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1.
Blood ; 2019 Aug 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31420334

RESUMO

Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a significant contributor to morbidity and mortality. To advance our understanding of the biology contributing to VTE, we conducted a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of VTE and a transcriptome-wide association study (TWAS) based on imputed gene expression from whole blood and liver. We meta-analyzed GWAS data from 18 studies for 30,234 VTE cases and 172,122 controls and assessed the association between 12,923,718 genetic variants and VTE. We generated variant prediction scores of gene expression from whole blood and liver tissue and assessed them for association with VTE. Mendelian randomization analyses were conducted for traits genetically associated with novel VTE loci. We identified 34 independent genetic signals for VTE risk from GWAS meta-analysis of which 14 are newly reported associations. This included 11 newly associated genetic loci (C1orf198, PLEK, OSMR-AS1, NUGGC/SCARA5, GRK5, MPHOSPH9, ARID4A, PLCG2, SMG6, EIF5A, and STX10) of which 6 replicated, and 3 new, independent signals in 3 known genes. Further, TWAS identified 5 additional genetic loci with imputed gene expression levels differing between cases and controls in whole blood (SH2B3, SPSB1, RP11-747H7.3, RP4-737E23.2) and in liver (ERAP1). At some GWAS loci, we found suggestive evidence that the VTE association signal for both novel and previously known regions co-localized with eQTL signals. Mendelian randomization analyses suggested that blood traits may contribute to the underlying risk of VTE. To conclude, we identified 16 novel susceptibility loci for VTE; for some loci, the association signals are likely mediated through gene expression of nearby genes.

2.
J Psychiatr Res ; 117: 45-54, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31279243

RESUMO

Dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) and temporal pole (TP) are brain regions that display abnormalities in bipolar disorder (BD) patients. DNA methylation - an epigenetic mechanism both heritable and sensitive to the environment - may be involved in the pathophysiology of BD. To study BD-associated DNA methylomic differences in these brain regions, we extracted genomic DNA from the postmortem tissues of Brodmann Area (BA) 9 (DLPFC) and BA38 (TP) gray matter from 20 BD, ten major depression (MDD), and ten control age-and-sex-matched subjects. Genome-wide methylation levels were measured using the 850 K Illumina MethylationEPIC BeadChip. We detected striking differences between cortical regions, with greater numbers of between-brain-region differentially methylated positions (DMPs; i.e., CpG sites) in all groups, most pronounced in the BD group, and with substantial overlap across groups. The genes of DMPs common to both BD and MDD (hypothetically associated with their common features such as depression) and those distinct to BD (hypothetically associated with BD-specific features such as mania) were enriched in pathways involved in neurodevelopment including axon guidance. Pathways enriched only in the BD-MDD shared list pointed to GABAergic dysregulation, while those enriched in the BD-only list suggested glutamatergic dysregulation and greater impact on synaptogenesis and synaptic plasticity. We further detected group-specific between-brain-region gene expression differences in ODC1, CALY, GALNT2, and GABRD, which contained significant between-brain-region DMPs. In each brain region, no significant DMPs or differentially methylated regions (DMRs) were found between diagnostic groups. In summary, the methylation differences between DLPFC and TP may provide molecular targets for further investigations of genetic and environmental vulnerabilities associated with both unique and common features of various mood disorders and suggest directions of future development of individualized treatment strategies.

3.
Am J Hum Genet ; 104(1): 112-138, 2019 Jan 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30595373

RESUMO

Mitochondria (MT), the major site of cellular energy production, are under dual genetic control by 37 mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) genes and numerous nuclear genes (MT-nDNA). In the CHARGEmtDNA+ Consortium, we studied genetic associations of mtDNA and MT-nDNA associations with body mass index (BMI), waist-hip-ratio (WHR), glucose, insulin, HOMA-B, HOMA-IR, and HbA1c. This 45-cohort collaboration comprised 70,775 (insulin) to 170,202 (BMI) pan-ancestry individuals. Validation and imputation of mtDNA variants was followed by single-variant and gene-based association testing. We report two significant common variants, one in MT-ATP6 associated (p ≤ 5E-04) with WHR and one in the D-loop with glucose. Five rare variants in MT-ATP6, MT-ND5, and MT-ND6 associated with BMI, WHR, or insulin. Gene-based meta-analysis identified MT-ND3 associated with BMI (p ≤ 1E-03). We considered 2,282 MT-nDNA candidate gene associations compiled from online summary results for our traits (20 unique studies with 31 dataset consortia's genome-wide associations [GWASs]). Of these, 109 genes associated (p ≤ 1E-06) with at least 1 of our 7 traits. We assessed regulatory features of variants in the 109 genes, cis- and trans-gene expression regulation, and performed enrichment and protein-protein interactions analyses. Of the identified mtDNA and MT-nDNA genes, 79 associated with adipose measures, 49 with glucose/insulin, 13 with risk for type 2 diabetes, and 18 with cardiovascular disease, indicating for pleiotropic effects with health implications. Additionally, 21 genes related to cholesterol, suggesting additional important roles for the genes identified. Our results suggest that mtDNA and MT-nDNA genes and variants reported make important contributions to glucose and insulin metabolism, adipocyte regulation, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease.

4.
Hum Mol Genet ; 28(8): 1331-1342, 2019 04 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30576442

RESUMO

X chromosome inactivation (XCI) is a key epigenetic gene expression regulatory process, which may play a role in women's cancer. In particular tissues, some genes are known to escape XCI, yet patterns of XCI in ovarian cancer (OC) and their clinical associations are largely unknown. To examine XCI in OC, we integrated germline genotype with tumor copy number, gene expression and DNA methylation information from 99 OC patients. Approximately 10% of genes showed different XCI status (either escaping or being subject to XCI) compared with the studies of other tissues. Many of these genes are known oncogenes or tumor suppressors (e.g. DDX3X, TRAPPC2 and TCEANC). We also observed strong association between cis promoter DNA methylation and allele-specific expression imbalance (P = 2.0 × 10-10). Cluster analyses of the integrated data identified two molecular subgroups of OC patients representing those with regulated (N = 47) and dysregulated (N = 52) XCI. This XCI cluster membership was associated with expression of X inactive specific transcript (P = 0.002), a known driver of XCI, as well as age, grade, stage, tumor histology and extent of residual disease following surgical debulking. Patients with dysregulated XCI (N = 52) had shorter time to recurrence (HR = 2.34, P = 0.001) and overall survival time (HR = 1.87, P = 0.02) than those with regulated XCI, although results were attenuated after covariate adjustment. Similar findings were observed when restricted to high-grade serous tumors. We found evidence of a unique OC XCI profile, suggesting that XCI may play an important role in OC biology. Additional studies to examine somatic changes with paired tumor-normal tissue are needed.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Epitelial do Ovário/genética , Genes Ligados ao Cromossomo X/genética , Inativação do Cromossomo X/fisiologia , Idoso , Alelos , Carcinoma Epitelial do Ovário/metabolismo , Cromossomos Humanos X/genética , Análise por Conglomerados , Metilação de DNA/genética , Epigênese Genética/genética , Feminino , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/genética , Frequência do Gene/genética , Estudos de Associação Genética/métodos , Genótipo , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias Ovarianas/genética , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas/genética , RNA Longo não Codificante , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Inativação do Cromossomo X/genética
5.
J Pathol Clin Res ; 4(4): 250-261, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30062862

RESUMO

We aimed to validate the prognostic association of p16 expression in ovarian high-grade serous carcinomas (HGSC) and to explore it in other ovarian carcinoma histotypes. p16 protein expression was assessed by clinical-grade immunohistochemistry in 6525 ovarian carcinomas including 4334 HGSC using tissue microarrays from 24 studies participating in the Ovarian Tumor Tissue Analysis consortium. p16 expression patterns were interpreted as abnormal (either overexpression referred to as block expression or absence) or normal (heterogeneous). CDKN2A (which encodes p16) mRNA expression was also analyzed in a subset (n = 2280) mostly representing HGSC (n = 2010). Association of p16 expression with overall survival (OS) was determined within histotypes as was CDKN2A expression for HGSC only. p16 block expression was most frequent in HGSC (56%) but neither protein nor mRNA expression was associated with OS. However, relative to heterogeneous expression, block expression was associated with shorter OS in endometriosis-associated carcinomas, clear cell [hazard ratio (HR): 2.02, 95% confidence (CI) 1.47-2.77, p < 0.001] and endometrioid (HR: 1.88, 95% CI 1.30-2.75, p = 0.004), while absence was associated with shorter OS in low-grade serous carcinomas (HR: 2.95, 95% CI 1.61-5.38, p = 0.001). Absence was most frequent in mucinous carcinoma (50%), and was not associated with OS in this histotype. The prognostic value of p16 expression is histotype-specific and pattern dependent. We provide definitive evidence against an association of p16 expression with survival in ovarian HGSC as previously suggested. Block expression of p16 in clear cell and endometrioid carcinoma should be further validated as a prognostic marker, and absence in low-grade serous carcinoma justifies CDK4 inhibition.

6.
Mol Neuropsychiatry ; 3(3): 125-134, 2018 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29594131

RESUMO

Mitochondrial DNA mutations have been reported to be associated with bipolar disorder (BD). In this study, we performed genome-wide analyses to assess mitochondrial single-nucleotide polymorphism (mtSNP) effects on BD risk and early-onset BD (EOBD) among BD patients, focusing on interaction effects between nuclear SNPs (nSNPs) and mtSNPs. Common nSNP and mtSNP data from European American BD cases (n = 1,001) and controls (n = 1,034) from the Genetic Association Information Network BD study were analyzed to assess the joint effect of nSNP and nSNP-mtSNP interaction on the risk of BD and EOBD. The effect of nSNP-mtSNP interactions was also assessed. For BD risk, the strongest evidence of an association was obtained for nSNP rs1880924 in MGAM and mtSNP rs3088309 in CytB (pjoint = 8.2 × 10-8, pint = 1.4 × 10-4). Our results also suggest that the minor allele of the nSNP rs583990 in CTNNA2 increases the risk of EOBD among carriers of the mtSNP rs3088309 minor allele, while the nSNP has no effect among those carrying the mtSNP major allele (OR = 4.53 vs. 1.05, pjoint = 2.1 × 10-7, pint = 1.16 × 10-6). While our results are not statistically significant after multiple testing correction and a large-sample replication is required, our exploratory study demonstrates the potential importance of considering the mitochondrial genome for identifying genetic factors associated with BD.

7.
Cancer Inform ; 17: 1176935118755341, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29434467

RESUMO

High-grade serous ovarian cancer (HGSOC) is a complex disease in which initiation and progression have been associated with copy number alterations, epigenetic processes, and, to a lesser extent, germline variation. We hypothesized that, when summarized at the gene level, tumor methylation and germline genetic variation, alone or in combination, influence tumor gene expression in HGSOC. We used Elastic Net (ENET) penalized regression method to evaluate these associations and adjust for somatic copy number in 3 independent data sets comprising tumors from more than 470 patients. Penalized regression models of germline variation, with or without methylation, did not reveal a role in HGSOC gene expression. However, we observed significant association between regional methylation and expression of 5 genes (WDPCP, KRT6C, BRCA2, EFCAB13, and ZNF283). CpGs retained in ENET model for BRCA2 and ZNF283 appeared enriched in several regulatory elements, suggesting that regularized regression may provide a novel utility for integrative genomic analysis.

8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29036934

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Certain diseases can occur with and without a trigger. We use Venous Thromboembolism (VTE) as our example to identify genetic interaction with pregnancy in women with VTE during pre- or postpartum. Pregnancy is one of the major risk factors for VTE as it accounts for 10% of maternal deaths. METHODS: We performed a whole genome association analysis using the Cox Proportional Hazard (CoxPH) model adjusted for covariates to identify genetic variants associated with the time-to-event of VTE related to pre- or postpartum during the childbearing age of 18-45 years using a case-only design in a cohort of women with VTE. Women with a VTE event after 45 years of age were censored and contributed only follow-up time. RESULTS: We identified two intragenic single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) at genome-wide significance in the PURB gene located on chromosome 7, and two additional intragenic SNPs, one in the LINGO2 gene on chromosome 9 and one in RDXP2 on chromosome X. CONCLUSIONS: We showed that the time-to-event model is a useful approach for identifying potential hazard-modification of the genetic variants when the event of interest (VTE) occurs due to a risk factor (pre- or post-partum).


Assuntos
Complicações Cardiovasculares na Gravidez/genética , Tromboembolia Venosa/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Período Pós-Parto/genética , Gravidez/genética , Complicações Cardiovasculares na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Fatores de Risco , Tromboembolia Venosa/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
9.
Clin Cancer Res ; 23(15): 4077-4085, 2017 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28280090

RESUMO

Purpose: Here we assess whether molecular subtyping identifies biological features of tumors that correlate with survival and surgical outcomes of high-grade serous ovarian cancer (HGSOC).Experimental Design: Consensus clustering of pooled mRNA expression data from over 2,000 HGSOC cases was used to define molecular subtypes of HGSOCs. This de novo classification scheme was then applied to 381 Mayo Clinic HGSOC patients with detailed survival and surgical outcome information.Results: Five molecular subtypes of HGSOC were identified. In the pooled dataset, three subtypes were largely concordant with prior studies describing proliferative, mesenchymal, and immunoreactive tumors (concordance > 70%), and the group of tumors previously described as differentiated type was segregated into two new types, one of which (anti-mesenchymal) had downregulation of genes that were typically upregulated in the mesenchymal subtype. Molecular subtypes were significantly associated with overall survival (P < 0.001) and with rate of optimal surgical debulking (≤1 cm, P = 1.9E-4) in the pooled dataset. Among stage III-C or IV Mayo Clinic patients, molecular subtypes were also significantly associated with overall survival (P = 0.001), as well as rate of complete surgical debulking (no residual disease; 16% in mesenchymal tumors compared with >28% in other subtypes; P = 0.02).Conclusions: HGSOC tumors may be categorized into five molecular subtypes that associate with overall survival and the extent of residual disease following debulking surgery. Because mesenchymal tumors may have features that were associated with less favorable surgical outcome, molecular subtyping may have future utility in guiding neoadjuvant treatment decisions for women with HGSOC. Clin Cancer Res; 23(15); 4077-85. ©2017 AACR.


Assuntos
Cistadenocarcinoma Seroso/patologia , Proteínas de Neoplasias/genética , Neoplasia Residual/patologia , Neoplasias Ovarianas/patologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Cistadenocarcinoma Seroso/tratamento farmacológico , Cistadenocarcinoma Seroso/genética , Cistadenocarcinoma Seroso/cirurgia , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Feminino , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Terapia Neoadjuvante , Gradação de Tumores , Neoplasia Residual/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasia Residual/genética , Neoplasia Residual/cirurgia , Neoplasias Ovarianas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Ovarianas/genética , Neoplasias Ovarianas/cirurgia , Prognóstico , Resultado do Tratamento
10.
Thromb Haemost ; 117(4): 758-768, 2017 04 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28203683

RESUMO

To identify novel single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with venous thromboembolism (VTE) in African-Americans (AAs), we performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of VTE in AAs using the Electronic Medical Records and Genomics (eMERGE) Network, comprised of seven sites each with DNA biobanks (total ~39,200 unique DNA samples) with genome-wide SNP data (imputed to 1000 Genomes Project cosmopolitan reference panel) and linked to electronic health records (EHRs). Using a validated EHR-driven phenotype extraction algorithm, we identified VTE cases and controls and tested for an association between each SNP and VTE using unconditional logistic regression, adjusted for age, sex, stroke, site-platform combination and sickle cell risk genotype. Among 393 AA VTE cases and 4,941 AA controls, three intragenic SNPs reached genome-wide significance: LEMD3 rs138916004 (OR=3.2; p=1.3E-08), LY86 rs3804476 (OR=1.8; p=2E-08) and LOC100130298 rs142143628 (OR=4.5; p=4.4E-08); all three SNPs validated using internal cross-validation, parametric bootstrap and meta-analysis methods. LEMD3 rs138916004 and LOC100130298 rs142143628 are only present in Africans (1000G data). LEMD3 showed a significant differential expression in both NCBI Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) and the Mayo Clinic gene expression data, LOC100130298 showed a significant differential expression only in the GEO expression data, and LY86 showed a significant differential expression only in the Mayo expression data. LEMD3 encodes for an antagonist of TGF-ß-induced cell proliferation arrest. LY86 encodes for MD-1 which down-regulates the pro-inflammatory response to lipopolysaccharide; LY86 variation was previously associated with VTE in white women; LOC100130298 is a non-coding RNA gene with unknown regulatory activity in gene expression and epigenetics.


Assuntos
Afro-Americanos/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Tromboembolia Venosa/etnologia , Tromboembolia Venosa/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Bancos de Espécimes Biológicos , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Bases de Dados Genéticas , Registros Eletrônicos de Saúde , Feminino , Estudos de Associação Genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Razão de Chances , Fenótipo , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Sexuais , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Tromboembolia Venosa/diagnóstico
11.
Parkinsonism Relat Disord ; 32: 25-30, 2016 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27545685

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Genetic factors and environmental exposures, including pesticides, contribute to the risk of Parkinson's disease (PD). There have been few studies of gene and pesticide exposure interactions in PD, and all of the prior studies used a candidate gene approach. METHODS: We performed the first genome-wide gene-environment interaction analysis of pesticide exposure and risk of Parkinson's disease. Analyses were performed using data on >700,000 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 364 discordant sibling pairs. In addition to testing for SNP-pesticide interaction effects, we also performed exploratory analyses of gene-pesticide interactions at the gene level. RESULTS: None of the gene-environment interaction results were significant after genome-wide correction for multiple testing (α = 1.5E-07 for SNP-level tests; α = 2.1E-06 for gene-level tests). Top results in the SNP-level tests provided suggestive evidence (P < 5.0E-06) that the effect of pesticide exposure on PD risk may be modified by SNPs in the ERCC6L2 gene (P = 2.4E-06), which was also supported by suggestive evidence in the gene-level analysis (P = 4.7E-05). None of the candidate genes assessed in prior studies of gene-pesticide interactions reached statistical support in this genome-wide screen. CONCLUSION: Although no significant interactions were identified, several of the genes with suggestive evidence of gene-environment interaction effects have biological plausibility for PD risk. Further investigation of the role of those genes in PD risk, particularly in the context of pesticide exposure, in large and carefully recruited samples is warranted.


Assuntos
Interação Gene-Ambiente , Variação Genética/genética , Doença de Parkinson/etiologia , Doença de Parkinson/genética , Praguicidas/toxicidade , Idoso , DNA Helicases/genética , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Genótipo , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco
12.
BMJ Open ; 6(7): e011564, 2016 07 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27449892

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Socioeconomic status (SES) is a well-established risk factor for many health outcomes. Recently, we developed an SES measure based on 4 housing-related characteristics (termed HOUSES) and demonstrated its ability to assess health disparities. In this study, we aimed to evaluate whether fewer housing-related characteristics could be used to provide a similar representation of SES. STUDY SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: We performed a cross-sectional study using parents/guardians of children aged 1-17 years from 2 US Midwestern counties (n=728 in Olmsted County, Minnesota, and n=701 in Jackson County, Missouri). PRIMARY AND SECONDARY OUTCOME MEASURES: For each participant, housing-related characteristics used in the formulation of HOUSES (assessed housing value, square footage, number of bedrooms and number of bathrooms) were obtained from the local government assessor's offices, and additional SES measures and health outcomes with known associations to SES (obesity, low birth weight and smoking exposure) were collected from a telephone survey. Housing characteristics with the greatest contribution for predicting the health outcomes were added to formulate a modified HOUSES index. RESULTS: Among the 4 housing characteristics used in the original HOUSES, the strongest contributions for predicting health outcomes were observed from assessed housing value and square footage (combined contribution ranged between 89% and 96%). Based on this observation, these 2 were used to calculate a modified HOUSES index. Correlation between modified HOUSES and other SES measures was comparable to the original HOUSES for both locations. Consistent with the original HOUSES formula, the strongest association with modified HOUSES was observed with smoking exposure (OR=0.24 with 95% CI 0.11 to 0.49 for comparing participants in highest HOUSES vs lowest group; overall p<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: The modified HOUSES requires only 2 readily available housing characteristics thereby improving the feasibility of using this index as a proxy for SES in multiple communities, especially in the US Midwestern region.


Assuntos
Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Habitação/estatística & dados numéricos , Avaliação de Resultados (Cuidados de Saúde)/métodos , Classe Social , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Minnesota/epidemiologia , Missouri/epidemiologia , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Pais , Fatores de Risco , Fumar/epidemiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários
13.
Br J Cancer ; 114(12): 1412-20, 2016 06 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27253175

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The mechanisms of recurrence have been under-studied in rare histologies of invasive epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) (endometrioid, clear cell, mucinous, and low-grade serous). We hypothesised the existence of an expression signature predictive of outcome in the rarer histologies. METHODS: In split discovery and validation analysis of 131 Mayo Clinic EOC cases, we used clustering to determine clinically relevant transcriptome classes using microarray gene expression measurements. The signature was validated in 967 EOC tumours (91 rare histological subtypes) with recurrence information. RESULTS: We found two validated transcriptome classes associated with progression-free survival (PFS) in the Mayo Clinic EOC cases (P=8.24 × 10(-3)). This signature was further validated in the public expression data sets involving the rare EOC histologies, where these two classes were also predictive of PFS (P=1.43 × 10(-3)). In contrast, the signatures were not predictive of PFS in the high-grade serous EOC cases. Moreover, genes upregulated in Class-1 (with better outcome) were showed enrichment in steroid hormone biosynthesis (false discovery rate, FDR=0.005%) and WNT signalling pathway (FDR=1.46%); genes upregulated in Class-2 were enriched in cell cycle (FDR=0.86%) and toll-like receptor pathways (FDR=2.37%). CONCLUSIONS: These findings provide important biological insights into the rarer EOC histologies that may aid in the development of targeted treatment options for the rarer histologies.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Epiteliais e Glandulares/genética , Neoplasias Ovarianas/genética , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Carcinoma Epitelial do Ovário , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias Epiteliais e Glandulares/patologia , Neoplasias Ovarianas/patologia , Transcriptoma
14.
Nat Genet ; 47(10): 1121-1130, 2015 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26343387

RESUMO

Existing knowledge of genetic variants affecting risk of coronary artery disease (CAD) is largely based on genome-wide association study (GWAS) analysis of common SNPs. Leveraging phased haplotypes from the 1000 Genomes Project, we report a GWAS meta-analysis of ∼185,000 CAD cases and controls, interrogating 6.7 million common (minor allele frequency (MAF) > 0.05) and 2.7 million low-frequency (0.005 < MAF < 0.05) variants. In addition to confirming most known CAD-associated loci, we identified ten new loci (eight additive and two recessive) that contain candidate causal genes newly implicating biological processes in vessel walls. We observed intralocus allelic heterogeneity but little evidence of low-frequency variants with larger effects and no evidence of synthetic association. Our analysis provides a comprehensive survey of the fine genetic architecture of CAD, showing that genetic susceptibility to this common disease is largely determined by common SNPs of small effect size.


Assuntos
Doença da Artéria Coronariana/genética , Genoma Humano , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Fenótipo
15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26306225

RESUMO

Metformin is a first-line antihyperglycemic agent commonly prescribed in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), but whose pharmacogenomics are not clearly understood. Further, due to accumulating evidence highlighting the potential for metformin in cancer prevention and treatment efforts it is imperative to understand molecular mechanisms of metformin. In this electronic health record(EHR)-based study we explore the potential association of the flavin-containing monooxygenase(FMO)-5 gene, a biologically plausible biotransformer of metformin, and modifying glycemic response to metformin treatment. Using a cohort of 258 T2DM patients who had new metformin exposure, existing genetic data, and longitudinal electronic health records, we compared genetic variation within FMO5 to change in glycemic response. Gene-level and SNP-level analysis identified marginally significant associations for FMO5 variation, representing an EHR-driven pharmacogenetics hypothesis for a potential novel mechanism for metformin biotransformation. However, functional validation of this EHR-based hypothesis is necessary to ascertain its clinical and biological significance.

16.
Stud Health Technol Inform ; 210: 914-8, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25991289

RESUMO

Metformin is a commonly prescribed diabetes medication whose mechanism of action is poorly understood. In this study we utilized EHR-linked biobank data to elucidate the impact of genomic variation on glycemic response to metformin. Our study found significant gene- and SNP-level associations within the beta-2 subunit of the heterotrimeric adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase complex. Using EHR phenotypes where were able to add additional clarity to ongoing metformin pharmacogenomic dialogue.


Assuntos
Bancos de Espécimes Biológicos/organização & administração , Diabetes Mellitus/tratamento farmacológico , Diabetes Mellitus/genética , Registros Eletrônicos de Saúde/organização & administração , Metformina/uso terapêutico , Farmacogenética/organização & administração , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Humanos , Hipoglicemiantes/uso terapêutico , Armazenamento e Recuperação da Informação/métodos , Registro Médico Coordenado/métodos , Minnesota , Farmacogenética/métodos , Resultado do Tratamento
17.
Front Genet ; 5: 352, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25414722

RESUMO

Combining samples across multiple cohorts in large-scale scientific research programs is often required to achieve the necessary power for genome-wide association studies. Controlling for genomic ancestry through principal component analysis (PCA) to address the effect of population stratification is a common practice. In addition to local genomic variation, such as copy number variation and inversions, other factors directly related to combining multiple studies, such as platform and site recruitment bias, can drive the correlation patterns in PCA. In this report, we describe the combination and analysis of multi-ethnic cohort with biobanks linked to electronic health records for large-scale genomic association discovery analyses. First, we outline the observed site and platform bias, in addition to ancestry differences. Second, we outline a general protocol for selecting variants for input into the subject variance-covariance matrix, the conventional PCA approach. Finally, we introduce an alternative approach to PCA by deriving components from subject loadings calculated from a reference sample. This alternative approach of generating principal components controlled for site and platform bias, in addition to ancestry differences, has the advantage of fewer covariates and degrees of freedom.

18.
Genet Epidemiol ; 38(5): 457-66, 2014 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24853948

RESUMO

Due to its potential as a biomarker for early cancer detection, blood-based DNA methylation (DNAm) is of interest in cancer research. Specifically, highly predictive mechanisms for early detection of epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) are desired, so previous studies have compared DNAm between EOC cases and controls. However, case-control studies are confounded by the distribution of white blood cell types through an immune response induced by the cancer. Rather than determining the distribution of the cell types manually or investigating isolated cell types, an alternative approach involves the use of complete blood count (CBC), which is routinely collected. In the analysis of an EOC case-control study of DNAm, we incorporate CBC measures to adjust for this confounding and compare DNAm between 242 EOC cases and 181 age-matched controls (assayed on the Illumina Infinium HumanMethylation27 or HumanMethylation450 Beadchips), at both the individual CpG and CpG island levels. We found that adjustment for leukocyte distribution using CBC measurements dramatically reduced confounding, with 62 single CpG sites found to be associated with EOC status after adjustment (P < 5E-8). Additionally, regional DNAm was assessed by applying principal components analysis to CpG islands. The top associated CpG island (P = 7E-6) was located in the promoter/transcription start site of the human basonuclin 2 gene (BNC2), a known susceptibility gene for EOC risk identified through GWAS. Follow-up studies are necessary to establish the role of BNC2 in blood-based DNA and EOC, including prospective studies to validate this region as a potential biomarker and predictor of EOC susceptibility.


Assuntos
Ilhas de CpG/genética , Metilação de DNA/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Genoma Humano/genética , Neoplasias Epiteliais e Glandulares/genética , Neoplasias Ovarianas/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Contagem de Células Sanguíneas , Carcinoma Epitelial do Ovário , Estudos de Casos e Controles , DNA/genética , DNA/metabolismo , Epigênese Genética , Feminino , Humanos , Idade Materna , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neutrófilos/citologia , Especificidade de Órgãos , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas/genética , Sítio de Iniciação de Transcrição , Adulto Jovem
19.
Cancer Res ; 74(11): 3084-91, 2014 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24728075

RESUMO

To reveal biologic mechanisms underlying clinical outcome of high-grade serous (HGS) epithelial ovarian carcinomas (EOC), we evaluated the association between tumor epigenetic changes and time to recurrence (TTR). We assessed methylation at approximately 450,000 genome-wide CpGs in tumors of 337 Mayo Clinic (Rochester, MN) patients. Semi-supervised clustering of discovery (n=168) and validation (n=169) sets was used to determine clinically relevant methylation classes. Clustering identified two methylation classes based on 60 informative CpGs, which differed in TTR in the validation set [R vs. L class, P=2.9×10(-3), HR=0.52; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.34-0.80]. Follow-up analyses considered genome-wide tumor mRNA expression (n=104) and CD8 T-cell infiltration (n=89) in patient subsets. Hypomethylation of CpGs located in 6p21.3 in the R class associated with cis upregulation of genes enriched in immune response processes (TAP1, PSMB8, PSMB9, HLA-DQB1, HLA-DQB2, HLA-DMA, and HLA-DOA), increased CD8 T-cell tumor infiltration (P=7.6×10(-5)), and trans-regulation of genes in immune-related pathways (P=1.6×10(-32)). This is the most comprehensive assessment of clinical outcomes with regard to epithelial ovarian carcinoma tumor methylation to date. Collectively, these results suggest that an epigenetically mediated immune response is a predictor of recurrence and, possibly, treatment response for HGS EOC.


Assuntos
Cromossomos Humanos Par 6 , Metilação de DNA , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/genética , Neoplasias Epiteliais e Glandulares/genética , Neoplasias Ovarianas/genética , Adulto , Carcinoma Epitelial do Ovário , Ilhas de CpG , Feminino , Humanos , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/imunologia , Neoplasias Epiteliais e Glandulares/imunologia , Neoplasias Ovarianas/imunologia , Regulação para Cima , Adulto Jovem
20.
BMC Med Genomics ; 7: 21, 2014 Apr 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24774302

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Genome-wide interrogation of DNA methylation (DNAm) in blood-derived leukocytes has become feasible with the advent of CpG genotyping arrays. In epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC), one report found substantial DNAm differences between cases and controls; however, many of these disease-associated CpGs were attributed to differences in white blood cell type distributions. METHODS: We examined blood-based DNAm in 336 EOC cases and 398 controls; we included only high-quality CpG loci that did not show evidence of association with white blood cell type distributions to evaluate association with case status and overall survival. RESULTS: Of 13,816 CpGs, no significant associations were observed with survival, although eight CpGs associated with survival at p < 10-3, including methylation within a CpG island located in the promoter region of GABRE (p = 5.38 x 10-5, HR = 0.95). In contrast, 53 CpG methylation sites were significantly associated with EOC risk (p <5 x10-6). The top association was observed for the methylation probe cg04834572 located approximately 315 kb upstream of DUSP13 (p = 1.6 x10-14). Other disease-associated CpGs included those near or within HHIP (cg14580567; p =5.6x10-11), HDAC3 (cg10414058; p = 6.3x10-12), and SCR (cg05498681; p = 4.8x10-7). CONCLUSIONS: We have identified several CpGs in leukocytes that are differentially methylated by case-control status. Since a retrospective study design was used, we cannot differentiate whether DNAm was etiologic or resulting from EOC; thus, prospective studies of EOC-associated loci are the critical next step.


Assuntos
Metilação de DNA/genética , Leucócitos/metabolismo , Neoplasias Epiteliais e Glandulares/genética , Neoplasias Epiteliais e Glandulares/patologia , Neoplasias Ovarianas/genética , Neoplasias Ovarianas/patologia , Carcinoma Epitelial do Ovário , Ilhas de CpG/genética , Feminino , Genoma Humano/genética , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise de Componente Principal , Análise de Sobrevida , Resultado do Tratamento
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