Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 10 de 10
Filtrar
Mais filtros










Base de dados
Intervalo de ano de publicação
1.
Cereb Cortex ; 24(12): 3107-15, 2014 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23833128

RESUMO

In peripheral vision, objects in clutter are difficult to identify. The exact cause of this "crowding" effect is unclear. To perceive coherent shapes in clutter, the visual system must integrate certain local features across receptive fields while preventing others from being combined. It is believed that this selective feature integration-segmentation process is impaired in peripheral vision, leading to crowding. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate the neural origin of crowding. We found that crowding was associated with suppressed fMRI signal as early as V1, regardless of whether attention was directed toward or away from a target stimulus. This suppression in early visual cortex was greatest for stimuli that produced the strongest crowding. In contrast, the pattern of activity was mixed in higher level visual areas, such as the lateral occipital cortex. These results support the view that the deficiency in feature integration and segmentation in peripheral vision is present at the earliest stages of cortical processing.


Assuntos
Córtex Visual/fisiologia , Campos Visuais/fisiologia , Vias Visuais/fisiologia , Percepção Visual/fisiologia , Análise de Variância , Mapeamento Encefálico , Feminino , Humanos , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Oxigênio/sangue , Estimulação Luminosa , Psicofísica , Estudantes , Fatores de Tempo , Universidades , Córtex Visual/irrigação sanguínea , Vias Visuais/irrigação sanguínea
2.
J Neurophysiol ; 107(10): 2649-59, 2012 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22338022

RESUMO

The nervous system frequently integrates parallel streams of information to encode a broad range of stimulus strengths. In mammalian retina it is generally believed that signals generated by rod and cone photoreceptors converge onto cone bipolar cells prior to reaching the retinal output, the ganglion cells. Near absolute visual threshold a specialized mammalian retinal circuit, the rod bipolar pathway, pools signals from many rods and converges on depolarizing (AII) amacrine cells. However, whether subsequent signal flow to OFF ganglion cells requires OFF cone bipolar cells near visual threshold remains unclear. Glycinergic synapses between AII amacrine cells and OFF cone bipolar cells are believed to relay subsequently rod-driven signals to OFF ganglion cells. However, AII amacrine cells also make glycinergic synapses directly with OFF ganglion cells. To determine the route for signal flow near visual threshold, we measured the effect of the glycine receptor antagonist strychnine on response threshold in fully dark-adapted retinal cells. As shown previously, we found that response threshold for OFF ganglion cells was elevated by strychnine. Surprisingly, strychnine did not elevate response threshold in any subclass of OFF cone bipolar cell. Instead, in every OFF cone bipolar subclass strychnine suppressed tonic glycinergic inhibition without altering response threshold. Consistent with this lack of influence of strychnine, we found that the dominant input to OFF cone bipolar cells in darkness was excitatory and the response threshold of the excitatory input varied by subclass. Thus, in the dark-adapted mouse retina, the high absolute sensitivity of OFF ganglion cells cannot be explained by signal transmission through OFF cone bipolar cells.


Assuntos
Adaptação à Escuridão/fisiologia , Células Bipolares da Retina/fisiologia , Células Ganglionares da Retina/fisiologia , Vias Visuais/fisiologia , Células Amácrinas/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Amácrinas/fisiologia , Animais , Adaptação à Escuridão/efeitos dos fármacos , Glicinérgicos/farmacologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Knockout , Estimulação Luminosa , Receptores da Glicina/fisiologia , Células Bipolares da Retina/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Ganglionares da Retina/efeitos dos fármacos , Estricnina/farmacologia , Vias Visuais/efeitos dos fármacos
3.
Mol Ther ; 19(7): 1220-9, 2011 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21505421

RESUMO

Previous work established retinal expression of channelrhodopsin-2 (ChR2), an algal cation channel gated by light, restored physiological and behavioral visual responses in otherwise blind rd1 mice. However, a viable ChR2-based human therapy must meet several key criteria: (i) ChR2 expression must be targeted, robust, and long-term, (ii) ChR2 must provide long-term and continuous therapeutic efficacy, and (iii) both viral vector delivery and ChR2 expression must be safe. Here, we demonstrate the development of a clinically relevant therapy for late stage retinal degeneration using ChR2. We achieved specific and stable expression of ChR2 in ON bipolar cells using a recombinant adeno-associated viral vector (rAAV) packaged in a tyrosine-mutated capsid. Targeted expression led to ChR2-driven electrophysiological ON responses in postsynaptic retinal ganglion cells and significant improvement in visually guided behavior for multiple models of blindness up to 10 months postinjection. Light levels to elicit visually guided behavioral responses were within the physiological range of cone photoreceptors. Finally, chronic ChR2 expression was nontoxic, with transgene biodistribution limited to the eye. No measurable immune or inflammatory response was observed following intraocular vector administration. Together, these data indicate that virally delivered ChR2 can provide a viable and efficacious clinical therapy for photoreceptor disease-related blindness.


Assuntos
Cegueira/metabolismo , Cegueira/terapia , Proteínas de Transporte/metabolismo , Animais , Arrestina/metabolismo , Cegueira/genética , Proteínas de Transporte/genética , Dependovirus , Eletrofisiologia , Proteína Glial Fibrilar Ácida , Imuno-Histoquímica , Antígenos Comuns de Leucócito/metabolismo , Camundongos , Microscopia Confocal , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/metabolismo , Retina/metabolismo , Visão Ocular/genética , Visão Ocular/fisiologia
4.
J Vis Exp ; (43)2010 Sep 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20864928

RESUMO

Our visual experience is initiated when the visual pigment in our retinal photoreceptors absorbs photons of light energy and initiates a cascade of intracellular events that lead to closure of cyclic-nucleotide-gated channels in the cell membrane. The resulting change in membrane potential leads in turn to reductions in the amount of neurotransmitter release from both rod and cone synaptic terminals. To measure how the light-evoked change in photoreceptor membrane potential leads to downstream activity in the retina, scientists have made electrophysiological recordings from retinal slice preparations for decades. In the past these slices have been cut manually with a razor blade on retinal tissue that is attached to filter paper; in recent years another method of slicing has been developed whereby retinal tissue is embedded in low gelling temperature agar and sliced in cool solution with a vibrating microtome. This preparation produces retinal slices with less surface damage and very robust light-evoked responses. Here we document how this procedure can be done under infrared light to avoid bleaching the visual pigment.


Assuntos
Microtomia/métodos , Neurônios/fisiologia , Técnicas de Patch-Clamp/métodos , Retina/fisiologia , Animais , Membrana Celular/fisiologia , Escuridão , Eletrodos , Eletrofisiologia/instrumentação , Eletrofisiologia/métodos , Potenciais da Membrana/fisiologia , Camundongos , Técnicas de Patch-Clamp/instrumentação , Células Fotorreceptoras de Vertebrados/fisiologia , Retina/citologia
5.
Nat Neurosci ; 13(9): 1107-12, 2010 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20711184

RESUMO

In mammals, synchronization of the circadian pacemaker in the hypothalamus is achieved through direct input from the eyes conveyed by intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGCs). Circadian photoentrainment can be maintained by rod and cone photoreceptors, but their functional contributions and their retinal circuits that impinge on ipRGCs are not well understood. Using mice that lack functional rods or in which rods are the only functional photoreceptors, we found that rods were solely responsible for photoentrainment at scotopic light intensities. Rods were also capable of driving circadian photoentrainment at photopic intensities at which they were incapable of supporting a visually guided behavior. Using mice in which cone photoreceptors were ablated, we found that rods signal through cones at high light intensities, but not at low light intensities. Thus, rods use two distinct retinal circuits to drive ipRGC function to support circadian photoentrainment across a wide range of light intensities.


Assuntos
Ritmo Circadiano/fisiologia , Células Fotorreceptoras Retinianas Bastonetes/fisiologia , Animais , Canais de Cátion Regulados por Nucleotídeos Cíclicos/deficiência , Canais de Cátion Regulados por Nucleotídeos Cíclicos/genética , Canais de Cátion Regulados por Nucleotídeos Cíclicos/metabolismo , Subunidades alfa de Proteínas de Ligação ao GTP/deficiência , Subunidades alfa de Proteínas de Ligação ao GTP/genética , Subunidades alfa de Proteínas de Ligação ao GTP/metabolismo , Técnicas In Vitro , Masculino , Potenciais da Membrana , Camundongos , Camundongos Knockout , Camundongos Transgênicos , Atividade Motora/fisiologia , Vias Neurais/fisiologia , Neurônios/fisiologia , Técnicas de Patch-Clamp , Estimulação Luminosa , Retina/fisiologia , Células Bipolares da Retina/fisiologia , Células Fotorreceptoras Retinianas Cones/fisiologia , Opsinas de Bastonetes/deficiência , Opsinas de Bastonetes/genética , Opsinas de Bastonetes/metabolismo , Transducina/deficiência , Transducina/genética , Transducina/metabolismo , Percepção Visual/fisiologia
6.
J Physiol ; 588(Pt 11): 1947-60, 2010 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20403975

RESUMO

The sensitivity of receptor cells places a fundamental limit upon the sensitivity of sensory systems. For example, the signal-to-noise ratio of sensory receptors has been suggested to limit absolute thresholds in the visual and auditory systems. However, the necessity of optimally processing sensory receptor signals for behaviour to approach this limit has received less attention. We investigated the behavioural consequences of increasing the signal-to-noise ratio of the rod photoreceptor single-photon response in a transgenic mouse, the GCAPs-/- knockout. The loss of fast Ca2+ feedback to cGMP synthesis in phototransduction for GCAPs-/- mice increases the magnitude of the rod single-photon response and dark noise, with the increase in size of the single-photon response outweighing the increase in noise. Surprisingly, despite the increased rod signal-to-noise ratio, behavioural performance for GCAPs-/- mice was diminished near absolute visual threshold. We demonstrate in electrophysiological recordings that the diminished performance compared to wild-type mice is explained by poorly tuned postsynaptic processing of the rod single-photon response at the rod bipolar cell. In particular, the level of postsynaptic saturation in GCAPs-/- rod bipolar cells is not sufficient to eliminate rod noise, and degrades the single-photon response signal-to-noise ratio. Thus, it is critical for retinal processing to be optimally tuned near absolute threshold; otherwise the visual system fails to utilize fully the signals present in the rods.


Assuntos
Comportamento Animal/fisiologia , Células Fotorreceptoras Retinianas Bastonetes/fisiologia , Animais , Calibragem , Eletrofisiologia , Potenciais Pós-Sinápticos Excitadores/fisiologia , Proteínas Ativadoras de Guanilato Ciclase/genética , Proteínas Ativadoras de Guanilato Ciclase/fisiologia , Luz , Camundongos , Camundongos Knockout , Células Bipolares da Retina/fisiologia
7.
Perception ; 37(7): 1086-97, 2008.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18773731

RESUMO

Repeated training on a perceptual task can result in performance deterioration. In the case of vision, this practice-dependent decrease, or perceptual deterioration is restored by changing the target orientation, spatial location, or by taking a daytime nap. Behavioral studies suggest the locus of these performance changes to be primary visual cortex. We used fMRI to directly probe whether perceptual deterioration and nap-dependent maintenance of performance can be detected at the level of primary visual cortex. We also asked whether these changes are due to a bottom-up, stimulus-driven response or a top-down plasticity of attentional mechanisms. Subjects were scanned while performing a texture-discrimination task. Half the subjects took a nap between sessions. We measured the relationship between changes in performance and changes in BOLD signal modulation between the two groups. Non-nappers showed performance deterioration that was significantly correlated with decreased BOLD signal modulation, exclusively in area V1 and limited to the bottom-up condition. In contrast, no change was detected in performance and BOLD response in the two conditions for nappers. These results indicate that napping prevented performance deterioration, which was reflected in the fMRI response of neurons in V1. Without a nap, perceptual deterioration was related to decreases in the stimulus-driven, bottom-up representation, rather than decreases in attentional modulation to the stimulus.


Assuntos
Atenção/fisiologia , Sensibilidades de Contraste/fisiologia , Sono/fisiologia , Córtex Visual/fisiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Análise de Regressão
8.
Vision Res ; 46(18): 2968-76, 2006 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16698060

RESUMO

Previous studies have shown that attention to a particular stimulus feature, such as direction of motion or color, enhances neuronal responses to unattended stimuli sharing that feature. We studied this effect psychophysically by measuring the strength of the motion aftereffect (MAE) induced by an unattended stimulus when attention was directed to one of two overlapping fields of moving dots in a different spatial location. When attention was directed to the same direction of motion as the unattended stimulus, the unattended stimulus induced a stronger MAE than when attention was directed to the opposite direction. Also, when the unattended location contained either uncorrelated motion or had no stimulus at all an MAE was induced in the opposite direction to the attended direction of motion. The strength of the MAE was similar regardless of whether subjects attended to the speed or luminance of the attended dots. These results provide further support for a global feature-based mechanism of attention, and show that the effect spreads across all features of an attended object, and to all locations of visual space.


Assuntos
Atenção/fisiologia , Pós-Efeito de Figura/fisiologia , Percepção de Movimento/fisiologia , Adulto , Percepção de Cores/fisiologia , Discriminação Psicológica/fisiologia , Humanos , Iluminação , Reconhecimento Visual de Modelos/fisiologia , Estimulação Luminosa/métodos , Psicofísica , Campos Visuais/fisiologia
9.
Neuron ; 45(6): 975-85, 2005 Mar 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-15797557

RESUMO

Grapheme-color synesthetes experience specific colors associated with specific number or letter characters. To determine the neural locus of this condition, we compared behavioral and fMRI responses in six grapheme-color synesthetes to control subjects. In our behavioral experiments, we found that a subject's synesthetic experience can aid in texture segregation (experiment 1) and reduce the effects of crowding (experiment 2). For synesthetes, graphemes produced larger fMRI responses in color-selective area human V4 than for control subjects (experiment 3). Importantly, we found a correlation within subjects between the behavioral and fMRI results; subjects with better performance on the behavioral experiments showed larger fMRI responses in early retinotopic visual areas (V1, V2, V3, and hV4). These results suggest that grapheme-color synesthesia is the result of cross-activation between grapheme-selective and color-selective brain areas. The correlation between the behavioral and fMRI results suggests that grapheme-color synesthetes may constitute a heterogeneous group.


Assuntos
Percepção de Cores/fisiologia , Defeitos da Visão Cromática/fisiopatologia , Ilusões/fisiologia , Reconhecimento Visual de Modelos/fisiologia , Córtex Visual/fisiologia , Vias Visuais/fisiologia , Mapeamento Encefálico , Circulação Cerebrovascular/fisiologia , Lateralidade Funcional/fisiologia , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Variações Dependentes do Observador , Estimulação Luminosa , Córtex Visual/anatomia & histologia , Vias Visuais/anatomia & histologia
10.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 102(10): 3881-5, 2005 Mar 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-15731350

RESUMO

Repeated within-day testing on a texture discrimination task leads to retinotopically specific decreases in performance. Although perceptual learning has been shown to be highly specific to the retinotopic location and characteristics of the trained stimulus, the specificity of perceptual deterioration has not been studied. We investigated the similarities between learning and deterioration by examining whether deterioration transfers to new distractor or target orientations or to the untrained eye. Participants performed a texture discrimination task in three one-hour sessions. We tested the specificity of deterioration in the final session by switching either the orientation of the background or the target elements by 90 degrees. We found that performance deteriorated steadily both within and across the first two sessions and was specific to the target but not the distractor orientation. In a separate experiment, we found that deterioration transferred to the untrained eye. Changes in performance were independent of reported sleepiness and awareness of stimulus changes, arguing against the possibility that perceptual deterioration is due to general fatigue. Rather, we hypothesize that perceptual deterioration may be caused by changes in the ability for attention to selectively enhance the responses of relatively low-level orientation-selective sensory neurons, possibly within the primary visual cortex. Further, the differences in specificity profiles between learning and deterioration suggest separate underlying mechanisms that occur within the same cortical area.


Assuntos
Córtex Visual/fisiologia , Percepção Visual/fisiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Atenção , Aprendizagem por Discriminação , Humanos
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...