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1.
JAMA Neurol ; 2019 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31566686

RESUMO

Importance: Neuroprotective and remyelinating therapies are required for multiple sclerosis (MS), and acute optic neuritis (AON) is a potential condition to evaluate such treatments. Objective: To comprehensively assess key biological and methodological aspects of AON trials for testing neuroprotection and remyelination in MS. Design, Setting, and Participants: The AON-VisualPath prospective cohort study was conducted from February 2011 to November 2018 at the Hospital Clinic of University of Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain. Consecutive patients with AON were prospectively enrolled in the cohort and followed up for 18 months. Data analyses occurred from November 2018 to February 2019. Exposures: Participants were followed up for 18 months using optical coherence tomography, visual acuity tests, and in a subset of 25 participants, multifocal visual evoked potentials. Main Outcomes and Measures: Dynamic models of retinal changes and nerve conduction and their associations with visual end points; and eligibility criteria, stratification, and sample-size estimation for future trials. Results: A total of 60 patients (50 women [83%]; median age, 34 years) with AON were included. The patients studied displayed early and intense inner retinal thinning, with a thinning rate of approximately 2.38 µm per week in the ganglion cell plus inner plexiform layer (GCIPL) during the first 4 weeks. Eyes with AON displayed a 6-month change in latency of about 20 milliseconds, while the expected change in the eyes of healthy participants by random variability was 0.13 (95% CI, -0.80 to 1.06) milliseconds. The strongest associations with visual end points were for the 6-month intereye difference in 2.5% low-contrast letter acuity, which was correlated with the peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer thinning (adjusted R2, 0.57), GCIPL thinning (adjusted R2, 0.50), and changes in mfVEP latency (adjusted R2, 0.26). A 5-letter increment in high-contrast visual acuity at presentation (but not sex or age) was associated with 6-month retinal thinning (1.41 [95% CI, 0.60-2.23] µm less peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer thinning thinning; P = .001; adjusted R2, 0.20; 0.86 [95% CI, 0.35-1.37] µm less GCIPL thinning; P = .001; adjusted R2, 0.19) but not any change in multifocal visual evoked potential latency. To demonstrate 50% efficacy in GCIPL thinning or change in multifocal visual evoked potential latency, a 6-month, 2-arm, parallel-group trial would need 37 or 50 participants per group to test a neuroprotective or remyelinating drug, respectively (power, 80%; α, .05). Conclusions and Relevance: Acute optic neuritis is a suitable condition to test neuroprotective and remyelinating therapies after acute inflammation, providing sensitive markers to assess the effects on both processes and prospective visual recovery within a manageable timeframe and with a relatively small sample size.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31471461

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To describe the clinical features of late-onset (≥50 years) neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (LO-NMOSD), to compare the outcome with that of early-onset (EO-NMOSD), and to identify predictors of disability. METHODS: A retrospective, multicenter study of 238 patients with NMOSD identified by the 2015 criteria. Clinical and immunologic features of patients with LO-NMOSD were compared with those with EO-NMOSD. All patients were evaluated for aquaporin-4 (AQP4-IgG) and myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG-IgG) antibodies. RESULTS: Sixty-nine (29%) patients had LO-NMOSD. Demographic features, initial disease presentation, annualized relapse rate, and frequency of AQP4-IgG and MOG-IgG did not differ between patients with LO-NMOSD and EO-NMOSD. Among patients with AQP4-IgG or double seronegativity, those with LO-NMOSD had a higher risk to require a cane to walk (hazard ratio [HR], 2.10, 95% CI 1.3-3.54, p = 0.003 for AQP4-IgG, and HR, 13.0, 95% CI 2.8-59.7, p = 0.001, for double seronegative). No differences in outcome were observed between patients with MOG-IgG and LO-NMOSD or EO-NMOSD. Older age at onset (for every 10-year increase, HR 1.63, 95% CI 1.35-1.92 p < 0.001) in NMOSD, and higher disability after the first attack (HR 1.68, 95% CI 1.32-2.14, p < 0.001), and double seronegativity (HR 3.74, 95% CI 1.03-13.6, p = 0.045) in LO-NMOSD were the main independent predictors of worse outcome. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with LO-NMOSD have similar clinical presentation but worse outcome than EO-NMOSD when they are double seronegative or AQP4-IgG positive. Serostatus and residual disability after first attack are the main predictors of LO-NMOSD outcome.

5.
Lancet Neurol ; 2019 Jul 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31326280

RESUMO

The identification of anti-NMDA receptor (NMDAR) encephalitis about 12 years ago made it possible to recognise that some patients with rapidly progressive psychiatric symptoms or cognitive impairment, seizures, abnormal movements, or coma of unknown cause, had an autoimmune disease. In this disease, autoantibodies serve as a diagnostic marker and alter NMDAR-related synaptic transmission. At symptom onset, distinguishing the disease from a primary psychiatric disorder is challenging. The severity of symptoms often requires intensive care. Other than clinical assessment, no specific prognostic biomarkers exist. The disease is more prevalent in women (with a female to male ratio of around 8:2) and about 37% of patients are younger than 18 years at presentation of the disease. Tumours, usually ovarian teratoma, and herpes simplex encephalitis are known triggers of NMDAR autoimmunity. About 80% of patients improve with immunotherapy and, if needed, tumour removal, but the recovery is slow. Animal models have started to reveal the complexity of the underlying pathogenic mechanisms and will lead to novel treatments beyond immunotherapy. Future studies should aim at identifying prognostic biomarkers and treatments that accelerate recovery.

6.
J Neuroinflammation ; 16(1): 134, 2019 Jul 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31266527

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein antibodies (MOG-Ab) are related to several acquired demyelinating syndromes in adults, but the therapeutic approach is currently unclear. We aimed to describe the response to different therapeutic strategies in adult patients with relapsing MOG-Ab-associated disease. METHODS: This is a retrospective study conducted in France and Spain including 125 relapsing MOG-Ab patients aged ≥ 18 years. First, we performed a survival analysis to investigate the relapse risk between treated and non-treated patients, performing a propensity score method based on the inverse probability of treatment weighting. Second, we assessed the annualised relapse rates (ARR), Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) and visual acuity pre-treatment and on/end-treatment. RESULTS: Median age at onset was 34.1 years (range 18.0-67.1), the female to male ratio was 1.2:1, and 96% were Caucasian. At 5 years, 84% (95% confidence interval [CI], 77.1-89.8) patients relapsed. At the last follow-up, 66 (52.8%) received maintenance therapy. Patients initiating immunosuppressants (azathioprine, mycophenolate mophetil [MMF], rituximab) were at lower risk of new relapse in comparison to non-treated patients (HR, 0.41; 95CI%, 0.20-0.82; p = 0.011). Mean ARR (standard deviation) was reduced from 1.05(1.20) to 0.43(0.79) with azathioprine (n = 11; p = 0.041), from 1.20(1.11) to 0.23(0.60) with MMF (n = 11; p = 0.033), and from 1.08(0.98) to 0.43(0.89) with rituximab (n = 26; p = 0.012). Other immunosuppressants (methotrexate/mitoxantrone/cyclophosphamide; n = 5), or multiple sclerosis disease-modifying drugs (MS-DMD; n = 9), were not associated with significantly reduced ARR. Higher rates of freedom of EDSS progression were observed with azathioprine, MMF or rituximab. CONCLUSION: In adults with relapsing MOG-Ab-associated disease, immunosuppressant therapy (azathioprine, MMF and rituximab) is associated with reduced risk of relapse and better disability outcomes. Such an effect was not found in the few patients treated with MS-DMD.

7.
Pediatr Neurol ; 96: 70-73, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30935719

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Enterovirus-A71 causes outbreaks of brainstem encephalitis, ranging from self-limited disease to acute flaccid paralysis. The aim of this study was to assess the role of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) neopterin as a biomarker of disease severity in children with enterovirus-related brainstem encephalitis. METHODS: A descriptive, prospective cohort study was conducted from April 2016 to March 2017 in a tertiary hospital. Pediatric patients with a diagnosis of brainstem encephalitis with or without myelitis due to enterovirus infection were enrolled. The final study group comprised a convenience sample including all patients with sufficient CSF volume for neopterin determination. The major variables considered in estimating the severity were the diagnosis of encephalomyelitis, the presence of lesions and extensive lesions on brain and spinal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), hospital stay length greater than seven days, and sequelae at day 30. RESULTS: Of 60 patients, CSF neopterin could be measured in 36. Median age was 26 months (interquartile range: 19 to 32). Thirty-three were diagnosed with brainstem encephalitis and three with encephalomyelitis. Enterovirus-A71 was the only identified genotype (25 of 25). CSF neopterin levels were elevated (>61 nmol/L) in 33 of 36 (92%), with a median of 347 nmol/L (interquartile range: 204 to 525). CSF neopterin was useful to distinguish patients with lesions on MRI (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve = 0.76; P = 0.02) and extensive lesions (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve = 0.76; P = 0.04). CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests an association between CSF neopterin levels and the presence of inflammatory lesions on MRI.

8.
Neurol Neuroimmunol Neuroinflamm ; 6(2): e538, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30800721

RESUMO

Objective: To report 2 patients with anti-myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG)-associated encephalitis who were initially misdiagnosed with small vessel primary CNS vasculitis. Methods: Review of symptoms, MRI and neuropathologic features, and response to treatment. MOG antibodies were determined in serum and CSF using a cell-based assay. Results: Symptoms included fever, headache, and progressive mental status changes and focal neurologic deficits. CSF studies revealed lymphocytic pleocytosis, and both patients had abnormal brain MRIs. Brain biopsy samples showed prominent lymphocytic infiltration of the wall of small vessels; these findings initially suggested small vessel CNS vasculitis, and both patients were treated accordingly. Although 1 patient had a relapsing-remitting course not responsive to cyclophosphamide, the other one (also treated with cyclophosphamide) did not relapse. Retrospective assessment of serum and CSF demonstrated MOG antibodies in both cases, and review of biopsy specimens showed absence of fibrinoid necrosis (a pathologic requirement for small vessel CNS vasculitis). Conclusions: Anti-MOG-associated encephalitis can be mistaken for small vessel CNS vasculitis. This is important because the diagnosis of anti-MOG-associated encephalitis does not require brain biopsy and can be established with a serologic test.

10.
Neurol Neuroimmunol Neuroinflamm ; 6(2): e529, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30697582

RESUMO

Objective: To develop an endogenous rodent model of postinfectious anti-NMDA receptor (NMDAR) encephalitis. Methods: Six mice were inoculated intranasally with herpes simplex virus (HSV) 1 and subsequently treated with acyclovir for 2 weeks. Serum was collected at 3, 6, and 8 weeks postinoculation and tested for NMDAR antibodies through a cell-based assay. Eight weeks postinoculation, mice were killed and their brains were sectioned and immunostained with antibodies to postsynaptic density (PSD)-95 and NMDARs. Colocalization of hippocampal PSD-95 and NMDAR clusters, representing postsynaptic membrane NMDARs, was quantified via confocal imaging. Hippocampi were additionally analyzed for NMDAR and PSD-95 protein using Western blot analysis. Results: Four of 6 mice (67%) developed serum antibodies to NMDARs: 1 at 3 weeks, 1 at 6 weeks, and 2 at 8 weeks postinoculation. As compared to inoculated mice that did not develop NMDAR antibodies, immunofluorescence staining revealed decreased hippocampal postsynaptic membrane NMDARs in mice with serum antibodies at 8 weeks postinoculation. Western blot analysis showed that mice that had NMDAR antibodies at 8 weeks had decreased total NMDAR but not PSD-95 protein in hippocampal extracts (p < 0.05). Conclusions: Mice inoculated intranasally with HSV-1 developed serum NMDAR antibodies. These antibodies were associated with reduced hippocampal NMDARs, as has been shown in previous models where antibodies from patients with anti-NMDAR encephalitis were infused into mice, paving the way for future studies into the pathophysiology of autoimmune encephalitides.

11.
Mult Scler Relat Disord ; 28: 230-234, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30623863

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine the frequency and relevance of IgM, and IgA antibodies against myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG) in MOG-IgG-associated disease. METHODS: Evaluation of IgM, and IgA MOG antibodies in serum of 120 patients with MOG-IgG (53 pediatric and 67 adults), and 114 patients with seronegative-MOG-IgG (35 children with first demyelinating syndrome, 20 adults with clinically isolated syndrome, and 59 adults with other diseases). Antibodies were examined by cell-based assays. RESULTS: IgM or IgA MOG antibodies were identified in 23/120 (19%) patients with MOG-IgG (13/53 [24.5%] pediatric, and 10/67 [15%] adult patients), and 2/114 (1.7%) patients with seronegative-MOG-IgG (2/35 [5.7%] pediatric patients). Of the 25 patients, 14 had IgA, 9 IgM, and 2 both antibodies. Fourteen of the 15 (93%) children with IgM (4), IgA (9), or both (2) had acute demyelinating encephalomyelitis (ADEM), and 7 of the 10 (70%) adults with IgM (5) or IgA (5) had optic neuritis at onset. At the last follow-up, the final diagnoses remained as ADEM in 14 (100%) children and optic neuritis in 6 (86%) adults. The outcome was not different between patients with or without additional classes of antibodies. CONCLUSION: Coexisting IgM and IgA antibodies occurs in 19% of children and adult patients with MOG-IgG-associated disease. The presence of these antibodies does not seem to play a relevant clinical role in the disorder.


Assuntos
Autoanticorpos/sangue , Doenças Autoimunes Desmielinizantes do Sistema Nervoso Central/sangue , Imunoglobulina A/sangue , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Imunoglobulina M/sangue , Glicoproteína Mielina-Oligodendrócito/imunologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Bioensaio , Biomarcadores/sangue , Biomarcadores/líquido cefalorraquidiano , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Doenças Autoimunes Desmielinizantes do Sistema Nervoso Central/líquido cefalorraquidiano , Doenças Autoimunes Desmielinizantes do Sistema Nervoso Central/imunologia , Feminino , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
12.
J Neurol ; 266(4): 806-815, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30607536

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To analyze whether myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein antibody (MOG-Ab) titres at onset of the disease were different according to the clinical phenotype at presentation, and to investigate whether the titres were associated with risk of further relapses or predicted clinical outcome in adult patients. Finally, we assessed an alternative method to the classical measurement of MOG-Ab levels by serial dilutions. METHODS: This is a retrospective study including 79 MOG-Ab-positive adult patients, whose samples were obtained at first episode. MOG-Ab were tested by cell-based assay. HEK293 cells were transfected (tHEK293) with human-MOG plasmid. Non-tHEK293 cells were used as negative controls. Assessment of antibody titres was performed by serial dilution, and delta mean fluorescence intensity ratio signal (MOG-ratio ΔMFI) by flow cytometry. MOG-ratio ΔMFI was calculated as follows: (MFI tHEK293cells- MFI non-tHEK293cells)/MFI non-tHEK293cells. MOG-ratio ΔMFI was calculated from the first serum dilution at 1:320. The association between MOG-Ab titres and risk of relapse was analyzed by Cox regression. The association between MOG-Ab titres and visual or motor disability at last follow-up was performed by binary logistic regression. Poor visual outcome was defined when patients displayed some degree of visual disability (visual acuity [VA] < 20/20) and poor motor outcome when patients displayed some degree of motor disability (Disability Status Scale [DSS] > 1). We also investigated correlations between MOG-Ab titres and MOG-ratio ΔMFI. RESULTS: MOG-Ab titres were higher in Caucasians than in those with other ethnicities, and in patients with a more severe VA (VA ≤ 20/100) or motor disability (DSS ≥ 3.0) at onset (p = 0.006, 0.034, and 0.058, respectively). MOG-Ab titres were not associated with risk of relapses or with the final clinical outcome. MOG-ratio ΔMFI correlated with MOG-Ab titres in the whole cohort (ρ = 0.90; p < 0.001), and when stratified by initial clinical phenotype. CONCLUSION: High MOG-Ab titres at onset are associated with a more severe presentation, but do not predict the future disease course. MOG-ratio ΔMFI is an alternative and straightforward method to determine MOG-Ab levels.


Assuntos
Autoanticorpos/sangue , Doenças Desmielinizantes/imunologia , Glicoproteína Mielina-Oligodendrócito/imunologia , Mielite/imunologia , Neurite Óptica/imunologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Bioensaio , Doenças Desmielinizantes/sangue , Doenças Desmielinizantes/terapia , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Seguimentos , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mielite/sangue , Mielite/terapia , Neurite Óptica/sangue , Neurite Óptica/terapia , Prognóstico , Recidiva , Estudos Retrospectivos , Adulto Jovem
13.
Lancet Neurol ; 17(9): 760-772, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30049614

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Herpes simplex encephalitis can trigger autoimmune encephalitis that leads to neurological worsening. We aimed to assess the frequency, symptoms, risk factors, and outcomes of this complication. METHODS: We did a prospective observational study and retrospective analysis. In the prospective observational part of this study, we included patients with herpes simplex encephalitis diagnosed by neurologists, paediatricians, or infectious disease specialists in 19 secondary and tertiary Spanish centres (Cohort A). Outpatient follow-up was at 2, 6, and 12 months from onset of herpes simplex encephalitis. We studied another group of patients retrospectively, when they developed autoimmune encephalitis after herpes simplex encephalitis (Cohort B). We compared demographics and clinical features of patients who developed autoimmune encephalitis with those who did not, and in patients who developed autoimmune encephalitis we compared these features by age group (patients ≤4 years compared with patients >4 years). We also used multivariable binary logistic regression models to assess risk factors for autoimmune encephalitis after herpes simplex encephalitis. FINDINGS: Between Jan 1, 2014, and Oct 31, 2017, 54 patients with herpes simplex encephalitis were recruited to Cohort A, and 51 were included in the analysis (median age 50 years [IQR 5-68]). At onset of herpes simplex encephalitis, none of the 51 patients had antibodies to neuronal antigens; during follow-up, 14 (27%) patients developed autoimmune encephalitis and all 14 (100%) had neuronal antibodies (nine [64%] had NMDA receptor [NMDAR] antibodies and five [36%] had other antibodies) at or before onset of symptoms. The other 37 patients did not develop autoimmune encephalitis, although 11 (30%) developed antibodies (n=3 to NMDAR, n=8 to unknown antigens; p<0·001). Antibody detection within 3 weeks of herpes simplex encephalitis was a risk factor for autoimmune encephalitis (odds ratio [OR] 11·5, 95% CI 2·7-48·8; p<0·001). Between Oct 7, 2011, and Oct 31, 2017, there were 48 patients in Cohort B with new-onset or worsening neurological symptoms not caused by herpes simplex virus reactivation (median age 8·8 years [IQR 1·1-44·2]; n=27 male); 44 (92%) patients had antibody-confirmed autoimmune encephalitis (34 had NMDAR antibodies and ten had other antibodies). In both cohorts (n=58 patients with antibody-confirmed autoimmune encephalitis), patients older than 4 years frequently presented with psychosis (18 [58%] of 31; younger children not assessable). Compared with patients older than 4 years, patients aged 4 years or younger (n=27) were more likely to have shorter intervals between onset of herpes simplex encephalitis and onset of autoimmune encephalitis (median 26 days [IQR 24-32] vs 43 days [25-54]; p=0·0073), choreoathetosis (27 [100%] of 27 vs 0 of 31; p<0·001), decreased level of consciousness (26 [96%] of 27 vs seven [23%] of 31; p<0·001), NMDAR antibodies (24 [89%] of 27 vs 19 [61%] of 31; p=0·033), and worse outcome at 1 year (median modified Rankin Scale 4 [IQR 4-4] vs 2 [2-3]; p<0·0010; seizures 12 [63%] of 19 vs three [13%] of 23; p=0·001). INTERPRETATION: The results of our prospective study show that autoimmune encephalitis occurred in 27% of patients with herpes simplex encephalitis. It was associated with development of neuronal antibodies and usually presented within 2 months after treatment of herpes simplex encephalitis; the symptoms were age-dependent, and the neurological outcome was worse in young children. Prompt diagnosis is important because patients, primarily those older than 4 years, can respond to immunotherapy. FUNDING: Mutua Madrileña Foundation, Fondation de l'Université de Lausanne et Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Vaudois, Instituto Carlos III, CIBERER, National Institutes of Health, Generalitat de Catalunya, Fundació CELLEX.

14.
Neurology ; 90(22): e1964-e1972, 2018 May 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29703767

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To report the clinical features of 11 patients with metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 (mGluR5) antibody-associated encephalitis, immunoglobulin G (IgG) subclass, and effects of the antibodies on neuronal mGluR5 clusters. METHODS: Clinical information was retrospectively obtained from referring physicians. Antibodies to mGluR5 and IgG subclasses were determined with brain immunohistochemistry and cell-based assays. The effects of the antibodies were examined on rat hippocampal neurons with reported techniques. RESULTS: From January 2005 to May 2017, 11 patients (median age 29 years, range 6-75 years, 5 female) were identified. The main clinical features were psychiatric (10), cognitive (10), movement disorders (7), sleep dysfunction (7), and seizures (6). Median modified Rankin Scale score at the peak of the disease was 4; 4 patients required intensive care. Five patients had Hodgkin lymphoma, and 1 had small cell lung cancer. CSF showed pleocytosis (median white blood cell count 22 mm3) in all patients; brain MRI was abnormal in 5, involving limbic (1) or extralimbic (4) regions. Treatments included immunotherapy and/or oncologic therapy; at the last follow-up (median 48 months), 6 patients had complete and 5 had partial recovery. Neurologic relapse occurred in 2 patients. Antibodies were IgG1 alone (4 of 9) or in combination with IgG2 (1 of 9), IgG3 (3 of 9), or both (1). Patients' IgG caused a significant and specific decrease of cell-surface synaptic and extrasynaptic mGluR5 without altering the levels of postsynaptic density protein 95. CONCLUSIONS: Anti-mGluR5 encephalitis associates with a complex neuropsychiatric syndrome, not restricted to limbic encephalitis, and can occur without tumor. Patients respond to treatment, but relapses can occur. The antibodies have pathogenic effects altering the levels of cell-surface mGluR5.

15.
Neurol Neuroimmunol Neuroinflamm ; 5(4): e458, 2018 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29629396

RESUMO

Objective: To determine whether there is an association between nonencephalitic herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) infection and anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis (anti-NMDARE). Methods: Antibody testing was performed using samples from 2 cohorts in a case-control observational study. The cohort "Philadelphia" included 16 serum samples of pediatric anti-NMDARE cases and 42 age-matched controls with other neuroinflammatory disorders studied at the Children's Hospital of Philadelphia and University of Pennsylvania. The cohort "Barcelona" contained 23 anti-NMDARE patient samples and 26 age-matched participants with other neuroinflammatory disorders studied at IDIBAPS-Hospital Clinic, University of Barcelona. The presence of HSV-1 IgG antibodies was examined by ELISA. As an additional control, IgG antibodies to cytomegalovirus (CMV) and Epstein-Barr virus viral capsid antigen (EBV-VCA) were determined. Results: In each cohort, more participants with anti-NMDARE than controls had anti-HSV-1 IgG antibodies. In the Philadelphia cohort (58 participants), 44% of anti-NMDARE cases had antibodies to HSV-1 compared with 14% controls (OR 4.67, 95% CI 1.3-17.3, p = 0.031). In the Barcelona cohort (49 participants), 52% of participants with anti-NMDARE had antibodies to HSV-1 compared with 31% of controls (OR 2.45, 95% CI 0.7-7.9, p = 0.155). Overall, 49% of anti-NMDARE cases have antibodies to HSV-1 in these 2 combined cohorts compared with 21% of controls (Mantel-Haenszel OR 3.21, 95% CI 1.3-7.7, p = 0.007). Conclusion: Past HSV-1 infection was found in significantly more anti-NMDARE cases than controls. This suggests a meaningful association between nonencephalitic HSV-1 infection and development of anti-NMDARE.

16.
Neurology ; 90(16): e1386-e1394, 2018 Apr 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29549218

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine the frequency and clinical relevance of immunoglobulin (Ig)G, IgA, and IgM N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) antibodies in several diseases, and whether the IgG antibodies occur in disorders other than anti-NMDAR encephalitis. METHODS: Evaluation of IgG, IgA, and IgM NMDAR antibodies in serum of 300 patients with anti-NMDAR encephalitis, stroke, dementia, schizophrenia, or seronegative autoimmune encephalitis. Antibodies and their effect on cultured neurons were examined with cell-based assays and brain and live neuronal immunostaining. Retrospective analysis of the clinical diagnoses of a cohort of 1,147 patients with IgG NMDAR antibodies identified since 2005. RESULTS: Among the 300 patients studied, IgG NMDAR antibodies were only identified in those with anti-NMDAR encephalitis and all reacted with brain and live neurons. By cell-based assay, IgA or IgM antibodies were detected in 22 of 300 patients (7%) with different diseases, but only 10 (3%) reacted with brain and 7 (2%) with live neurons. In cultured neurons, IgG but not IgA or IgM antibodies caused a decrease of synaptic and extrasynaptic NMDAR. Among the cohort of 1,147 patients with IgG NMDAR antibodies, 1,015 (88.5%) had anti-NMDAR encephalitis, 45 (3.9%) a limited form of the disease, 41 (3.6%) autoimmune post-herpes simplex encephalitis, 37 (3.2%) overlapping syndromes (anti-NMDAR encephalitis and demyelinating disease), and 9 (0.8%) atypical encephalitic syndromes; none had schizophrenia. CONCLUSIONS: IgG NMDAR antibodies are highly specific for anti-NMDAR encephalitis and cause a decrease of the levels of NMDAR. In contrast, IgA or IgM antibodies occur infrequently and nonspecifically in other diseases and do not alter the receptor levels.

17.
Mult Scler ; : 1352458517735191, 2017 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28984163

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Population-based studies on neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders (NMOSD) are limited, and it is unclear whether the rates have changed with the implementation of the new 2015 criteria. OBJECTIVES: To estimate the incidence and prevalence of NMOSD in Catalonia (Spain), using both the 2006 and the 2015 criteria. METHODS: In this clinic-based retrospective study, patients diagnosed with NMOSD between 2006 and 2015 were identified using multiple sources, including direct contact to all Catalan hospitals, identification of cases through the Catalan Health Surveillance System, and registry of antibodies to aquaporin-4 (AQP4-IgG) and myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG-IgG) in a reference laboratory. The incidence rate was calculated for the period 1 January 2006-1 January 2016 and prevalence for the date 1 January 2016. RESULTS: We identified 74 patients (by the 2015 criteria). Most patients were Caucasian (81%), and female (76%) with a median age at disease onset of 42 years (range, 10-76 years). In total, 54 (73%) patients were positive for AQP4-IgG, 11 (15%) double-seronegative, and 9 (12%) MOG-IgG-positive. Rates of incidence and prevalence (0.63/1,000,000 person-years and 0.89/100,000, respectively) were 1.5-fold higher than those reported by the 2006 criteria. Lowest rates were seen in children and elder people and highest in women and middle-aged people (40-59 years). The female predominance was lost in incident AQP4-IgG-seronegative children and AQP4-IgG-positive elder people. MOG-IgG and double-seronegativity contributed similarly but did not influence the long-term outcome. CONCLUSION: The new criteria increase the estimates, but NMOSD remains as a rare disease. The differences in age- and sex-specific estimates highlight the importance of the serologic classification.

18.
Mol Genet Metab ; 122(3): 134-139, 2017 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28739201

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Aicardi Goutières Syndrome (AGS) is a heritable interferonopathy associated with systemic autoinflammation causing interferon (IFN) elevation, central nervous system calcifications, leukodystrophy and severe neurologic sequelae. An infant with TREX1 mutations was recently found to have abnormal C26:0 lysophosphatidylcholine (C26:0 Lyso-PC) in a newborn screening platform for X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy, prompting analysis of this analyte in retrospectively collected samples from individuals affected by AGS. METHODS: In this study, we explored C26:0 Lyso-PC levels and IFN signatures in newborn blood spots and post-natal blood samples in 19 children with a molecular and clinical diagnosis of AGS and in the blood spots of 22 healthy newborns. We used Nanostring nCounter™ for IFN-induced gene analysis and a high-performance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC MS/MS) newborn screening platform for C26:0 Lyso-PC analysis. RESULTS: Newborn screening cards from patients across six AGS associated genes were collected, with a median disease presentation of 2months. Thirteen out of 19 (68%) children with AGS had elevations of first tier C26:0 Lyso-PC (>0.4µM), that would have resulted in a second screen being performed in a two tier screening system for X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (X-ALD). The median (95%CI) of first tier C26:0 Lyso-PC values in AGS individuals (0.43µM [0.37-0.48]) was higher than that seen in controls (0.21µM [0.21-0.21]), but lower than X-ALD individuals (0.72µM [0.59-0.84])(p<0.001). Fourteen of 19 children had elevated expression of IFN signaling on blood cards relative to controls (Sensitivity 73.7%, 95%CI 51-88%, Specificity 95%, 95% CI 78-99%) including an individual with delayed disease presentation (36months of age). All five AGS patients with negative IFN signature at birth had RNASEH2B mutations. Consistency of agreement between IFN signature in neonatal and post-natal samples was high (0.85). CONCLUSION: This suggests that inflammatory markers in AGS can be identified in the newborn period, before symptom onset. Additionally, since C26:0 Lyso-PC screening is currently used in X-ALD newborn screening panels, clinicians should be alert to the fact that AGS infants may present as false positives during X-ALD screening.


Assuntos
Doenças Autoimunes do Sistema Nervoso/sangue , Doenças Autoimunes do Sistema Nervoso/diagnóstico , Interferons/sangue , Lisofosfatidilcolinas/sangue , Triagem Neonatal/métodos , Malformações do Sistema Nervoso/sangue , Malformações do Sistema Nervoso/diagnóstico , Doenças Autoimunes do Sistema Nervoso/genética , Doenças Autoimunes do Sistema Nervoso/fisiopatologia , Pré-Escolar , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Cromatografia Líquida , Teste em Amostras de Sangue Seco/métodos , Exodesoxirribonucleases/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Inflamação/sangue , Inflamação/genética , Interferons/genética , Masculino , Mutação , Malformações do Sistema Nervoso/genética , Malformações do Sistema Nervoso/fisiopatologia , Fosfoproteínas/genética , Estudos Retrospectivos , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Transcriptoma/imunologia
19.
Neurology ; 88(11): 1012-1020, 2017 Mar 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28202703

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To report the clinical features, comorbidities, receptor subunit targets, and outcome in patients with anti-GABAA receptor (GABAAR) encephalitis. METHODS: Clinical study of 26 patients, including 17 new (April 2013-January 2016) and 9 previously reported patients. Antibodies to α1, ß3, and γ2 subunits of the GABAAR were determined using reported techniques. RESULTS: Patients' median age was 40.5 years (interquartile range 48.5 [13.75-62.35] years; the youngest 2.5 months old; 13 female). Symptoms included seizures (88%), alteration of cognition (67%), behavior (46%), consciousness (42%), or abnormal movements (35%). Comorbidities were identified in 11 (42%) patients, including 7 tumors (mostly thymomas), 2 herpesvirus encephalitis (herpes simplex virus 1, human herpesvirus 6; coexisting with NMDAR antibodies), and 2 myasthenia without thymoma. Brain MRI was abnormal in 23 (88%) patients, showing in 20 (77%) multifocal, asynchronous, cortical-subcortical T2/fluid-attenuated inversion recovery abnormalities predominantly involving temporal (95%) and frontal (65%) lobes, but also basal ganglia and other regions. Immunologic or tumor therapy resulted in substantial improvement in 18/21 (86%) assessable patients; the other 3 (14%) died (2 status epilepticus, 1 sepsis). Compared with adults, children were more likely to have generalized seizures (p = 0.007) and movement disorders (p = 0.01) and less likely to have a tumor (p = 0.01). The main epitope targets were in the α1/ß3 subunits of the GABAAR. CONCLUSIONS: Anti-GABAAR encephalitis is characterized by frequent seizures and distinctive multifocal cortical-subcortical MRI abnormalities that provide an important clue to the diagnosis. The frequency of symptoms and comorbidities differ between children (more viral-related) and adults (more tumor-related). The disorder is severe but most patients respond to treatment.


Assuntos
Anticorpos/sangue , Anticorpos/líquido cefalorraquidiano , Encefalite/imunologia , Receptores de GABA-A/imunologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Animais , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Transtornos Cognitivos/etiologia , Estado de Consciência , Encefalite/metabolismo , Encefalite/terapia , Feminino , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Imunoterapia , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Transtornos dos Movimentos/etiologia , Ratos , Receptores de GABA-A/genética , Receptores de GABA-A/metabolismo , Estudos Retrospectivos , Convulsões/etiologia , Transfecção , Adulto Jovem
20.
J Child Neurol ; 32(2): 184-187, 2017 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28112050

RESUMO

Alexander disease is a leukodystrophy caused by dominant missense mutations in the gene encoding the glial fibrillary acidic protein. Individuals with this disorder often present with a typical neuroradiologic pattern including white matter abnormalities with brainstem involvement, selective contrast enhancement, and structural changes to the basal ganglia/thalamus. In rare cases, focal lesions have been seen and cause concern for primary malignancies. Here the authors present an infant initially diagnosed with a chiasmatic astrocytoma that was later identified as having glial fibrillary acidic protein mutation-confirmed Alexander disease. Pathologic and radiologic considerations that were helpful in arriving at the correct diagnosis are discussed.


Assuntos
Doença de Alexander/diagnóstico , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Doença de Alexander/tratamento farmacológico , Doença de Alexander/genética , Doença de Alexander/patologia , Encéfalo/patologia , Neoplasias Encefálicas/diagnóstico , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Proteína Glial Fibrilar Ácida/genética , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino
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