventricle in which endocardial ablation failed because of inaccessible substrate underlying the PMPM. METHODS: We included 10 patients with recurrent ischemic VT, evidence of inferior scar, and failed endocardial ablation. In all patients, epicardial mapping was performed via a percutaneous (n = 9) or surgical (n = 1) approach, and VT elimination was achieved by ablation opposite to the PMPM. Clinical characteristics, electrocardiographic characteristics, and procedural data were analyzed. RESULTS: In all patients, intracardiac echocardiography showed hyperechoic scar below the PMPM, and 5 exhibited a pattern characterized by subendocardial basal scar that became intramural and epicardial at distal segments. In 4 patients, VT remained inducible despite endocardial scar isolation, manifested by the absence of electrograms, dissociated potentials, and/or exit block. Eleven inducible VTs were mapped to the epicardium underlying the PMPM: 8 had a right bundle branch block configuration with variable transition, while 3 exhibited left bundle branch block with negative concordance. An inferior QS pattern was present in 10 of 11 VTs. Noninducibility was achieved in 8 patients, and 7 patients remained arrhythmia-free after a mean follow-up of 27 ± 23 months. CONCLUSION: In patients with inferior ischemic scar, VT may arise from the area underneath the PMPM, limiting endocardial ablation. Intracardiac echocardiography accurately defines the substrate distribution, and an epicardial approach may eliminate VT. A pattern of "basal-endocardial/apical-epicardial" ischemic involvement is described.

16.
Pacing Clin Electrophysiol ; 42(3): 333-340, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30656717

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Noninducibility of ventricular tachycardia (VT) at noninvasive programmed stimulation performed shortly following ablation (negative NIPS) predicts low risk of the medium-term recurrence. This study aimed to evaluate long-term rate and mode of recurrence following negative NIPS. METHODS: We extended follow-up on patients in whom no VT could be induced at NIPS following ablation between 2008 and 2010. Recurrent VTs were categorized as "Original clinical" if they matched VT that had occurred spontaneously prior to the index ablation; "Original nonclinical" if they matched VT that was induced during the index ablation but had not occurred spontaneously; or "New." Among those undergoing repeat ablation, the area ablated to treat the recurrent VT was categorized as "Targeted initial scar" if it was targeted during the index procedure; "Untargeted initial scar" if it was present but not targeted during the index procedure; or "New scar" if it was not present during the index procedure. RESULTS: Of 60 patients with negative NIPS, 18 (30%) had recurrent VT and nine underwent repeat ablation over (4.1 ± 3.2) years follow-up. Of 23 recurrent VTs, 18 (78%) were "New." During repeat ablations, six (46%) of the 13 recurrent VTs were ablated in "untargeted initial scar" and four (31%) in "new scar." CONCLUSIONS: When spontaneous or inducible VTs are eliminated with ablation and no longer inducible during NIPS, these VTs are unlikely to recur during long-term follow-up. More commonly, new VTs occur, which are either associated with areas of scar not present or not targeted during the initial ablation.


Assuntos
Ablação por Cateter/métodos , Taquicardia Ventricular/fisiopatologia , Taquicardia Ventricular/cirurgia , Eletrocardiografia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Recidiva
17.
JACC Clin Electrophysiol ; 5(1): 28-38, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30678784

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study sought to investigate the substrate, procedural strategies, safety, and outcomes of catheter ablation (CA) for ventricular tachycardia (VT) in patients with aortic valve replacement (AVR). BACKGROUND: VT ablation in patients with AVR is challenging, particularly when mapping and ablation in the periaortic region are necessary. METHODS: We identified consecutive patients with mechanical, bioprosthetic, and transcatheter AVR who underwent CA for VT refractory to antiarrhythmic drugs and analyzed VT substrate, approach to LV access, complications, and long-term outcomes. RESULTS: Overall, 29 patients (87% men, mean age 67.9 ± 9.8 years, left ventricular ejection fraction 39 ± 10%) with prior AVR (13 mechanical, 15 bioprosthetic, 1 transcatheter AVR) underwent 40 ablations from 2004 to 2016. Left-sided mapping/CA was performed in 27 patients (36 procedures). Access was retrograde aortic in 11 procedures (all bioprosthetic), transseptal in 24 (13 mechanical; 10 bioprosthetic; 1 transcatheter AVR), or transventricular septal in 1. Periaortic bipolar or unipolar scar was detected in all 24 patients in whom detailed periaortic mapping was performed. Clinical VT circuit(s) involved the periaortic region in 10 patients (34%), 2 (7%) had bundle branch re-entry VT, and 17 (59%) had substrate unrelated to AVR. There were 2 major complications (both related to vascular access). Only 2 patients (9.1%) had VT recurrence. Over median follow-up of 12.8 months, 11 patients died (none as a result of recurrent VT). CONCLUSIONS: Whereas most patients undergoing CA for VT after AVR had VT from substrate unrelated to AVR, periaortic scar is universally present and bundle branch re-entry can be the VT mechanism. CA can be safely performed with excellent long-term VT elimination.

18.
Heart Rhythm ; 16(6): 873-878, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30590192

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The presence of inferior vena cava filters (IVCFs) has been considered a relative contraindication to electrophysiology (EP) procedures that require transfemoral venous placement of multiple catheters and/or long sheaths. There are inadequate data related to complex EP procedures in this population. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to describe the experience of a single high-volume center with respect to complex EP procedures in patients with IVCFs. METHODS: Patients with IVCFs undergoing complex EP procedures between 2004 and 2018 were identified. Clinical characteristics, IVCF type, procedural findings, and complications were analyzed. RESULTS: Fifty complex ablation procedures were performed in 40 patients (mean age 63.8 ± 10.9 years; 68% men). The mean IVCF dwell time was 69.1 ± 19.1 months, and 48 patients (96%) were on chronic oral anticoagulation. Procedures included ablation of atrial fibrillation (n = 21), ventricular tachycardia (n = 20), supraventricular tachycardia (n = 3), cavotricuspid isthmus flutter (n = 3), supraventricular tachycardia and cavotricuspid isthmus flutter (n = 1), and transvenous lead extraction (n = 3). Twenty procedures included quadripolar catheters (mean 1.4 ± 0.75), and 33 procedures involved deflectable decapolar catheters (mean 1.7 ± 0.47). Long sheaths were used in 35 cases (mean 1.63 ± 0.49) and intracardiac echocardiography in 38. In 4 cases (involving 3 patients), the IVCF was occluded and could not be crossed. There were no procedural complications related to the IVCF. CONCLUSION: The substantial majority of IVCFs in patients presenting for complex EP procedures were patent and easily crossed under fluoroscopic guidance. The presence of an IVCF should not discourage operators from performing procedures that require transfemoral deployment of multiple catheters and/or sheaths.

19.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 7(23): e010414, 2018 12 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30571593

RESUMO

Background Obesity and obstructive sleep apnea ( OSA ) are associated with atrial fibrillation ( AF ), yet these conditions remain inadequately treated. We report on the feasibility and efficacy of a nurse-led risk factor modification program utilizing a pragmatic approach to address obesity and OSA in AF patients. Methods and Results AF patients with obesity (body mass index ≥30 kg/m2) and/or the need for OSA management (high risk per Berlin Questionnaire or untreated OSA ) were voluntarily enrolled for risk factor modification, which comprised patient education, lifestyle modification, coordination with specialists, and longitudinal management. Weight loss and OSA treatment were monitored by monthly follow-up calls and/or continuous positive airway pressure ( CPAP ) unit downloads. Quality of life and arrhythmia symptoms were assessed with the SF -36 and AF Severity Scale at baseline and at 6 months. From November 1, 2016 to October 31, 2017, 252 patients (age 63±11 years; 71% male; 57% paroxysmal AF ) were enrolled, 189 for obesity and 93 for OSA . Obese patients who enrolled lost significantly greater percent body weight than those who declined (3% versus 0.3%; P<0.05). Among 93 patients enrolled for OSA , 70 completed sleep studies, OSA was confirmed in 50, and the majority (76%) started CPAP therapy. All components of quality of life and arrhythmia symptoms improved significantly from baseline to 6 months among enrolled patients. Conclusions A nurse-led risk factor modification program is a potentially sustainable and generalizable model that can improve weight loss and OSA in AF patients, translating into improved quality of life and arrhythmia symptoms.


Assuntos
Fibrilação Atrial/prevenção & controle , Obesidade/terapia , Comportamento de Redução do Risco , Apneia Obstrutiva do Sono/terapia , Idoso , Fibrilação Atrial/etiologia , Fibrilação Atrial/enfermagem , Pressão Positiva Contínua nas Vias Aéreas/enfermagem , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/complicações , Obesidade/enfermagem , Apneia Obstrutiva do Sono/complicações , Apneia Obstrutiva do Sono/enfermagem , Programas de Redução de Peso
20.
J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol ; 29(11): 1530-1539, 2018 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30230120

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The characteristics of the epicardial (EPI) substrate responsible for ventricular tachycardia (VT) in ischemic cardiomyopathy (ICM) are undefined, and data on the long-term outcomes of EPI catheter ablation limited. We evaluated the prevalence, electrophysiologic features, and outcomes of catheter ablation of EPI VT in ICM. METHODS AND RESULTS: From December 2010 to June 2013, a total of 13 of 93 (14%) patients with ICM underwent catheter ablation at our institution and had conclusive evidence of critical EPI substrate demonstrated to participate in VT with activation, entrainment and/or pace mapping during sinus rhythm (two other patients underwent EPI mapping but had no optimal ablation targets). The electrophysiologic substrate characteristics and activation/entrainment mapping data were compared with a reference group of ICM patients without evidence of critical EPI substrate (N = 44), defined as a complete procedural success (noninducibility of any VT at programmed stimulation) after endocardial (ENDO)-only ablation. Patients with failed EPI access (N = 2) or history of cardiac surgery (N = 92) were excluded from the study. All 13 patients had evidence of abnormal EPI substrate with fractionated/late/split electrograms and low-bipolar voltage areas. The critical VT ablation sites were all located within the EPI bipolar "dense" scar (<1.0 mV) opposite the ENDO bipolar scar in 77% of cases and extending beyond the ENDO bipolar scar (within the ENDO unipolar low-voltage area) in the remaining patients. Compared with the reference ENDO-only group, patients with EPI VT had a smaller ENDO bipolar scar area, 54.0 (37.1-84) vs 86.7 (55.6-112) cm2 ; P = 0.0159, with a similar extent of ENDO unipolar low voltage. No other substrate characteristics or location differed between the two groups. After 35.2 ± 24.2 months of follow-up, VT-free survival was 73% in patients with EPI VT compared with 66% in the ENDO-only group (log-rank P = 0.56). CONCLUSIONS: The presence of the critical EPI substrate responsible for VT can be demonstrated in at least 14% of patients with ICM. The majority of EPI critical ablation sites are distributed opposite the ENDO bipolar scar area and catheter ablation is effective in achieving long-term arrhythmia control.


Assuntos
Cardiomiopatias/epidemiologia , Ablação por Cateter/tendências , Eletrocardiografia/tendências , Isquemia Miocárdica/epidemiologia , Taquicardia Ventricular/epidemiologia , Idoso , Cardiomiopatias/fisiopatologia , Cardiomiopatias/cirurgia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Isquemia Miocárdica/fisiopatologia , Isquemia Miocárdica/cirurgia , Prevalência , Estudos Retrospectivos , Taquicardia Ventricular/fisiopatologia , Taquicardia Ventricular/cirurgia , Resultado do Tratamento
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