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PLoS One ; 13(1): e0190839, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29304106


Appropriate intestinal barrier maturation is essential for absorbing nutrients and preventing pathogens and toxins from entering the body. Compared to breast-fed infants, formula-fed infants are more susceptible to barrier dysfunction-associated illnesses. In infant formula dairy lipids are usually replaced with plant lipids. We hypothesised that dairy complex lipids improve in vitro intestinal epithelial barrier integrity. We tested milkfat high in conjugated linoleic acid, beta serum (SureStart™Lipid100), beta serum concentrate (BSC) and a ganglioside-rich fraction (G600). Using Caco-2 cells as a model of the human small intestinal epithelium, we analysed the effects of the ingredients on trans-epithelial electrical resistance (TEER), mannitol flux, and tight junction protein co-localisation. BSC induced a dose-dependent improvement in TEER across unchallenged cell layers, maintained the co-localisation of tight junction proteins in TNFα-challenged cells with increased permeability, and mitigated the TEER-reducing effects of lipopolysaccharide (LPS). G600 also increased TEER across healthy and LPS-challenged cells, but it did not alter the co-location of tight junction proteins in TNFα-challenged cells. SureStart™Lipid100 had similar TEER-increasing effects to BSC when added at twice the concentration (similar lipid concentration). Ultimately, this research aims to contribute to the development of infant formulas supplemented with dairy complex lipids that support infant intestinal barrier maturation.

Intestino Delgado/efeitos dos fármacos , Lipídeos/farmacologia , Animais , Transporte Biológico , Células CACO-2 , Bovinos , Indústria de Laticínios , Humanos , Mucosa Intestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Mucosa Intestinal/fisiologia , Intestino Delgado/fisiologia , Permeabilidade/efeitos dos fármacos , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo
J Dairy Sci ; 100(2): 886-891, 2017 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27939537


Bovine lactoferrin is an important milk protein with many health-promoting properties, including improving intestinal barrier integrity. Dysfunction of this barrier, commonly referred to as "leaky gut," has been linked to inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. With some processing techniques, lactoferrin isolated from milk collected at the start of the milking season (early lactation) may have lower purity than that isolated from milk collected during the rest of the milking season (mid-lactation) and could result in differences in bioactivity based on the stage of lactation. We compared reversed-phase HPLC chromatographs of early-lactation and mid-lactation preparations and found that both had large chromatograph peaks at the time predicted for lactoferrin. The notable difference between the 2 chromatographs was a much larger peak in the early-lactation lactoferrin sample that was determined to be angiogenin. Angiogenin was first identified due to its ability to induce new blood vessel formation, but is now known to be involved in numerous physiological processes. Then, we compared the effects of early-lactation and mid-lactation lactoferrin preparations in 2 bioassays: trans-epithelial electrical resistance (TEER), a measure of intestinal barrier integrity, and peripheral blood mononuclear cell cytokine secretion, a measure of immune-stimulatory properties. We found that early-lactation lactoferrin increased TEER across Caco-2 cell layers compared with control from 10 to 48 h, mid-lactation lactoferrin did not alter TEER. We also found that early-lactation lactoferrin reduced the amount of IL-8 produced by peripheral blood mononuclear cells (compared with those treated with control medium) to a greater extent than mid-lactation lactoferrin. A pro-inflammatory chemokine, IL-8 is also known to decrease barrier function. These results suggest that the decrease in IL-8 production in the presence of early-lactation lactoferrin may be the mechanism by which it increases TEER. The anti-inflammatory effect of early-lactation lactoferrin may be related to the presence of angiogenin, which is known to suppress inflammatory responses. This work indicates that products rich in angiogenin may have intestinal health benefits, and further work to investigate this is warranted.

Células CACO-2 , Lactoferrina , Animais , Bovinos , Feminino , Humanos , Lactação , Leucócitos Mononucleares/efeitos dos fármacos , Leite/química
Dev Comp Immunol ; 68: 21-25, 2017 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27845173


Secretory IgA (SIgA) from milk contributes to early colonization and maintenance of commensal/symbiotic bacteria in the gut, as well as providing defence against pathogens. SIgA binds bacteria using specific antigenic sites or non-specifically via its glycans attached to α-heavy-chain and secretory component. In our study, we tested the hypothesis that human and bovine SIgA have similar innate-binding activity for bacteria. SIgAs, isolated from human and bovine milk, were incubated with a selection of commensal, pathogenic and probiotic bacteria. Using flow cytometry, we measured numbers of bacteria binding SIgA and their level of SIgA binding. The percentage of bacteria bound by human and bovine SIgA varied from 30 to 90% depending on bacterial species and strains, but was remarkably consistent between human and bovine SIgA. The level of SIgA binding per bacterial cell was lower for those bacteria that had a higher percentage of SIgA-bound bacteria, and higher for those bacteria that had lower percentage of SIgA-bound bacteria. Overall, human and bovine SIgA interacted with bacteria in a comparable way. This contributes to longer term research about the potential benefits of bovine SIgA for human consumers.

Bactérias/metabolismo , Imunoglobulina A Secretora/metabolismo , Leite/metabolismo , Polissacarídeos/metabolismo , Animais , Bactérias/imunologia , Bovinos , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno , Humanos , Imunidade Inata , Imunoglobulina A Secretora/química , Imunoglobulina A Secretora/imunologia , Polissacarídeos/química , Polissacarídeos/imunologia , Ligação Proteica , Especificidade da Espécie , Simbiose
Microbiologyopen ; 4(4): 541-52, 2015 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25943073


Lactobacillus fermentum is commonly found in food products, and some strains are known to have beneficial effects on human health. However, our previous research indicated that L. fermentum AGR1487 decreases in vitro intestinal barrier integrity. The hypothesis was that cell surface structures of AGR1487 are responsible for the observed in vitro effect. AGR1487 was compared to another human oral L. fermentum strain, AGR1485, which does not cause the same effect. The examination of phenotypic traits associated with the composition of cell surface structures showed that compared to AGR1485, AGR1487 had a smaller genome, utilized different sugars, and had greater tolerance to acid and bile. The effect of the two strains on intestinal barrier integrity was determined using two independent measures of paracellular permeability of the intestinal epithelial Caco-2 cell line. The transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER) assay specifically measures ion permeability, whereas the mannitol flux assay measures the passage of uncharged molecules. Both live and UV-inactivated AGR1487 decreased TEER across Caco-2 cells implicating the cell surfaces structures in the effect. However, only live AGR1487, and not UV-inactivated AGR1487, increased the rate of passage of mannitol, implying that a secreted component(s) is responsible for this effect. These differences in barrier integrity results are likely due to the TEER and mannitol flux assays measuring different characteristics of the epithelial barrier, and therefore imply that there are multiple mechanisms involved in the effect of AGR1487 on barrier integrity.

Mucosa Intestinal/fisiologia , Lactobacillus fermentum/fisiologia , Permeabilidade , Células CACO-2 , Humanos
PLoS One ; 8(11): e78774, 2013.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24244356


Lactobacillus fermentum is found in fermented foods and thought to be harmless. In vivo and clinical studies indicate that some L. fermentum strains have beneficial properties, particularly for gastrointestinal health. However, L. fermentum AGR1487 decreases trans-epithelial electrical resistance (TEER), a measure of intestinal barrier integrity. The hypothesis was that L. fermentum AGR1487 decreases the expression of intestinal cell tight junction genes and proteins, thereby reducing barrier integrity. Transcriptomic and proteomic analyses of Caco-2 cells (model of human intestinal epithelial cells) treated with L. fermentum AGR1487 were used to obtain a global view of the effect of the bacterium on intestinal epithelial cells. Specific functional characteristics by which L. fermentum AGR1487 reduces intestinal barrier integrity were examined using confocal microscopy, cell cycle progression and adherence bioassays. The effects of TEER-enhancing L. fermentum AGR1485 were investigated for comparison. L. fermentum AGR1487 did not alter the expression of Caco-2 cell tight junction genes (compared to L. fermentum AGR1485) and tight junction proteins were not able to be detected. However, L. fermentum AGR1487 increased the expression levels of seven tubulin genes and the abundance of three microtubule-associated proteins, which have been linked to tight junction disassembly. Additionally, Caco-2 cells treated with L. fermentum AGR1487 did not have defined and uniform borders of zona occludens 2 around each cell, unlike control or AGR1485 treated cells. L. fermentum AGR1487 cells were required for the negative effect on barrier integrity (bacterial supernatant did not cause a decrease in TEER), suggesting that a physical interaction may be necessary. Increased adherence of L. fermentum AGR1487 to Caco-2 cells (compared to L. fermentum AGR1485) was likely to facilitate this cell-to-cell interaction. These findings illustrate that bacterial strains of the same species can cause contrasting host responses and suggest that food-safe status should be given to individual strains not species.

Comunicação Celular , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Mucosa Intestinal , Lactobacillus fermentum , Mucosa Bucal/microbiologia , Junções Íntimas/metabolismo , Adulto , Células CACO-2 , Feminino , Humanos , Mucosa Intestinal/metabolismo , Mucosa Intestinal/microbiologia , Lactobacillus fermentum/isolamento & purificação , Lactobacillus fermentum/metabolismo , Masculino , Junções Íntimas/microbiologia
Biotechnol J ; 6(1): 113-7, 2011 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21053336


Epigenetic changes in chromatin structure can influence gene expression without affecting the DNA sequence. The most commonly studied epigenetic modification, DNA methylation, has been implicated in normal tissue development and disease progression, and can be influenced by diet and other environmental factors. Current HPLC methods of determining DNA methylation may require relatively large amounts of DNA (50 µg); as many tissues have low DNA yields, this can be hard to achieve. We isolated DNA from mouse colon and liver in a study investigating post-natal supplementation with selenium and folic acid. After optimizing the methods to account for lower initial DNA amounts, we digested 3 µg of DNA to deoxynucleotide monophosphates, then purified and quantified it. Samples were analyzed by reversed-phase HPLC to determine global DNA methylation levels using commercial nucleotide standards. The HPLC column was cooled to 6(C (reducing run time), and detection was at 280 nm (UV). We showed that methylated cytosine can be accurately and reproducibly measured in as little as 3 µg of DNA using this HPLC analysis method (within-assay CV <2%). We also used this method to detect reduced DNA methylation in liver (P = 0.009) in response to post-natal supplementation with selenium and folate.

Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Metilação de DNA/genética , Epigenômica/métodos , 5-Metilcitosina/análise , 5-Metilcitosina/química , Animais , Colo/metabolismo , Feminino , Fígado/metabolismo , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL