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1.
Allergy ; 2020 Dec 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33284457

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The COVID-19 pandemic dramatically disrupts health care around the globe. The impact of the pandemic on chronic urticaria (CU) and its management are largely unknown. AIM: To understand how CU patients are affected by the COVID-19 pandemic; how specialists alter CU patient management; and the course of CU in patients with COVID-19. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Our cross-sectional, international, questionnaire-based, multicenter UCARE COVID-CU study assessed the impact of the pandemic on patient consultations, remote treatment, changes in medications, and clinical consequences. RESULTS: The COVID-19 pandemic severely impairs CU patient care, with less than 50% of the weekly numbers of patients treated as compared to before the pandemic. Reduced patient referrals and clinic hours were the major reasons. Almost half of responding UCARE physicians were involved in COVID-19 patient care, which negatively impacted on the care of urticaria patients. The rate of face-to-face consultations decreased by 62%, from 90% to less than half, whereas the rate of remote consultations increased by more than 600%, from one in 10 to more than two thirds. Cyclosporine and systemic corticosteroids, but not antihistamines or omalizumab, are used less during the pandemic. CU does not affect the course of COVID-19, but COVID-19 results in CU exacerbation in one of three patients, with higher rates in patients with severe COVID-19. CONCLUSIONS: The COVID-19 pandemic brings major changes and challenges for CU patients and their physicians. The long-term consequences of these changes, especially the increased use of remote consultations, require careful evaluation.

2.
J Clin Immunol ; 40(8): 1103-1110, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32851577

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Combined immunodeficiency (CID), due to mutations in TFRC gene that encodes the transferrin receptors (TfR1), is a rare monogenic disorder. In this study, we further characterize the clinical and immunological phenotypes in a cohort of eight patients. METHODS: A retrospective review of clinical and immunological features of patients diagnosed with a TFRC gene mutation between 2015 and 2019 in three tertiary centers. RESULTS: Eight patients from six unrelated families were enrolled. The patients had a median age of 7 years (4-32 years). All patients presented with recurrent sinopulmonary infections, chronic diarrhea, and failure to thrive in early life. Less common features were skin abscesses, conjunctivitis, global developmental delay, optic nerve atrophy, vitiligo, multinodular goiter, and hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis-like symptoms. All patients had intermittent neutropenia and 87% of the patients had recurrent thrombocytopenia. Anemia was found in 62%. All patients had hypogammaglobinemia and one had a persistent high IgM level. All patients had impaired function of T cells. The same homozygous missense mutation c.58T>C:p.Y20H, in the TFRC gene, was detected in all patients. Stem cell transplantation from matched donors was successful in two patients. Five patients did not receive stem cell transplantation, and they are on prophylactic treatment. One patient died due to severe sepsis and neurological complications. CONCLUSION: This report provides a large cohort with a long follow up of patients with this disease. Our cohort showed variable disease severity.

3.
World Allergy Organ J ; 13(4): 100117, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32382379

RESUMO

Background: Chronic urticaria (CU) is a condition characterized by recurrent itchy hives and/or angioedema for ≥6 weeks. Most of the data about CU come from western countries with very little information available about CU in Asia, Africa, and the Middle East. Methods: AWARE-AMAC is a 24-month prospective, observational, real-world, non-interventional study in patients aged ≥18 years from Asia, the Middle East, and Africa (AMAC) with CU refractory to H1-antihistamines (H1-AH). The main objective was to describe the real-world experience with CU, including clinical characteristics, presence of angioedema, treatment patterns (shifts between treatment classes and changes within a treatment class), investigator-assessed disease control, and the impact on quality of life. Subgroups of interest were type of CU at Baseline and treatment class (based on 2013 urticaria guidelines). There were no mandatory visits and diagnostic/monitoring procedures additional to routine practice, except the patient diary (7-day Urticaria Activity Score) and patient reported outcome assessments. Results: The focus of the current manuscript is on patients with chronic spontaneous urticaria (CSU), who formed 98% of the sample. Patients were predominantly female (69.6% female, mean age ± SD 39.8 ± 13.29 years). Time since current diagnosis (Mean ± SD) was 28.6 ± 49.06 months. Amongst patients with CSU, 31.0% had comorbid chronic inducible urticaria (CINDU) and 46.4% had a history of angioedema. 91.9% received H1-AH therapy (±other treatments). The most frequently prescribed treatment classes at Baseline were any/combination of medications, not classified under the other 7 treatment classes, named "Others" (30.5%) followed by, omalizumab (OMA; 23.6%) and second-generation H1-AH monotherapy (sgAH; 15.1%). At Month 12, the most prescribed treatment classes (>15%) for patients were OMA (23.5%) and "Other" (21.3%); 19.7% received "No drug". At Month 24, OMA (22.5%), and "Other" (17.9%) were most frequently prescribed; 28.6% received "No drug". Overall, 79.5% of patients had some type of change in treatment. Over the study period, improvement in self-reported QoL increased, which was mirrored by better disease control. Conclusion: In AMAC countries, the non-recommended "Other" treatment class played a major role in the initial management of CU patients. High usage of H1-AH (±other treatments) and OMA was observed. Treatment changes were observed in a majority of patients. Treatment escalation from sgAH was mostly via OMA. Improvement of disease control and QoL was achieved during the study period. Trial registration: Observational study (NA).

5.
J Allergy Clin Immunol ; 146(1): 192-202, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31862378

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The gene AK2 encodes the phosphotransferase adenylate kinase 2 (AK2). Human variants in AK2 cause reticular dysgenesis, a severe combined immunodeficiency with agranulocytosis, lymphopenia, and sensorineural deafness that requires hematopoietic stem cell transplantation for survival. OBJECTIVE: We investigated the mechanisms underlying recurrent sinopulmonary infections and hypogammaglobulinemia in 15 patients, ranging from 3 to 34 years of age, from 9 kindreds. Only 2 patients, both of whom had mildly impaired T-cell proliferation, each had a single clinically significant opportunistic infection. METHODS: Patient cells were studied with next-generation DNA sequencing, tandem mass spectrometry, and assays of lymphocyte and mitochondrial function. RESULTS: We identified 2 different homozygous variants in AK2. AK2G100S and AK2A182D permit residual protein expression, enzymatic activity, and normal numbers of neutrophils and lymphocytes. All but 1 patient had intact hearing. The patients' B cells had severely impaired proliferation and in vitro immunoglobulin secretion. With activation, the patients' B cells exhibited defective mitochondrial respiration and impaired regulation of mitochondrial membrane potential and quality. Although activated T cells from the patients with opportunistic infections demonstrated impaired mitochondrial function, the mitochondrial quality in T cells was preserved. Consistent with the capacity of activated T cells to utilize nonmitochondrial metabolism, these findings revealed a less strict cellular dependence of T-cell function on AK2 activity. Chemical inhibition of ATP synthesis in control T and B cells similarly demonstrated the greater dependency of B cells on mitochondrial function. CONCLUSIONS: Our patients demonstrate the in vivo sequelae of the cell-specific requirements for the functions of AK2 and mitochondria, particularly in B-cell activation and antibody production.

6.
Metabolites ; 9(11)2019 Nov 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31718082

RESUMO

Bi-allelic mutations in the dedicator of cytokinesis 8 (DOCK8) are responsible for a rare autosomal recessive primary combined immunodeficiency syndrome, characterized by atopic dermatitis, elevated serum Immunoglobulin E (IgE) levels, recurrent severe cutaneous viral infections, autoimmunity, and predisposition to malignancy. The molecular link between DOCK8 deficiency and atopic skin inflammation remains unknown. Severe atopic dermatitis (AD) and DOCK8 deficiency share some clinical symptoms, including eczema, eosinophilia, and increased serum IgE levels. Increased serum IgE levels are characteristic of, but not specific to allergic diseases. Herein, we aimed to study the metabolomic profiles of DOCK8-deficient and AD patients for potential disease-specific biomarkers using chemical isotope labeling liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (CIL LC-MS). Serum samples were collected from DOCK8-deficient (n = 10) and AD (n = 9) patients. Metabolomics profiling using CIL LC-MS was performed on patient samples and compared to unrelated healthy controls (n = 33). Seven metabolites were positively identified, distinguishing DOCK8-deficient from AD patients. Aspartic acid and 3-hydroxyanthranillic acid (3HAA, a tryptophan degradation pathway intermediate) were up-regulated in DOCK8 deficiency, whereas hypotaurine, leucyl-phenylalanine, glycyl-phenylalanine, and guanosine were down-regulated. Hypotaurine, 3-hydroxyanthranillic acid, and glycyl-phenyalanine were identified as potential biomarkers specific to DOCK8 deficiency. Aspartate availability has been recently implicated as a limiting metabolite for tumour growth and 3HAA; furthermore, other tryptophan metabolism pathway-related molecules have been considered as potential novel targets for cancer therapy. Taken together, perturbations in tryptophan degradation and increased availability of aspartate suggest a link of DOCK8 deficiency to oncogenesis. Additionally, perturbations in taurine and dipeptides metabolism suggest altered antixidation and cell signaling states in DOCK8 deficiency. Further studies examining the mechanisms underlying these observations are necessary.

7.
J Clin Immunol ; 39(4): 414-420, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31041574

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: One of the limiting factors for successful hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is graft versus host disease (GVHD). The EBMT/ESID guidelines for HSCT in severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) recommend no GVHD prophylaxis for a matched sibling donor (MSD). OBJECTIVE: To determine the risk of GVHD in MSD HSCT for SCID patients compared to matched related donor (MRD). METHODS: This retrospective cohort study compares MSD with MRD and the outcome of GVHD in all SCID patients who underwent HSCT between 1993 and 2013. All statistical analyses were done using IBM SPSS statistics software. RESULTS: One hundred forty-five SCID patients underwent 152 HSCTs while 82 (54%) received GVHD prophylaxis. GVHD occurred in 48 patients (31.5%); 20/48 (42%) had GVHD prophylaxis compared to 28/48 (58%) that did not, P = 0.022. Acute GVHD occurred at a higher trend in MSD, 37/120 (30.8%), compared to MRD, 6/32 (18.8%), P = 0.17. We also analyzed the outcome according to the period of HSCT. The first period was 1993 to 2003, 48 HSCTs, 43 MSD, 5 MRD; all patients had GVHD prophylaxis, and there was no difference in GVHD. The second period was 2004 to 2013: of 104 HSCTs, 77 had MSD and 27 had MRD; GVHD prophylaxis was used in 22.1% of MSD and 63% of MRD, P = 0.000. GVHD was significantly higher in the MSD (40.2%) compared to MRD (18.5%) patients, P = 0.041. CONCLUSION: GVHD prophylaxis in MSD transplant should be considered in SCID patients.

9.
J Allergy Clin Immunol ; 143(6): 2238-2253, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30660643

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: CD40 ligand (CD40L) deficiency, an X-linked primary immunodeficiency, causes recurrent sinopulmonary, Pneumocystis and Cryptosporidium species infections. Long-term survival with supportive therapy is poor. Currently, the only curative treatment is hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). OBJECTIVE: We performed an international collaborative study to improve patients' management, aiming to individualize risk factors and determine optimal HSCT characteristics. METHODS: We retrospectively collected data on 130 patients who underwent HSCT for CD40L deficiency between 1993-2015. We analyzed outcome and variables' relevance with respect to survival and cure. RESULTS: Overall survival (OS), event-free survival (EFS), and disease-free survival (DFS) were 78.2%, 58.1%, and 72.3% 5 years after HSCT. Results were better in transplantations performed in 2000 or later and in children less than 10 years old at the time of HSCT. Pre-existing organ damage negatively influenced outcome. Sclerosing cholangitis was the most important risk factor. After 2000, superior OS was achieved with matched donors. Use of myeloablative regimens and HSCT at 2 years or less from diagnosis associated with higher OS and DFS. EFS was best with matched sibling donors, myeloablative conditioning (MAC), and bone marrow-derived stem cells. Most rejections occurred after reduced-intensity or nonmyeloablative conditioning, which associated with poor donor cell engraftment. Mortality occurred mainly early after HSCT, predominantly from infections. Among survivors who ceased immunoglobulin replacement, T-lymphocyte chimerism was 50% or greater donor in 85.2%. CONCLUSION: HSCT is curative in patients with CD40L deficiency, with improved outcome if performed before organ damage development. MAC is associated with better OS, EFS, and DFS. Prospective studies are required to compare the risks of HSCT with those of lifelong supportive therapy.

10.
J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract ; 7(3): 848-855, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30391550

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Biallelic variations in the dedicator of cytokinesis 8 (DOCK8) gene cause a combined immunodeficiency with eczema, recurrent bacterial and viral infections, and malignancy. Natural disease outcome is dismal, but allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) can cure the disease. OBJECTIVE: To determine outcome of HSCT for DOCK8 deficiency and define possible outcome variables. METHODS: We performed a retrospective study of the results of HSCT in a large international cohort of DOCK8-deficient patients. RESULTS: We identified 81 patients from 22 centers transplanted at a median age of 9.7 years (range, 0.7-27.2 years) between 1995 and 2015. After median follow-up of 26 months (range, 3-135 months), 68 (84%) patients are alive. Severe acute (III-IV) or chronic graft versus host disease occurred in 11% and 10%, respectively. Causes of death were infections (n = 5), graft versus host disease (5), multiorgan failure (2), and preexistent lymphoma (1). Survival after matched related (n = 40) or unrelated (35) HSCT was 89% and 81%, respectively. Reduced-toxicity conditioning based on either treosulfan or reduced-dose busulfan resulted in superior survival compared with fully myeloablative busulfan-based regimens (97% vs 78%; P = .049). Ninety-six percent of patients younger than 8 years at HSCT survived, compared with 78% of those 8 years and older (P = .06). Of the 73 patients with chimerism data available, 65 (89%) had more than 90% donor T-cell chimerism at last follow-up. Not all disease manifestations responded equally well to HSCT: eczema, infections, and mollusca resolved quicker than food allergies or failure to thrive. CONCLUSIONS: HSCT is curative in most DOCK8-deficient patients, confirming this approach as the treatment of choice. HSCT using a reduced-toxicity regimen may offer the best chance for survival.

11.
Ann Saudi Med ; 38(6): 439-444, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30531179

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although anti-IgE therapy has been shown to offer numerous benefits, we suspect it is underutilized locally. To date, there are no studies on any aspect of its use in the Arab region. There is also no information on whether physicians follow current guidelines nor on patient response to this form of therapy. OBJECTIVE: Assess the use of omalizumab for patients with difficult asthma at a tertiary care center. DESIGN: Retrospective, descriptive. SETTING: Tertiary care hospital. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Information was collected from medical records and interviews of all patients who received a minimum of 6 months of omalizumab, including data on practices of the prescribing physician (pulmonary versus allergy), indications, dose, subjective response, number of emergency room visits and hospitalizations, changes in asthma medications, adverse effects, and the setting for delivery of therapy. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Extent to which current guidelines for prescribing omalizumab were followed. Patient subjective and objective responses to treatment as reflected by changes in the use of medications and lung function before and after therapy. SAMPLE SIZE: 50 patients. RESULTS: Of the 50 consecutive patients, 35 were female and the mean (SD) age was 46.3 (9.2) years. Only 28 patients (56 %) met all the criteria for the prescription of omalizumab as per current guidelines; 18 (64%) by pulmonary and 10 (36%) by allergy physicians (P less than .05). Pulmonary physicians performed more tests for conditions complicating or simulating asthma (P less than .05). The mean (SD) duration of treatment by omalizumab of 35 (22) months was longer in patients managed by allergists (42 [24] months) than pulmonary physicians (30 [21] months) (P greater than .05). Both physician groups prescribed a lower initial dose than recommended (P less than .05 recommended vs. prescribed). Patients reported a significant improvement in symptoms, reduction in the use of broncho-dilators and oral steroids and in the use of healthcare services (from 16.28 [7.9] to 2.08 [1.78], P less than .0001) mean values from sum of hospitalizations/year, ER visits/year, exacerbations/year, but not in other medications or pulmonary function tests (P greater than .05). CONCLUSION: Despite several benefits, notably a reduction in utilization of health services and asthma medication, anti-IgE therapy is probably underutilized locally. Pulmonary physicians are more likely to follow the guidelines than allergy physicians. This study suggests that there is room for improvement in the prescription practices, particularly in dosing and the setting for delivery. Further multicenter prospective studies are required to identify gaps in the current practices and improve asthma management. LIMITATIONS: Too few patients met inclusion criteria, lack of control group, and use of a subjective assessment for patient symptoms as opposed to validated questionnaires. CONFLICT OF INTEREST: None.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Anti-Idiotípicos , Asma , Monitoramento de Medicamentos , Omalizumab , Padrões de Prática Médica/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Antiasmáticos/administração & dosagem , Antiasmáticos/efeitos adversos , Anticorpos Anti-Idiotípicos/administração & dosagem , Anticorpos Anti-Idiotípicos/efeitos adversos , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/administração & dosagem , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/efeitos adversos , Asma/diagnóstico , Asma/tratamento farmacológico , Asma/epidemiologia , Asma/imunologia , Monitoramento de Medicamentos/métodos , Monitoramento de Medicamentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Fidelidade a Diretrizes , Mau Uso de Serviços de Saúde/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Imunoglobulina E/imunologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Omalizumab/administração & dosagem , Omalizumab/efeitos adversos , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Testes de Função Respiratória/métodos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Arábia Saudita/epidemiologia , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
12.
Front Immunol ; 9: 203, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29479355

RESUMO

Combined immunodeficiencies are a heterogeneous collection of primary immune disorders that exhibit defects in T cell development or function, along with impaired B cell activity even in light of normal B cell maturation. CARMIL2 (RLTPR) is a protein involved in cytoskeletal organization and cell migration, which also plays a role in CD28 co-signaling of T cells. Mutations in this protein have recently been reported to cause a novel primary immunodeficiency disorder with variable phenotypic presentations. Here, we describe seven patients from three unrelated, consanguineous multiplex families that presented with dermatitis, esophagitis, and recurrent skin and chest infections with evidence of combined immunodeficiency. Through the use of whole exome sequencing and autozygome-guided analysis, we uncovered two mutations not previously reported (p.R50T and p.L846Sfs) in CARMIL2. Real-time PCR analysis revealed that the biallelic frameshift mutation is under negative selection, likely due to nonsense-mediated RNA decay and leading to loss of detectable protein upon immunoblotting. Protein loss was also observed for the missense mutation, and 3D modeling suggested a disturbance in structural stability due to an increase in the electrostatic energy for the affected amino acid and surrounding residues. Immunophenotyping revealed that patient Treg counts were significantly depressed, and that CD4+ T cells were heavily skewed towards the naïve status. CD3/CD28 signaling impairment was evidenced by reduced proliferative response to stimulation. This work broadens the allelic heterogeneity associated with CARMIL2 and highlights a deleterious missense alteration located outside the leucine-rich repeat of the protein, where all other missense mutations have been reported to date.


Assuntos
Dermatite/genética , Esofagite/imunologia , Síndromes de Imunodeficiência/genética , Proteínas dos Microfilamentos/imunologia , Infecções Respiratórias/imunologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Dermatite/imunologia , Esofagite/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Síndromes de Imunodeficiência/imunologia , Masculino , Proteínas dos Microfilamentos/genética , Mutação , Linhagem , Infecções Respiratórias/genética , Arábia Saudita , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma
13.
Tunis Med ; 96(10-11): 672-677, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30746660

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Primary Immunodeficiency (PIDs) is a set of 330 rare hereditary diseases that increase susceptibility to infections, allergies, autoimmunity, and neoplasia. North American registries give higher prevalence than Maghreb ones, whereas consanguinity is high. The purpose of this study is to compare prevalence and coverage rate of Maghreb PID registries with estimates based on USA. METHODS: We searched the prevalence of PIDs in the Maghreb registers. Next, we estimated the expected values based on recent publications. Finally, we calculated the coverage rate of the Maghreb registries compared to the new estimates and we evaluated the impact of consanguinity. RESULTS: The total number is N1 = 2456 patients. The current Maghreb PID Prevalence is 2.56 / 100,000 inhabitants (population of 94,804,694 Million in 2017). Tunisia leads with a prevalence of 8.70 followed by Morocco 2.09, Libya 1.65 and Algeria 1.46/100.000 habitants. We did not find values for Mauritania. If we extrapolate the prevalence of the USA to the Maghreb population, the number of patients in the Maghreb would be N2 = 27,588 and the coverage rate (N1 / N2) would be 8.90%. This low coverage rate is however better than the World average (1.21%), that of Latin America 1.19% and Africa 0.36%. The Maghreb prevalence is close to that of the Arab world 2.04 / 100,000 (population of 391,449,544 in 2017). Using the incidence found in the USA, the number of patients would be 9765 new patients per year in the Maghreb and 40,319 in Arab countries. CONCLUSION: PID Maghreb patients number is very low compared to global estimates, whereas consanguinity is very high. Special attention should be given to PIDs by governments and research teams in this region.


Assuntos
Síndromes de Imunodeficiência/epidemiologia , África/epidemiologia , África do Norte/epidemiologia , Argélia/epidemiologia , Ásia/epidemiologia , Consanguinidade , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Humanos , Síndromes de Imunodeficiência/genética , Incidência , Oriente Médio/epidemiologia , Marrocos/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Sistema de Registros/estatística & dados numéricos , Estatística como Assunto/normas , Tunísia/epidemiologia , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
14.
J Clin Immunol ; 37(6): 575-581, 2017 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28741180

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Non-homologous end joining gene 1 (NHEJ1) defect is a rare form of primary immune deficiency. Very few cases have been described from around the world. PURPOSE: We are reporting the first family from the Arabian Gulf with three siblings presenting with combined immunodeficiency (CID), microcephaly, and growth retardation due to a novel NHEJ1 splice site mutation, in addition to a review of the previously published literature on this subject. METHODS: Patients' clinical, immunological, and laboratory features were examined. Samples were subjected to targeted next-generation sequencing (NGS). The pathogenic change in NHEJ1 was confirmed by Sanger sequencing, then further assessed at the RNA and protein levels. RESULTS: Patients were found to have a homozygous splice site mutation immediately downstream of exon 3 in NHEJ1 (c.390 + 1G > C). This led to two distinct mRNA products, one of which demonstrated skipping of the last 69 basepairs (bp) of exon 3 while the other showed complete skipping of the entire exon. Although both deletions were in-frame, immunoblotting did not reveal any NHEJ1 protein products in patient cells, indicating a null phenotype. CONCLUSION: Patients presenting with CID, microcephaly, and growth retardation should be screened for NHEJ1 gene mutations. We discuss our data in the context of one of our patients who is still alive at the age of 30 years, without transplantation, and who is the longest known survivor of this disease.


Assuntos
Enzimas Reparadoras do DNA/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/genética , Síndromes de Imunodeficiência/genética , Microcefalia/genética , Mutação/genética , Isoformas de Proteínas/genética , Sítios de Splice de RNA/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Processamento Alternativo , Criança , Família , Feminino , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Homozigoto , Humanos , Masculino , Linhagem , Fenótipo , Irmãos
15.
Hum Genet ; 136(8): 921-939, 2017 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28600779

RESUMO

In this study, we report the experience of the only reference clinical next-generation sequencing lab in Saudi Arabia with the first 1000 families who span a wide-range of suspected Mendelian phenotypes. A total of 1019 tests were performed in the period of March 2016-December 2016 comprising 972 solo (index only), 14 duo (parents or affected siblings only), and 33 trio (index and parents). Multigene panels accounted for 672 tests, while whole exome sequencing (WES) represented the remaining 347 tests. Pathogenic or likely pathogenic variants that explain the clinical indications were identified in 34% (27% in panels and 43% in exomes), spanning 279 genes and including 165 novel variants. While recessive mutations dominated the landscape of solved cases (71% of mutations, and 97% of which are homozygous), a substantial minority (27%) were solved on the basis of dominant mutations. The highly consanguineous nature of the study population also facilitated homozygosity for many private mutations (only 32.5% of the recessive mutations are founder), as well as the first instances of recessive inheritance of previously assumed strictly dominant disorders (involving ITPR1, VAMP1, MCTP2, and TBP). Surprisingly, however, dual molecular diagnosis was only observed in 1.5% of cases. Finally, we have encountered candidate variants in 75 genes (ABHD6, ACY3, ADGRB2, ADGRG7, AGTPBP1, AHNAK2, AKAP6, ASB3, ATXN1L, C17orf62, CABP1, CCDC186, CCP110, CLSTN2, CNTN3, CNTN5, CTNNA2, CWC22, DMAP1, DMKN, DMXL1, DSCAM, DVL2, ECI1, EP400, EPB41L5, FBXL22, GAP43, GEMIN7, GIT1, GRIK4, GRSF1, GTRP1, HID1, IFNL1, KCNC4, LRRC52, MAP7D3, MCTP2, MED26, MPP7, MRPS35, MTDH, MTMR9, NECAP2, NPAT, NRAP, PAX7, PCNX, PLCH2, PLEKHF1, PTPN12, QKI, RILPL2, RIMKLA, RIMS2, RNF213, ROBO1, SEC16A, SIAH1, SIRT2, SLAIN2, SLC22A20, SMDT1, SRRT, SSTR1, ST20, SYT9, TSPAN6, UBR4, VAMP4, VPS36, WDR59, WDYHV1, and WHSC1) not previously linked to human phenotypes and these are presented to accelerate post-publication matchmaking. Two of these genes were independently mutated in more than one family with similar phenotypes, which substantiates their link to human disease (AKAP6 in intellectual disability and UBR4 in early dementia). If the novel candidate disease genes in this cohort are independently confirmed, the yield of WES will have increased to 83%, which suggests that most "negative" clinical exome tests are unsolved due to interpretation rather than technical limitations.


Assuntos
Exoma , Doenças Genéticas Inatas/diagnóstico , Doenças Genéticas Inatas/epidemiologia , Genoma Humano , Consanguinidade , Feminino , Testes Genéticos , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Homozigoto , Humanos , Masculino , Anotação de Sequência Molecular , Morbidade , Mutação , Fenótipo , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Arábia Saudita/epidemiologia , Análise de Sequência de DNA
17.
Clin Immunol ; 178: 39-44, 2017 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27890707

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hyper-IgE syndrome (HIES) due to DOCK8 deficiency is an autosomal recessive (AR) primary combined immunodeficiency which results in significant morbidity and mortality at a young age. Different mutations in the DOCK8 gene can lead to variable severity of the disease. OBJECTIVE: We evaluated the genetic mutations in three related patients with severe clinical manifestations suggestive of AR HIES. We also explored whether treatment with stem cell transplantation could lead to complete disease resolution. METHOD: We examined the clinical manifestations and immunological workup of these patients. Their DNA was also screened for causative mutation. Post transplantation, clinical and immunological data for the transplanted patient was also collected. RESULTS: All patients had a severe course of the disease with rarely reported severe complications in HIES. One patient died with lymphoma while another died with progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) due to a slow virus. All our patients had two novel mutations in the DOCK8 gene. One of these mutations was a novel pathogenic mutation and explains the severity of the disease (homozygous splice site mutation at position 5 after the end of exon 45), while the other mutation was mostly non-pathogenic. Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) was performed in the youngest patient with excellent engraftment and full reversibility of the clinical manifestations. CONCLUSION: We report 3 patients from a consanguineous family diagnosed with AR-HIES due to a novel pathogenic mutation in DOCK8 gene leading to fatal outcome in 2 patients and complete resolution of the clinical and immunological features in the third patient by HSCT.


Assuntos
Fatores de Troca do Nucleotídeo Guanina/genética , Síndrome de Job/genética , Adolescente , Neoplasias das Glândulas Suprarrenais/etiologia , Neoplasias das Glândulas Suprarrenais/virologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Colangite Esclerosante/etiologia , Consanguinidade , Eczema/etiologia , Eosinofilia/etiologia , Infecções por Vírus Epstein-Barr/etiologia , Esofagite/etiologia , Feminino , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas , Herpes Simples/etiologia , Humanos , Síndrome de Job/complicações , Síndrome de Job/imunologia , Síndrome de Job/terapia , Leiomioma/etiologia , Leiomioma/virologia , Leucoencefalopatia Multifocal Progressiva/diagnóstico por imagem , Leucoencefalopatia Multifocal Progressiva/etiologia , Leucoencefalopatia Multifocal Progressiva/patologia , Linfoma Difuso de Grandes Células B/etiologia , Linfoma Difuso de Grandes Células B/virologia , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto , Neoplasias Nasofaríngeas/etiologia , Neoplasias Nasofaríngeas/virologia , Linhagem , Recidiva , Infecções Estafilocócicas/etiologia , Adulto Jovem
18.
J Allergy Clin Immunol ; 137(6): 1780-1787, 2016 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26915675

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Molecular genetics techniques are an essential diagnostic tool for primary immunodeficiency diseases (PIDs). The use of next-generation sequencing (NGS) provides a comprehensive way of concurrently screening a large number of PID genes. However, its validity and cost-effectiveness require verification. OBJECTIVES: We sought to identify and overcome complications associated with the use of NGS in a comprehensive gene panel incorporating 162 PID genes. We aimed to ascertain the specificity, sensitivity, and clinical sensitivity of the gene panel and its utility as a diagnostic tool for PIDs. METHODS: A total of 162 PID genes were screened in 261 patients by using the Ion Torrent Proton NGS sequencing platform. Of the 261 patients, 122 had at least 1 known causal mutation at the onset of the study and were used to assess the specificity and sensitivity of the assay. The remaining samples were from unsolved cases that were biased toward more phenotypically and genotypically complicated cases. RESULTS: The assay was able to detect the mutation in 117 (96%) of 122 positive control subjects with known causal mutations. For the unsolved cases, our assay resulted in a molecular genetic diagnosis for 35 of 139 patients. Interestingly, most of these cases represented atypical clinical presentations of known PIDs. CONCLUSIONS: The targeted NGS PID gene panel is a sensitive and cost-effective diagnostic tool that can be used as a first-line molecular assay in patients with PIDs. The assay is an alternative choice to the complex and costly candidate gene approach, particularly for patients with atypical presentation of known PID genes.


Assuntos
Marcadores Genéticos , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Síndromes de Imunodeficiência/diagnóstico , Síndromes de Imunodeficiência/genética , Biologia Computacional , Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA , Análise Mutacional de DNA , Testes Genéticos , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Síndromes de Imunodeficiência/imunologia , Mutação , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Fluxo de Trabalho
19.
Nat Genet ; 48(1): 74-8, 2016 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26642240

RESUMO

Patients with a combined immunodeficiency characterized by normal numbers but impaired function of T and B cells had a homozygous p.Tyr20His substitution in transferrin receptor 1 (TfR1), encoded by TFRC. The substitution disrupts the TfR1 internalization motif, resulting in defective receptor endocytosis and markedly increased TfR1 expression on the cell surface. Iron citrate rescued the lymphocyte defects, and expression of wild-type but not mutant TfR1 rescued impaired transferrin uptake in patient-derived fibroblasts. Tfrc(Y20H/Y20H) mice recapitulated the immunological defects of patients. Despite the critical role of TfR1 in erythrocyte development and function, patients had only mild anemia and only slightly increased TfR1 expression in erythroid precursors. We show that STEAP3, a metalloreductase expressed in erythroblasts, associates with TfR1 and partially rescues transferrin uptake in patient-derived fibroblasts, suggesting that STEAP3 may provide an accessory TfR1 endocytosis signal that spares patients from severe anemia. These findings demonstrate the importance of TfR1 in adaptive immunity.


Assuntos
Antígenos CD/genética , Antígenos CD/imunologia , Síndromes de Imunodeficiência/genética , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto , Receptores da Transferrina/genética , Receptores da Transferrina/imunologia , Imunidade Adaptativa/genética , Anemia/genética , Animais , Antígenos CD/metabolismo , Linfócitos B/imunologia , Linfócitos B/metabolismo , Células Cultivadas , Endocitose , Feminino , Fibroblastos/fisiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Mutantes , Proteínas Oncogênicas/genética , Proteínas Oncogênicas/metabolismo , Linhagem , Receptores da Transferrina/metabolismo
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