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2.
Cancer Res ; 79(8): 2065-2071, 2019 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30709929

RESUMO

Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have so far identified 25 loci associated with glioma risk, with most showing specificity for either glioblastoma (GBM) or non-GBM tumors. The majority of these GWAS susceptibility variants reside in noncoding regions and the causal genes underlying the associations are largely unknown. Here we performed a transcriptome-wide association study to search for novel risk loci and candidate causal genes at known GWAS loci using Genotype-Tissue Expression Project (GTEx) data to predict cis-predicted gene expression in relation to GBM and non-GBM risk in conjunction with GWAS summary statistics on 12,488 glioma cases (6,183 GBM and 5,820 non-GBM) and 18,169 controls. Imposing a Bonferroni-corrected significance level of P < 5.69 × 10-6, we identified 31 genes, including GALNT6 at 12q13.33, as a candidate novel risk locus for GBM (mean Z = 4.43; P = 5.68 × 10-6). GALNT6 resides at least 55 Mb away from any previously identified glioma risk variant, while all other 30 significantly associated genes were located within 1 Mb of known GWAS-identified loci and were not significant after conditioning on the known GWAS-identified variants. These data identify a novel locus (GALNT6 at 12q13.33) and 30 genes at 12 known glioma risk loci associated with glioma risk, providing further insights into glioma tumorigenesis. SIGNIFICANCE: This study identifies new genes associated with glioma risk, increasing understanding of how these tumors develop.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30482874

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There have been few studies of sufficient size to address the relationship between glioma risk and the use of aspirin or non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), and results have been conflicting. The purpose of this study was to examine the associations between glioma and aspirin/NSAID use, and to aggregate these findings with prior published studies using meta-analysis. METHODS: The Glioma International Case-Control Study (GICC) consists of 4,533 glioma cases and 4,171 controls recruited from 2010-2013. Interviews were conducted using a standardized questionnaire to obtain information on aspirin/NSAID use. We examined history of regular use for >=6 months and duration-response. Restricted maximum likelihood meta-regression models were used to aggregate site-specific estimates, and to combine GICC estimates with previously published studies. RESULTS: A history of daily aspirin use for >=6 months was associated with a 38% lower glioma risk, compared to not having a history of daily use (adjusted meta-OR=0.62, 95% CI=0.54-0.70). There was a significant duration-response trend (p=1.67x10-17), with lower ORs for increasing duration of aspirin use. Duration-response trends were not observed for NSAID use. In the meta-analysis aggregating GICC data with five previous studies, there was a marginally significant association between use of aspirin and glioma (mOR=0.84, 95% CI=0.70-1.02), but no association for NSAID use. CONCLUSION: Our study suggests that aspirin may be associated with a reduced risk of glioma. IMPACT: These results imply that aspirin use may be associated with decreased glioma risk. Further research examining the association between aspirin use and glioma risk is warranted.

4.
Neuro Oncol ; 20(12): 1625-1633, 2018 Nov 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30165405

RESUMO

Background: The genomic characterization of sporadically arising gliomas has delineated molecularly and clinically distinct subclasses of disease. However, less is known about the molecular nature of gliomas that are familial in origin. We performed molecular subtyping of 163 tumor specimens from individuals with a family history of glioma and integrated germline and somatic genomic data to characterize the pathogenesis of 20 tumors in additional detail. Methods: Immunohistochemical analyses were performed on formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tumor sections to determine molecular subtypes of glioma. For 20 cases, tumor DNA was exome sequenced on an Illumina HiSeq 2000 platform and copy number profiling was performed on the Illumina HumanOmniExpress BeadChip. Genotypes at glioma risk polymorphisms were determined from germline DNA profiled on the Illumina Infinium OncoArray and deleterious germline mutations were identified from germline sequencing data. Results: All 3 molecular subtypes of sporadic glioma were represented in the overall case series, including molecular glioblastoma (n = 102), oligodendroglioma (n = 21), and astrocytoma (n = 20). Detailed profiling of 20 of these cases showed characteristic subtype-specific alterations at frequencies comparable to sporadic glioma cases. All 20 cases had alterations in genes regulating telomere length. Frequencies of common glioma risk alleles were similar to those among sporadic cases, and correlations between risk alleles and same-gene somatic mutations were not observed. Conclusions: This study illustrates that the molecular characteristics of familial tumors profiled largely recapitulate what is known about sporadic glioma and that both germline and somatic molecular features target common core pathways involved in gliomagenesis. Key Points: 1. Familial and sporadic gliomas display highly comparable molecular landscapes. 2. Germline and somatic molecular events target common core pathways involved in gliomagenesis. 3. Carriage of germline glioma risk variants is not associated with somatic events in the same gene.

5.
J Neurol ; 265(6): 1432-1442, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29687214

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the distribution of glioma-related seizures and seizure control at the time of tumor diagnosis with respect to tumor histologic subtypes, tumor treatment and patient characteristics, and to compare seizure history preceding tumor diagnosis (or study enrollment) between glioma patients and healthy controls. METHODS: The Glioma International Case Control study (GICC) risk factor questionnaire collected information on demographics, past medical/medication history, and occupational history. Cases from eight centers were also asked detailed questions on seizures in relation to glioma diagnosis; cases (n = 4533) and controls (n = 4171) were also asked about seizures less than 2 years from diagnosis and previous seizure history more than 2 years prior to tumor diagnosis, including childhood seizures. RESULTS: Low-grade gliomas (LGGs), particularly oligodendrogliomas/oligoastrocytomas, had the highest proportion of glioma-related seizures. Patients with low-grade astrocytoma demonstrated the most medically refractory seizures. A total of 83% of patients were using only one antiepileptic drug (AED), which was levetiracetam in 71% of cases. Gross total resection was strongly associated with reduced seizure frequency (p < 0.009). No significant difference was found between glioma cases and controls in terms of seizure occurring more than 2 years before diagnosis or during childhood. CONCLUSIONS: Our study showed that glioma-related seizures were most common in low-grade gliomas. Gross total resection was associated with lower seizure frequency. Additionally, having a history of childhood seizures is not a risk factor ***for developing glioma-related seizures or glioma.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Encefálicas/complicações , Neoplasias Encefálicas/patologia , Glioma/complicações , Glioma/patologia , Convulsões/etiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Neoplasias Encefálicas/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Encefálicas/fisiopatologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Glioma/epidemiologia , Glioma/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Internacionalidade , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Gradação de Tumores , Estudos Retrospectivos , Convulsões/epidemiologia , Convulsões/patologia , Convulsões/fisiopatologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
6.
Br J Cancer ; 118(7): 1020-1027, 2018 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29531326

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Obesity and related factors have been implicated as possible aetiological factors for the development of glioma in epidemiological observation studies. We used genetic markers in a Mendelian randomisation framework to examine whether obesity-related traits influence glioma risk. This methodology reduces bias from confounding and is not affected by reverse causation. METHODS: Genetic instruments were identified for 10 key obesity-related risk factors, and their association with glioma risk was evaluated using data from a genome-wide association study of 12,488 glioma patients and 18,169 controls. The estimated odds ratio of glioma associated with each of the genetically defined obesity-related traits was used to infer evidence for a causal relationship. RESULTS: No convincing association with glioma risk was seen for genetic instruments for body mass index, waist-to-hip ratio, lipids, type-2 diabetes, hyperglycaemia or insulin resistance. Similarly, we found no evidence to support a relationship between obesity-related traits with subtypes of glioma-glioblastoma (GBM) or non-GBM tumours. CONCLUSIONS: This study provides no evidence to implicate obesity-related factors as causes of glioma.

7.
BMC Med ; 16(1): 42, 2018 03 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29540232

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: An inverse relationship between allergies with glioma risk has been reported in several but not all epidemiological observational studies. We performed an analysis of genetic variants associated with atopy to assess the relationship with glioma risk using Mendelian randomisation (MR), an approach unaffected by biases from temporal variability and reverse causation that might have affected earlier investigations. METHODS: Two-sample MR was undertaken using genome-wide association study data. We used single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with atopic dermatitis, asthma and hay fever, IgE levels, and self-reported allergy as instrumental variables. We calculated MR estimates for the odds ratio (OR) for each risk factor with glioma using SNP-glioma estimates from 12,488 cases and 18,169 controls, using inverse-variance weighting (IVW), maximum likelihood estimation (MLE), weighted median estimate (WME) and mode-based estimate (MBE) methods. Violation of MR assumptions due to directional pleiotropy were sought using MR-Egger regression and HEIDI-outlier analysis. RESULTS: Under IVW, MLE, WME and MBE methods, associations between glioma risk with asthma and hay fever, self-reported allergy and IgE levels were non-significant. An inverse relationship between atopic dermatitis and glioma risk was found by IVW (OR 0.96, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.93-1.00, P = 0.041) and MLE (OR 0.96, 95% CI 0.94-0.99, P = 0.003), but not by WME (OR 0.96, 95% CI 0.91-1.01, P = 0.114) or MBE (OR 0.97, 95% CI 0.92-1.02, P = 0.194). CONCLUSIONS: Our investigation does not provide strong evidence for relationship between atopy and the risk of developing glioma, but findings do not preclude a small effect in relation to atopic dermatitis. Our analysis also serves to illustrate the value of using several MR methods to derive robust conclusions.


Assuntos
Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Glioma/etiologia , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana/métodos , Genótipo , Glioma/patologia , Humanos , Fatores de Risco
8.
Sci Rep ; 8(1): 2339, 2018 02 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29402980

RESUMO

To examine for a causal relationship between vitamin D and glioma risk we performed an analysis of genetic variants associated with serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) levels using Mendelian randomisation (MR), an approach unaffected by biases from confounding. Two-sample MR was undertaken using genome-wide association study data. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with 25(OH)D levels were used as instrumental variables (IVs). We calculated MR estimates for the odds ratio (OR) for 25(OH)D levels with glioma using SNP-glioma estimates from 12,488 cases and 18,169 controls, using inverse-variance weighted (IVW) and maximum likelihood estimation (MLE) methods. A non-significant association between 25(OH)D levels and glioma risk was shown using both the IVW (OR = 1.21, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.90-1.62, P = 0.201) and MLE (OR = 1.20, 95% CI = 0.98-1.48, P = 0.083) methods. In an exploratory analysis of tumour subtype, an inverse relationship between 25(OH)D levels and glioblastoma (GBM) risk was identified using the MLE method (OR = 0.62, 95% CI = 0.43-0.89, P = 0.010), but not the IVW method (OR = 0.62, 95% CI = 0.37-1.04, P = 0.070). No statistically significant association was shown between 25(OH)D levels and non-GBM glioma. Our results do not provide evidence for a causal relationship between 25(OH)D levels and all forms of glioma risk. More evidence is required to explore the relationship between 25(OH)D levels and risk of GBM.

9.
J Neurooncol ; 136(1): 33-39, 2018 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28965162

RESUMO

Immune cells of myeloid origin, including microglia, macrophages, and myeloid-derived suppressor cells adopt immunosuppressive phenotypes that support gliomagenesis. Here, we tested an a priori hypothesis that single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in genes related to glioma-associated myeloid cell regulation and function are also associated with patient survival after glioma diagnosis. Subjects for this study were 992 glioma patients treated at The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center in Houston, Texas between 1992 and 2008. Haplotype-tagging SNPs in 91 myeloid-associated genes were analyzed for association with survival by Cox regression. Individual SNP- and gene-based tests were performed separately in glioblastoma (WHO grade IV, n = 511) and lower-grade glioma (WHO grade II-III, n = 481) groups. After adjustment for multiple testing, no myeloid-associated gene variants were significantly associated with survival in glioblastoma. Two SNPs, rs147960238 in CD163 (p = 2.2 × 10-5) and rs17138945 in MET (p = 5.6 × 10-5) were significantly associated with survival of patients with lower-grade glioma. However, these associations were not confirmed in an independent analysis of 563 lower-grade glioma cases from the University of California at San Francisco Adult Glioma Study (p = 0.65 and p = 0.41, respectively). The results of this study do not support a role for inherited polymorphisms in myeloid-associated genes in affecting survival of patients diagnosed with glioblastoma or lower-grade glioma.

10.
ACS Chem Neurosci ; 9(1): 80-84, 2018 01 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28657708

RESUMO

Primary brain tumors are predominantly malignant gliomas. Grade IV astrocytomas (glioblastomas, GBM) are among the most deadly of all tumors; most patients will succumb to their disease within 2 years of diagnosis despite standard of care. The grim outlook for brain tumor patients indicates that novel precision therapeutic targets must be identified. Our hypothesis is that the cancer proteomes of glioma tumors may contain protein variants that are linked to the aggressive pathology of the disease. To this end, we devised a novel workflow that combined variant proteomics with molecular epidemiological mining of public cancer data sets to identify 10 previously unrecognized variants linked to the risk of death in low grade glioma or GBM. We hypothesize that a subset of the protein variants may be successfully developed in the future as novel targets for malignant gliomas.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Encefálicas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Encefálicas/metabolismo , Desenho de Drogas , Epidemiologia Molecular , Medicina de Precisão , Proteômica , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Neoplasias Encefálicas/mortalidade , Neoplasias Encefálicas/patologia , Mineração de Dados , Feminino , Estudos de Associação Genética , Glioma/tratamento farmacológico , Glioma/metabolismo , Glioma/mortalidade , Glioma/patologia , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Epidemiologia Molecular/métodos , Gradação de Tumores , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Medicina de Precisão/métodos , Proteômica/métodos , Risco , Adulto Jovem
11.
J Clin Gastroenterol ; 51(1): 34-42, 2017 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27956718

RESUMO

GOALS: To investigate trends in colorectal cancer (CRC) incidence and survival among Hispanics in Texas. BACKGROUND: The incidence of CRC is rising among young adults in the United States. Given Texas' large Hispanic population, investigating CRC trends in Texas may provide valuable insight into the future of CRC epidemiology in an ever-diversifying US population. STUDY: Data from the Texas Cancer Registry (1995 to 2010) were used to calculate age-adjusted CRC rates based on the 2000 US standard population. Annual percentage change (APC) and 5-year cancer-specific survival (CSS) rates were reported by age, race/ethnicity, stage, and anatomic location. RESULTS: Of 123,083 CRC cases, 11% occurred in individuals below 50 years old, 26% of whom were Hispanic. Incidence was highest among African Americans (AAs; 76.3/100,000), followed by non-Hispanic whites (NHWs; 60.2/100,000) and Hispanics (50.8/100,000). Although overall CRC incidence declined between 1995 and 2010 (APC, -1.8%; P<0.01), trends differed by age and race/ethnicity. Among individuals 50 years and above, the rate of decline was statistically significant among NHWs (APC, -2.4%; P<0.01) and AAs (APC, -1.3%; P<0.01) but not among Hispanics (APC, -0.6%; P=0.13). In persons aged 20 to 39 years, CRC incidence rose significantly among Hispanics (APC, 2.6%; P<0.01) and NHWs (APC, 2.4%; P<0.01), but not AAs (APC, 0.3%; P=0.75). CSS rates among Hispanics and NHWs were comparable across most age groups and cancer stages, whereas CSS rates among AAs were generally inferior to those observed among NHWs and Hispanics. CONCLUSIONS: Although CRC incidence has declined in Texas, it is rising among young Hispanics and NHWs while declining more slowly among older Hispanics than among older NHWs and AAs.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais/mortalidade , Hispano-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Afro-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Idoso , Neoplasias Colorretais/etnologia , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Sistema de Registros , Taxa de Sobrevida , Texas/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
12.
Cancer Med ; 5(6): 1352-8, 2016 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26972449

RESUMO

Varicella zoster virus (VZV) is a neurotropic α-herpesvirus that causes chickenpox and establishes life-long latency in the cranial nerve and dorsal root ganglia of the host. To date, VZV is the only virus consistently reported to have an inverse association with glioma. The Glioma International Case-Control Study (GICC) is a large, multisite consortium with data on 4533 cases and 4171 controls collected across five countries. Here, we utilized the GICC data to confirm the previously reported associations between history of chickenpox and glioma risk in one of the largest studies to date on this topic. Using two-stage random-effects restricted maximum likelihood modeling, we found that a positive history of chickenpox was associated with a 21% lower glioma risk, adjusting for age and sex (95% confidence intervals (CI): 0.65-0.96). Furthermore, the protective effect of chickenpox was stronger for high-grade gliomas. Our study provides additional evidence that the observed protective effect of chickenpox against glioma is unlikely to be coincidental. Future studies, including meta-analyses of the literature and investigations of the potential biological mechanism, are warranted.


Assuntos
Varicela/complicações , Glioma/epidemiologia , Glioma/etiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Varicela/virologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Razão de Chances , Vigilância da População , Risco , Adulto Jovem
13.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 25(2): 282-90, 2016 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26908595

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Several previous studies have found inverse associations between glioma susceptibility and a history of allergies or other atopic conditions. Some evidence indicates that respiratory allergies are likely to be particularly relevant with regard to glioma risk. Using data from the Glioma International Case-Control Study (GICC), we examined the effects of respiratory allergies and other atopic conditions on glioma risk. METHODS: The GICC contains detailed information on history of atopic conditions for 4,533 cases and 4,171 controls, recruited from 14 study sites across five countries. Using two-stage random-effects restricted maximum likelihood modeling to calculate meta-analysis ORs, we examined the associations between glioma and allergy status, respiratory allergy status, asthma, and eczema. RESULTS: Having a history of respiratory allergies was associated with an approximately 30% lower glioma risk, compared with not having respiratory allergies (mOR, 0.72; 95% confidence interval, 0.58-0.90). This association was similar when restricting to high-grade glioma cases. Asthma and eczema were also significantly protective against glioma. CONCLUSION: A substantial amount of data on the inverse association between atopic conditions and glioma has accumulated, and findings from the GICC study further strengthen the existing evidence that the relationship between atopy and glioma is unlikely to be coincidental. IMPACT: As the literature approaches a consensus on the impact of allergies in glioma risk, future research can begin to shift focus to what the underlying biologic mechanism behind this association may be, which could, in turn, yield new opportunities for immunotherapy or cancer prevention.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Encefálicas/etiologia , Glioma/etiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Consenso , Feminino , Humanos , Hipersensibilidade , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
14.
Am J Epidemiol ; 183(2): 85-91, 2016 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26656478

RESUMO

Decades of research have established only a few etiological factors for glioma, which is a rare and highly fatal brain cancer. Common methodological challenges among glioma studies include small sample sizes, heterogeneity of tumor subtypes, and retrospective exposure assessment. Here, we briefly describe the Glioma International Case-Control (GICC) Study (recruitment, 2010-2013), a study being conducted by the Genetic Epidemiology of Glioma International Consortium that integrates data from multiple data collection sites, uses a common protocol and questionnaire, and includes biospecimen collection. To our knowledge, the GICC Study is the largest glioma study to date that includes collection of blood samples, which will allow for genetic analysis and interrogation of gene-environment interactions.


Assuntos
Glioma/genética , Cooperação Internacional , Epidemiologia Molecular/métodos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Interação Gene-Ambiente , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Glioma/sangue , Glioma/epidemiologia , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
15.
Clin Cancer Res ; 21(14): 3340-6, 2015 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25904748

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Accumulating evidence supports the contention that genetic variation is associated with neurocognitive function in healthy individuals and increased risk for neurocognitive decline in a variety of patient populations, including cancer patients. However, this has rarely been studied in glioma patients. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: To identify the effect of genetic variants on neurocognitive function, we examined the relationship between the genotype frequencies of 10,967 single-nucleotide polymorphisms in 580 genes related to five pathways (inflammation, DNA repair, metabolism, cognitive, and telomerase) and neurocognitive function in 233 newly diagnosed glioma patients before surgical resection. Four neuropsychologic tests that measured memory (Hopkins Verbal Learning Test-Revised), processing speed (Trail Making Test A), and executive function (Trail Making Test B, Controlled Oral Word Association) were examined. RESULTS: Eighteen polymorphisms were associated with processing speed and 12 polymorphisms with executive function. For processing speed, the strongest signals were in IRS1 rs6725330 in the inflammation pathway (P = 2.5 × 10(-10)), ERCC4 rs1573638 in the DNA repair pathway (P = 3.4 × 10(-7)), and ABCC1 rs8187858 in metabolism pathway (P = 6.6 × 10(-7)). For executive function, the strongest associations were in NOS1 rs11611788 (P = 1.8 × 10(-8)) and IL16 rs1912124 (P = 6.0 × 10(-7)) in the inflammation pathway, and POLE rs5744761 (P = 6.0 × 10(-7)) in the DNA repair pathway. Joint effect analysis found significant gene polymorphism-dosage effects for processing speed (Ptrend = 9.4 × 10(-16)) and executive function (Ptrend = 6.6 × 10(-15)). CONCLUSIONS: Polymorphisms in inflammation, DNA repair, and metabolism pathways are associated with neurocognitive function in glioma patients and may affect clinical outcomes.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Encefálicas/complicações , Transtornos Cognitivos/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Glioma/complicações , Adulto , Idoso , Neoplasias Encefálicas/genética , Feminino , Genótipo , Glioma/genética , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Adulto Jovem
16.
Sci Rep ; 5: 8278, 2015 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25652157

RESUMO

Glioma is a rare, but highly fatal, cancer that accounts for the majority of malignant primary brain tumors. Inherited predisposition to glioma has been consistently observed within non-syndromic families. Our previous studies, which involved non-parametric and parametric linkage analyses, both yielded significant linkage peaks on chromosome 17q. Here, we use data from next generation and Sanger sequencing to identify familial glioma candidate genes and variants on chromosome 17q for further investigation. We applied a filtering schema to narrow the original list of 4830 annotated variants down to 21 very rare (<0.1% frequency), non-synonymous variants. Our findings implicate the MYO19 and KIF18B genes and rare variants in SPAG9 and RUNDC1 as candidates worthy of further investigation. Burden testing and functional studies are planned.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Encefálicas/genética , Cromossomos Humanos Par 17 , Família , Ligação Genética , Glioma/genética , Adulto , Neoplasias Encefálicas/patologia , Feminino , Variação Genética , Glioma/patologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação , Linhagem , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Adulto Jovem
17.
J Natl Cancer Inst ; 107(1): 384, 2015 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25482530

RESUMO

Gliomas are the most common brain tumor, with several histological subtypes of various malignancy grade. The genetic contribution to familial glioma is not well understood. Using whole exome sequencing of 90 individuals from 55 families, we identified two families with mutations in POT1 (p.G95C, p.E450X), a member of the telomere shelterin complex, shared by both affected individuals in each family and predicted to impact DNA binding and TPP1 binding, respectively. Validation in a separate cohort of 264 individuals from 246 families identified an additional mutation in POT1 (p.D617Efs), also predicted to disrupt TPP1 binding. All families with POT1 mutations had affected members with oligodendroglioma, a specific subtype of glioma more sensitive to irradiation. These findings are important for understanding the origin of glioma and could have importance for the future diagnostics and treatment of glioma.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Encefálicas/genética , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa , Glioma/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a Telômeros/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Exoma/genética , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Oligodendroglioma/genética , Linhagem
18.
Neuro Oncol ; 16(10): 1333-40, 2014 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24723567

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although familial susceptibility to glioma is known, the genetic basis for this susceptibility remains unidentified in the majority of glioma-specific families. An alternative approach to identifying such genes is to examine cancer pedigrees, which include glioma as one of several cancer phenotypes, to determine whether common chromosomal modifications might account for the familial aggregation of glioma and other cancers. METHODS: Germline rearrangements in 146 glioma families (from the Gliogene Consortium; http://www.gliogene.org/) were examined using multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification. These families all had at least 2 verified glioma cases and a third reported or verified glioma case in the same family or 2 glioma cases in the family with at least one family member affected with melanoma, colon, or breast cancer.The genomic areas covering TP53, CDKN2A, MLH1, and MSH2 were selected because these genes have been previously reported to be associated with cancer pedigrees known to include glioma. RESULTS: We detected a single structural rearrangement, a deletion of exons 1-6 in MSH2, in the proband of one family with 3 cases with glioma and one relative with colon cancer. CONCLUSIONS: Large deletions and duplications are rare events in familial glioma cases, even in families with a strong family history of cancers that may be involved in known cancer syndromes.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Encefálicas/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Neoplasias do Colo/genética , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa , Glioma/genética , Melanoma/genética , Proteína 2 Homóloga a MutS/genética , Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal/genética , Adulto , Quinase do Ponto de Checagem 2/genética , Pré-Escolar , Inibidor de Quinase Dependente de Ciclina p15/genética , Inibidor p16 de Quinase Dependente de Ciclina/genética , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Proteína 1 Homóloga a MutL , Proteínas Nucleares/genética , Linhagem , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/genética , Adulto Jovem
19.
Eur J Cancer ; 49(6): 1335-45, 2013 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23290425

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: While certain inherited syndromes (e.g. Neurofibromatosis or Li-Fraumeni) are associated with an increased risk of glioma, most familial gliomas are non-syndromic. This study describes the demographic and clinical characteristics of the largest series of non-syndromic glioma families ascertained from 14 centres in the United States (US), Europe and Israel as part of the Gliogene Consortium. METHODS: Families with 2 or more verified gliomas were recruited between January 2007 and February 2011. Distributions of demographic characteristics and clinical variables of gliomas in the families were described based on information derived from personal questionnaires. FINDINGS: The study population comprised 841 glioma patients identified in 376 families (9797 individuals). There were more cases of glioma among males, with a male to female ratio of 1.25. In most families (83%), 2 gliomas were reported, with 3 and 4 gliomas in 13% and 3% of the families, respectively. For families with 2 gliomas, 57% were among 1st-degree relatives, and 31.5% among 2nd-degree relatives. Overall, the mean (±standard deviation [SD]) diagnosis age was 49.4 (±18.7) years. In 48% of families with 2 gliomas, at least one was diagnosed at <40y, and in 12% both were diagnosed under 40y of age. Most of these families (76%) had at least one grade IV glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), and in 32% both cases were grade IV gliomas. The most common glioma subtype was GBM (55%), followed by anaplastic astrocytoma (10%) and oligodendroglioma (8%). Individuals with grades I-II were on average 17y younger than those with grades III-IV. INTERPRETATION: Familial glioma cases are similar to sporadic cases in terms of gender distribution, age, morphology and grade. Most familial gliomas appear to comprise clusters of two cases suggesting low penetrance, and that the risk of developing additional gliomas is probably low. These results should be useful in the counselling and clinical management of individuals with a family history of glioma.


Assuntos
Saúde da Família , Glioma/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Dinamarca/epidemiologia , Feminino , Glioma/epidemiologia , Glioma/patologia , Humanos , Incidência , Lactente , Israel/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Gradação de Tumores , Linhagem , Prevalência , Fatores Sexuais , Suécia/epidemiologia , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
20.
Hum Genet ; 131(9): 1507-17, 2012 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22688887

RESUMO

The risk of glioma has consistently been shown to be increased twofold in relatives of patients with primary brain tumors (PBT). A recent genome-wide linkage study of glioma families provided evidence for a disease locus on 17q12-21.32, with the possibility of four additional risk loci at 6p22.3, 12p13.33-12.1, 17q22-23.2, and 18q23. To identify the underlying genetic variants responsible for the linkage signals, we compared the genotype frequencies of 5,122 SNPs mapping to these five regions in 88 glioma cases with and 1,100 cases without a family history of PBT (discovery study). An additional series of 84 familial and 903 non-familial cases were used to replicate associations. In the discovery study, 12 SNPs showed significant associations with family history of PBT (P < 0.001). In the replication study, two of the 12 SNPs were confirmed: 12p13.33-12.1 PRMT8 rs17780102 (P = 0.031) and 17q12-21.32 SPOP rs650461 (P = 0.025). In the combined analysis of discovery and replication studies, the strongest associations were attained at four SNPs: 12p13.33-12.1 PRMT8 rs17780102 (P = 0.0001), SOX5 rs7305773 (P = 0.0001) and STKY1 rs2418087 (P = 0.0003), and 17q12-21.32 SPOP rs6504618 (P = 0.0006). Further, a significant gene-dosage effect was found for increased risk of family history of PBT with these four SNPs in the combined data set (P(trend) <1.0 × 10(-8)). The results support the linkage finding that some loci in the 12p13.33-12.1 and 17q12-q21.32 may contribute to gliomagenesis and suggest potential target genes underscoring linkage signals.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Encefálicas/genética , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Glioma/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Haplótipos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
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