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1.
Environ Monit Assess ; 191(12): 716, 2019 Nov 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31686222

RESUMO

The data presented here are from the Offinso North District Farm Health Study (ONFAHS), a population-based cross-sectional study among vegetable farmers in Ghana. The paper addresses knowledge, pesticide handling practices, and protective measures related to pesticide use by self-reported symptoms for 310 adult farmers who completed a comprehensive questionnaire on pesticide management practices and health. In addition, an inventory was prepared using information supplied by pesticide sellers/dealers in this district. We report that cough and wheezing (but not breathlessness) are positively associated with stirring pesticide preparations with bare hands/drinking water while mixing/applying pesticides, and stirring pesticide preparations with bare hands/drinking water/smoking cigarettes while mixing/applying pesticides. There is a significant exposure-response association between the number of precautionary measures practiced while handling pesticides and cough and wheezing but not with breathlessness. We also found unsafe practices to be associated with sexual dysfunction, nervousness, and lack of concentration. The results also suggest a negative association between practice of any precautionary measure when mixing/applying pesticides and sexual dysfunction, nervousness, and lack of concentration. We found that in spite of the fact that farmers have adequate knowledge about the environment and health effects of pesticides, several unhygienic practices are in widespread use, indicating that knowledge is not necessarily always translated in action. Further action is necessary to promote the safe use of pesticides and to replace existing poor management practices among these and other farmers in Ghana.


Assuntos
Fazendeiros , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Exposição Ocupacional/análise , Praguicidas , Adulto , Agricultura , Tosse , Estudos Transversais , Gana , Humanos , Sons Respiratórios , Autorrelato
2.
J Nutr Metab ; 2018: 5989307, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30416828

RESUMO

The World Health Organization (WHO) has highlighted the beneficial role of adequate intake of potassium (K) in combating the global burden of noncommunicable diseases (NCDs), mainly hypertension and cardiovascular diseases. Diets are the main source of K supply to humans and can contribute to both K deficiency (hypokalemia) and excess (hyperkalemia). While global attention is currently devoted to K deficiency, K excess can be even more dangerous and deserves equal attention. The objectives of this paper were to (i) estimate the K intake of Ghanaian population using food supply and food composition data and (ii) compare this estimate with the WHO-recommended requirement for K in order to assess if there is a risk of inadequate or excess K intake. Food supply data (1961-2011) were obtained from the Food Balance Sheet (FBS) of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations to derive trends in food and K supply. The average food supply in the FBS for 2010 and 2011 was used in assessing the risk of inadequate or excess dietary intake of K. The K content of the food items was obtained from food composition databases. Based on 2010-2011 average data, the K supply per capita per day was approximately 9,086 mg, about 2.6-fold larger than the WHO-recommended level (3,510 mg). The assessment suggests a potentially large risk of excess dietary K supply at both individual and population levels. The results suggest the need for assessing options for managing K excess as part of food security and public health strategies. The results further underscore a need for assessment of the K status of staple food crops and mixed diets, as well as K management in food crop production systems in Ghana.

3.
Heliyon ; 4(11): e00931, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30480156

RESUMO

The realization of the scale, magnitude, and complexity of the water and sanitation problem at the global level has compelled international agencies and national governments to increase their resolve to face the challenge. There is extensive evidence on the independent effects of urbanicity (rural-urban environment) and wealth status on access to water and sanitation services in sub-Saharan Africa. However, our understanding of the joint effect of urbanicity and wealth on access to water and sanitation services across spatio-temporal scales is nascent. In this study, a pooled regression analysis of the compositional and contextual factors that systematically vary with access to water and sanitation services over a 25-year time period in fifteen countries across sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) was carried out. On the whole, substantial improvements have been made in providing access to improved water sources in SSA from 1990 to 2015 unlike access to sanitation facilities over the same period. Households were 28.2 percent and 125.2 percent more likely to have access to improved water sources in 2000-2005 and 2010-2015 respectively, than in 1990-1995. Urban rich households were 329 percent more likely to have access to improved water sources compared with the urban poor. Although access to improved sanitation facilities increased from 69 percent in 1990-1995 and 74 percent in 2000-2005 it declined significantly to 53 percent in 2010-2015. Urban rich households were 227 percent more likely to have access to improved sanitation facilities compared with urban poor households. These results were mediated and attenuated by biosocial, socio-cultural and contextual factors and underscore the fact that the challenge of access to water and sanitation in sub-Saharan Africa is not merely scientific and technical but interwoven with environment, culture, economics and human behaviour necessitating the need for interdisciplinary research and policy interventions.

4.
PLoS One ; 13(9): e0203605, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30192868

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Food insecurity and poverty rates in Ghana are highest in the districts from latitude 8° N upwards. These have motivated several interventions aimed at addressing the food insecurity via promoting agricultural growth. An assessment of the overall impact of these interventions on food security is necessary to guide policy design and future interventions. METHODS AND FINDINGS: A systematic review was used to assess the cumulative evidence of the effect of development interventions, implemented from 2006 to 2016 on food security, especially in Northern Ghana. Information were retrieved from over 20 Government and non-Governmental organisations through online search and actual visits. The number of studies included in systematic review was 22. The study showed that a large number of interventions have been implemented in Northern Ghana over the study period. Access to quality extension services, training and capacity building was a major intervention strategy. About 82% of studies considered increasing production but only 14% of the studies reported on changes in yield. About 42% of the included studies used market access as a strategy but about 44% reported increase in incomes of beneficiaries (with only seven studies providing numerical evidence for this claim). The ranking of frequency of intervention strategies was in the order extension and capacity building > production > postharvest value addition > water and irrigation facilities > storage facilities > input supply. A substantial number of the studies had no counterfactuals, weakening confidence in attributing impacts on food security for even the beneficiaries. CONCLUSIONS: It is concluded that evidence for impacts of the interventions on food security was weak, or largely assumed. A logical recommendation is the need for development partners to synchronise their measurement and indicators of food security outcomes. It is also recommended that some food security indicators are explicitly incorporated into intervention design while bearing in mind the potential need for counterfactuals.


Assuntos
Agricultura/métodos , Abastecimento de Alimentos , Produtos Agrícolas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Características da Família , Gana , Humanos , Pobreza
5.
J Water Health ; 15(4): 658-672, 2017 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28771162

RESUMO

Chemometric techniques were applied to evaluate the spatial and temporal heterogeneities in groundwater quality data for approximately 740 goldmining and agriculture-intensive locations in Ghana. The strongest linear and monotonic relationships occurred between Mn and Fe. Sixty-nine per cent of total variance in the dataset was explained by four variance factors: physicochemical properties, bacteriological quality, natural geologic attributes and anthropogenic factors (artisanal goldmining). There was evidence of significant differences in means of all trace metals and physicochemical parameters (p < 0.001) between goldmining and non-goldmining locations. Arsenic and turbidity produced very high value F's demonstrating that 'physical properties and chalcophilic elements' was the function that most discriminated between non-goldmining and goldmining locations. Variations in Escherichia coli and total coliforms were observed between the dry and wet seasons. The overall predictive accuracy of the discriminant function showed that non-goldmining locations were classified with slightly better accuracy (89%) than goldmining areas (69.6%). There were significant differences between the underlying distributions of Cd, Mn and Pb in the wet and dry seasons. This study emphasizes the practicality of chemometrics in the assessment and elucidation of complex water quality datasets to promote effective management of groundwater resources for sustaining human health.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Água Subterrânea/química , Metais/análise , Oligoelementos/análise , Poluição Química da Água/análise , Qualidade da Água , Gana , Modelos Teóricos
6.
Environ Int ; 103: 73-90, 2017 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28341576

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cookstove intervention programs have been increasing over the past two (2) decades in Low and Middle Income Countries (LMICs) across the globe. However, there remains uncertainty regarding the effects of these interventions on household air pollution concentrations, personal exposure concentrations and health outcomes. OBJECTIVES: The primary objective was to determine if household air pollution (HAP) interventions were associated with improved indoor air quality (IAQ) in households in LMICs. Given the potential impact of HAP interventions on health, a secondary objective was to evaluate the effectiveness of HAP interventions to improve health in populations receiving these interventions. DATA SOURCES: OVID Medline, Ovid Embase, SCOPUS and PubMED were searched from their inception until December 2015 with no restrictions on study design. The WHO Global database of household air pollution measurements and Members' archives were also reviewed together with the reference lists of identified reviews and relevant articles. STUDY ELIGIBILITY CRITERIA, PARTICIPANTS AND INTERVENTION: We considered randomized controlled trials, or non-randomized control trials, or before-and-after studies; original studies; studies conducted in a LMIC (based on the United Nations Human Development Report released in March 2013 (World Bank, 2013); interventions that were explicitly aimed at improving IAQ and/or health from solid fuel use; studies published in a peer-reviewed journal or student theses or reports; studies that reported on outcomes which was indicative of IAQ or/and health. There was no restriction on the type of comparator (e.g. household receiving plancha vs. household using traditional cookstove) used in the intervention study. STUDY APPRAISAL AND SYNTHESIS METHODS: Five review authors independently used pre-designed data collection forms to extract information from the original studies and assessed risk of bias using the Effective Public Health Practice Project (EPHPP). We computed standardized weighted mean difference (SMD) using random-effects models. Heterogeneity was computed using the Q and I2-statistics. We examined the influence of various characteristics on the study-specific effect estimates by stratifying the analysis by population type, study design, intervention type, and duration of exposure monitoring. The trim and fill method was used to assess the potential impact of missing studies. RESULTS: Fifty-five studies met our a priori inclusion criteria and were included in the systematic review. Fifteen studies provided 43 effect estimates for our meta-analysis. The largest improvement in HAP was observed for average particulate matter (PM) (SMD=1.57) concentrations in household kitchens (1.03), followed by daily personal average concentrations of PM (1.18), and carbon monoxide (CO) concentrations in kitchens. With respect to personal PM, significant improvement was observed in studies of children (1.26) and studies monitoring PM for ≥24h (1.32). This observation was also noted in terms of studies of kitchen concentrations of CO. A significant improvement was also observed for kitchen levels of PM in both adult populations (1.56) and in RCT/cohort designs (1.59) involving replacing cookstoves without chimneys. Our findings on health outcomes were inconclusive. LIMITATIONS, CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS OF KEY FINDINGS: We observed high statistical between study variability in the study-specific estimate. Thus, care should be taken in concluding that HAP interventions - as currently designed and implemented - support reductions in the average kitchen and personal levels of PM and CO. Further, there is limited evidence that current stand-alone HAP interventions yield any health benefits. Post-intervention levels of pollutants were generally still greatly in excess of the relevant WHO guideline and thus a need to promote cleaner fuels in LMICs to reduce HAP levels below the WHO guidelines. SYSTEMATIC REVIEW REGISTRATION NUMBER: The review has been registered with PROSPERO (registration number CRD42014009768).


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados/prevenção & controle , Culinária , Habitação , Países em Desenvolvimento , Exposição Ambiental , Humanos , Renda
7.
Environ Res ; 150: 245-254, 2016 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27318967

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Indiscriminate use of pesticides is a common practice amongst farmers in Low and Middle Income Countries (LMIC) across the globe. However, there is little evidence defining whether pesticide use is associated with respiratory symptoms. OBJECTIVES: This cross-sectional study was conducted with 300 vegetable farmers in southern Ghana (Akumadan). Data on pesticide use was collected with an interviewed-administered questionnaire. The concentration of seven organochlorine pesticides and 3 pyrethroid pesticides was assayed in urine collected from a sub-population of 100 vegetable farmers by a gas chromatograph equipped with an electron capture detector (GC-ECD). RESULTS: A statistically significant exposure-response relationship of years per day spent mixing/applying fumigant with wheezing [30-60 days/year: prevalence ratio (PR)=1.80 (95% CI 1.30, 2.50); >60days/year: 3.25 (1.70-6.33), p for trend=0.003] and hours per day spent mixing/applying fumigant with wheezing [1-2h/day: 1.20 (1.02-1.41), 3-5h/day: 1.45 (1.05-1.99), >5h/day: 1.74 (1.07-2.81), p for trend=0.0225]; days per year spent mixing/applying fungicide with wheezing [30-60 days/year: 2.04 (1.31-3.17); >60days/year: 4.16 (1.72-10.08), p for trend=0.0017] and h per day spent mixing/applying fungicide with phlegm production [1-2h/day: 1.25 (1.05-1.47), 3-5h/day: 1.55 (1.11-2.17), >5h/day: 1.93 (1.17-3.19), p for trend=0.0028] and with wheezing [1-2h/day: 1.10 (1.00-1.50), 3-5h/day: 1.20 (1.11-1.72), >5h/day: 1.32 (1.09-2.53), p for trend=0.0088]; h per day spent mixing/applying insecticide with phlegm production [1-2h/day: 1.23 (1.09-1.62), 3-5h/day: 1.51 (1.20-2.58), >5h/day: 1.85 (1.31-4.15), p for trend=0.0387] and wheezing [1-2h/day: 1.22 (1.02-1.46), 3-5h/day: 1.49 (1.04-2.12), >5h/day: 1.81 (1.07-3.08), p for trend=0.0185] were observed. Statistically significant exposure-response association was also observed for a combination of activities that exposes farmers to pesticide with all 3 respiratory symptoms. Furthermore, significant exposure-response associations for 3 organochlorine insecticides: beta-HCH, heptachlor and endosulfan sulfate were noted. CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion, vegetable farmers in Ghana may be at increased risk for respiratory symptoms as a result of exposure to pesticides.


Assuntos
Exposição Ambiental , Praguicidas/toxicidade , Doenças Respiratórias/epidemiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Gana/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Exposição Ocupacional , Resíduos de Praguicidas/toxicidade , Resíduos de Praguicidas/urina , Praguicidas/urina , Prevalência , Doenças Respiratórias/induzido quimicamente , Adulto Jovem
8.
J Nutr Metab ; 2016: 3150498, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28050281

RESUMO

Adequate dietary intake of potassium (K) helps fight noncommunicable diseases (NCDs), mainly hypertension and cardiovascular diseases. This paper (i) estimated the K intake of Ghanaian population using food supply and food composition data and (ii) compared this estimate with the WHO recommended requirement for K in order to assess if there is a risk of inadequate K intake. Food supply data (1961-2011) was obtained from the FAO Food Balance Sheet (FBS) to derive trends in food and K supply. The average food supply in the FBS for 2010 and 2011 was used in assessing the risk of inadequate dietary intake of K. The K contents of the food items were obtained from food composition databases. The mean K supply per capita per day was approximately 856 mg. The assessment suggests a potentially large risk of inadequate dietary K supply at both individual and population levels. The results suggest the need for assessing options for managing K deficiency, including assessment of K supplying power of soils and K fertilizer management in food crop production systems, as well as empirical estimates of K content of food items (including those underreported in the FBS) and mixed diets in Ghana.

9.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 9(8): e0003939, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26241050

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In the past decade, research on neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) has intensified in response to the need to enhance community participation in health delivery, establish monitoring and surveillance systems, and integrate existing disease-specific treatment programs to control overlapping NTD burdens and detrimental effects. In this paper, we evaluated the geographical distribution of NTDs in coastal Tanzania. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We also assessed the collective (compositional and contextual) factors that currently determine risks to multiple NTDs using a cross sectional survey of 1253 individuals in coastal Tanzania. The results show that the effect size in decreasing order of magnitude for non-binary predictors of NTD risks is as follows: NTD comorbidities > poverty > educational attainment > self-reported household quality of life > ethnicity. The multivariate analysis explained 95% of the variance in the relationship between NTD risks and the theoretically-relevant covariates. Compositional (biosocial and sociocultural) factors explained more variance at the neighbourhood level than at the regional level, whereas contextual factors, such as access to health services and household quality, in districts explained a large proportion of variance at the regional level but individually had modest statistical significance, demonstrating the complex interactions between compositional and contextual factors in generating NTD risks. CONCLUSIONS: NTD risks were inequitably distributed over geographic space, which has several important policy implications. First, it suggests that localities of high burden of NTDs are likely to diminish within statistical averages at higher (regional or national) levels. Second, it indicates that curative or preventive interventions will become more efficient provided they can be focused on the localities, particularly as populations in these localities are likely to be burdened by several NTDs simultaneously, further increasing the imperative of multi-disease interventions.


Assuntos
Doenças Negligenciadas/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , História do Século XX , História do Século XXI , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doenças Negligenciadas/economia , Doenças Negligenciadas/história , Qualidade de Vida , Tanzânia/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
10.
Syst Rev ; 4: 22, 2015 Mar 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25875770

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Indoor air pollution (IAP) interventions are widely promoted as a means of reducing indoor air pollution/health from solid fuel use; and research addressing impact of these interventions has increased substantially in the past two decades. It is timely and important to understand more about effectiveness of these interventions. We describe the protocol of a systematic review to (i) evaluate effectiveness of IAP interventions to improve indoor air quality and/or health in homes using solid fuel for cooking and/or heating in lower- and middle-income countries, (ii) identify the most effective intervention to improve indoor air quality and/or health, and (iii) identify future research needs. METHODS: This review will be conducted according to the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) guidelines and will be reported following the PRISMA statement. Ovid MEDLINE, Ovid Embase, SCOPUS, and PubMed searches were conducted in September 2013 and updated in November 2014 (and include any further search updates in February 2015). Additional references will be located through searching the references cited by identified studies and through the World Health Organization Global database of household air pollution measurements. We will also search our own archives. Data extraction and risk of bias assessment of all included papers will be conducted independently by five reviewers. DISCUSSION: The study will provide insights into what interventions are most effective in reducing indoor air pollution and/or adverse health outcomes in homes using solid fuel for cooking or heating in lower- or middle-income countries. The findings from this review will be used to inform future IAP interventions and policy on poverty reduction and health improvement in poor communities who rely on biomass and solid fuels for cooking and heating. SYSTEMATIC REVIEW REGISTRATION: The review has been registered with PROSPERO (registration number CRD42014009768 ).


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados/prevenção & controle , Culinária/métodos , Países em Desenvolvimento , Exposição Ambiental/prevenção & controle , Saúde , Protocolos Clínicos , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Renda , Projetos de Pesquisa , Revisão Sistemática como Assunto
11.
Environ Health Perspect ; 123(5): 412-21, 2015 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25626053

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Exposure to arsenic is one of the major global health problems, affecting > 300 million people worldwide, but arsenic's effects on human reproduction are uncertain. OBJECTIVES: We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to examine the association between arsenic and adverse pregnancy outcomes/infant mortality. METHODS: We searched PubMed and Ovid MEDLINE (from 1946 through July 2013) and EMBASE (from 1988 through July 2013) databases and the reference lists of reviews and relevant articles. Studies satisfying our a priori eligibility criteria were evaluated independently by two authors. RESULTS: Our systematic search yielded 888 articles; of these, 23 were included in the systematic review. Sixteen provided sufficient data for our quantitative analysis. Arsenic in groundwater (≥ 50 µg/L) was associated with increased risk of spontaneous abortion (6 studies: OR = 1.98; 95% CI: 1.27, 3.10), stillbirth (9 studies: OR = 1.77; 95% CI: 1.32, 2.36), moderate risk of neonatal mortality (5 studies: OR = 1.51; 95% CI: 1.28, 1.78), and infant mortality (7 studies: OR = 1.35; 95% CI: 1.12, 1.62). Exposure to environmental arsenic was associated with a significant reduction in birth weight (4 studies: ß = -53.2 g; 95% CI: -94.9, -11.4). There was paucity of evidence for low-to-moderate arsenic dose. CONCLUSIONS: Arsenic is associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes and infant mortality. The interpretation of the causal association is hampered by methodological challenges and limited number of studies on dose response. Exposure to arsenic continues to be a major global health issue, and we therefore advocate for high-quality prospective studies that include individual-level data to quantify the impact of arsenic on adverse pregnancy outcomes/infant mortality.


Assuntos
Arsênico/toxicidade , Mortalidade Infantil , Resultado da Gravidez/epidemiologia , Poluentes da Água/toxicidade , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Gravidez
12.
Scientifica (Cairo) ; 2014: 892105, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25136476

RESUMO

Although accumulating evidence over the past thirty years indicates that noise is an environmental stressor in residential settings, much of the data emanated from studies in high-intensity, noise impact zones around airports or major roads. Little is known about religious noise, especially at night, which is increasingly a growing concern for both the general public and policy-makers in sub-Saharan Africa. Using geographical information systems (GIS), this study measured and mapped exposure to religious noise in a rapidly urbanising municipality in Ghana. Quantitative noise risk assessment was used to evaluate the risk of religious noise-induced hearing loss to residents in the exposed neighbourhoods. The results show that all neighbourhoods where churches were situated had at least one location with significant risk of noise-induced hearing loss. However, there was no statistically significant relationship between neighbourhoods where religious noise exposure was the highest and where noise annoyance was the highest. The magnitude of the noise values for night-time exposure is remarkable particularly given that excessive night-time noise exposure has the greatest detrimental effect on public health. There is the need to focus on vulnerable groups, sensitive hours of the night, and possible confounding with air pollution in order to wholly address this potential hazard.

13.
Int Sch Res Notices ; 2014: 252148, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27351015

RESUMO

Heavy metal accumulation in the food chain is an issue of global concern because it eventually leads to toxic effects on humans through the water we drink, contaminated soils, crops, and animals. Reports of toxicant levels in environmental media (air, water, and soil) and biota in Ghana were sought in SCOPUS, PubMed, MEDLINE, and EMBASE. Of 1004 bibliographic records identified, 54 studies were included in evidence synthesis. A disproportionately large number of papers (about 80%) focused exclusively on environmental media. Papers focusing on biomonitoring and human health were relatively few. Studies reported a high degree of spatial variability for the concentrations of 8 metals in groundwater. Generally, heavy metal concentrations in soil reported by the studies reviewed were higher than metal concentrations in riverine sediments. Urine and hair were the most common biological markers of heavy metal exposure used by the studies reviewed unlike nails, which were sparingly used. By and large, published results on the levels of heavy metals in goldmine and non-mine workers yielded contradictory results. Mostly, concentrations of heavy metals reported by the studies reviewed for nails were higher than for hair. A high degree of variability in the heavy metal concentrations in human subjects in the studies reviewed is likely due to heterogeneity in physiological states, excretion profiles, and body burdens of individuals. These, in turn, may be a product of genetic polymorphisms influencing detoxification efficiency.

14.
Toxicol Res ; 29(1): 69-79, 2013 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24278631

RESUMO

The purpose of this study was to investigate the current status of metal pollution in the sediment from rivers, lakes, and streams in active gold mining districts in Ghana. Two hundred and fifty surface sediment samples from 99 locations were collected and analyzed for concentrations of As, Hg, Cr, Co, Cu, Fe, Zn, Pb, Cd, Ni, and Mn using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS). Metal concentrations were then used to assess the human health risks to resident children and adults in central tendency exposure (CTE) and reasonable maximum exposure (RME) scenarios. The concentrations of Pb, Cd, and As were almost twice the threshold values established by the Hong Kong Interim Sediment Quality Guidelines (ISQG). Hg, Cu, and Cr concentrations in sediment were 14, 20, and 26 times higher than the Canadian Freshwater Sediment Guidelines for these elements. Also, the concentrations of Pb, Cu, Cr, and Hg were 3, 11, 12, and 16 times more than the Australian and New Zealand Environment and Conservation Council (ANZECC) sediment guideline values. The results of the human health risk assessment indicate that for ingestion of sediment under the central tendency exposure (CTE) scenario, the cancer risks for child and adult residents from exposure to As were 4.18 × 10(-6) and 1.84 × 10(-7), respectively. This suggests that up to 4 children out of one million equally exposed children would contract cancer if exposed continuously to As over 70 years (the assumed lifetime). The hazard index for child residents following exposure to Cr(VI) in the RME scenario was 4.2. This is greater than the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) threshold of 1, indicating that adverse health effects to children from exposure to Cr(VI) are possible. This study demonstrates the urgent need to control industrial emissions and the severe heavy metal pollution in gold mining environments.

15.
ISRN Pharmacol ; 2012: 587160, 2012.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22900200

RESUMO

Alstonia boonei De Wild is a herbal medicinal plant of West African origin, popularly known as God's tree or "Onyame dua". Within West Africa, it is considered as sacred in some forest communities; consequently the plant parts are not eaten. The plant parts have been traditionally used for its antimalarial, aphrodisiac, antidiabetic, antimicrobial, and antipyretic activities, which have also been proved scientifically. The plant parts are rich in various bioactive compounds such as echitamidine, Nα-formylechitamidine, boonein, loganin, lupeol, ursolic acid, and ß-amyrin among which the alkaloids and triterpenoids form a major portion. The present paper aims at investigating the main research undertaken on the plant in order to provide sufficient baseline information for future work and for commercial exploitation.

16.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 18(7): 1166-73, 2011 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21340465

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in street dust in the Tamale metropolis, Ghana, have been measured in this study. RESULTS: The concentrations of the various types of PAHs identified in street dust samples from high vehicular traffic density in the metropolis are as follows: naphthalene, 10,000 µg/kg; acenaphthylene, 13,000 µg/kg; acenaphthene, 76,000 µg/kg; fluorene, 18,900 µg/kg; phenanthrene, 40,000 µg/kg; anthracene, 21,000 µg/kg; fluoranthene, 35,200 µg/kg; pyrene, 119,000 µg/kg; benzo[a]anthracene, 17,700 µg/kg; chrysene, 10,600 µg/kg; benzo[k]fluoranthene, 18,700 µg/kg; benzo[a]pyrene, 10,900 µg/kg and benzo[g, h, i]perylene, 21,000 µg/kg. Calculation of the phenanthrene/anthracene ratio indicated that the PAHs identified in this study were from vehicular fallout as the ratio was less than 10. CONCLUSION: It is clear from the results of the study that road users in the Tamale metropolis, especially hawkers, are exposed to the harmful effects of PAHs, and this suggests the need for the establishment of mitigation measures by the regulatory agencies.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poeira/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/análise , Cidades , Gana , Medição de Risco , Emissões de Veículos/análise
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