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1.
Gait Posture ; 90: 489-495, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34628196

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We study dual-task performance with marker-free video recordings of Timed Up-and-Go tests (TUG) and TUG combined with a cognitive/verbal task (TUG dual-task, TUGdt). RESEARCH QUESTION: Can gait parameters be accurately estimated from video-recorded TUG tests by a new semi-automatic method aided by a technique for human 2D pose estimation based on deep learning? METHODS: Thirty persons aged 60-85 years participated in the study, conducted in a laboratory environment. Data were collected by two synchronous video-cameras and a marker-based optoelectronic motion capture system as gold standard, to evaluate the gait parameters step length (SL), step width (SW), step duration (SD), single-stance duration (SSD) and double-stance duration (DSD). For reliability evaluations, data processing aided by a deep neural network model, involved three raters who conducted three repetitions of identifying anatomical keypoints in recordings of one randomly selected step from each of the participants. Validity was analysed using 95 % confidence intervals (CI) and p-values for method differences and Bland-Altman plots with limits of agreement. Inter- and intra-rater reliability were calculated as intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) and standard errors of measurement. Smallest detectable change was calculated for inter-rater reliability. RESULTS: Mean ddifferences between video and the motion capture system data for SW, DSD, and SSD were significant (p < 0.001). However, mean differences for all parameters were small (-6.4%-13.0% of motion capture system) indicating good validity. Concerning reliability, almost all 95 % CI of the ICC estimates exceeded 0.90, indicating excellent reliability. Only inter-rater reliability for SW (95 % CI = 0.892;0.973) and one rater's intra-rater reliability for SSD (95 % CI = 0.793;0.951) were lower, but still showed good to excellent reliability. SIGNIFICANCE: The presented method for extraction of gait parameters from video appears suitable for valid and reliable quantification of gait. This opens up for analyses that may contribute to the knowledge of cognitive-motor interference in dual-task testing.

2.
Front Bioeng Biotechnol ; 9: 636960, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34336797

RESUMO

Background: At the beginning of a sprint, the acceleration of the body center of mass (COM) is driven mostly forward and vertically in order to move from an initial crouched position to a more forward-leaning position. Individual muscle contributions to COM accelerations have not been previously studied in a sprint with induced acceleration analysis, nor have muscle contributions to the mediolateral COM accelerations received much attention. This study aimed to analyze major lower-limb muscle contributions to the body COM in the three global planes during the first step of a sprint start. We also investigated the influence of step width on muscle contributions in both naturally wide sprint starts (natural trials) and in sprint starts in which the step width was restricted (narrow trials). Method: Motion data from four competitive sprinters (2 male and 2 female) were collected in their natural sprint style and in trials with a restricted step width. An induced acceleration analysis was performed to study the contribution from eight major lower limb muscles (soleus, gastrocnemius, rectus femoris, vasti, gluteus maximus, gluteus medius, biceps femoris, and adductors) to acceleration of the body COM. Results: In natural trials, soleus was the main contributor to forward (propulsion) and vertical (support) COM acceleration and the three vasti (vastus intermedius, lateralis and medialis) were the main contributors to medial COM acceleration. In the narrow trials, soleus was still the major contributor to COM propulsion, though its contribution was considerably decreased. Likewise, the three vasti were still the main contributors to support and to medial COM acceleration, though their contribution was lower than in the natural trials. Overall, most muscle contributions to COM acceleration in the sagittal plane were reduced. At the joint level, muscles contributed overall more to COM support than to propulsion in the first step of sprinting. In the narrow trials, reduced COM propulsion and particularly support were observed compared to the natural trials. Conclusion: The natural wide steps provide a preferable body configuration to propel and support the COM in the sprint starts. No advantage in muscular contributions to support or propel the COM was found in narrower step widths.

3.
J Biomech ; 125: 110581, 2021 08 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34217032

RESUMO

The foot is anatomically and functionally complex, and thus an accurate description of intrinsic kinematics for clinical or sports applications requires multiple segments. This has led to the development of many multi-segment foot models for both kinematic and kinetic analyses. These models differ in the number of segments analyzed, bony landmarks identified, required marker set, defined anatomical axes and frames, the convention used to calculate joint rotations and the determination of neutral positions or other offsets from neutral. Many of these models lack validation. The terminology used is inconsistent and frequently confusing. Biomechanical and clinical studies using these models should use established references and describe how results are obtained and reported. The International Society of Biomechanics has previously published proposals for standards regarding kinematic and kinetic measurements in biomechanical research, and in this paper also addresses multi-segment foot kinematics modeling. The scope of this work is not to prescribe a particular set of standard definitions to be used in all applications, but rather to recommend a set of standards for collecting, calculating and reporting relevant data. The present paper includes recommendations for the overall modeling and grouping of the foot bones, for defining landmarks and other anatomical references, for addressing the many experimental issues in motion data collection, for analysing and reporting relevant results and finally for designing clinical and biomechanical studies in large populations by selecting the most suitable protocol for the specific application. These recommendations should also be applied when writing manuscripts and abstracts.


Assuntos
, Marcha , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Articulações do Pé , Pele
4.
J Biomech ; 123: 110493, 2021 06 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34000645

RESUMO

Inter-limb differences in Achilles tendon mechanical, material and morphological properties have previously been described in non-athletes and attributed to the preferential use of a given limb. Achilles tendon overuse tendon injury generally initiate unilaterally and alters triceps surae activation and Achilles tendon properties. The investigation of inter-limb differences in muscle activation and tendon properties may provide directions for injury prevention in habitual runners. In this study triceps surae and Achilles tendon properties were investigated bilaterally in habitual runners during unilateral maximal isometric contractions. Morphological, mechanical and material Achilles tendon properties were assessed using isokinetic dynamometry, motion capture and ultrasonography while triceps surae activation strategies were assessed using electromyography. Lower limb preference was assessed for inter-limb comparisons using the Waterloo questionnaire. Zero and one-dimensional statistical analysis and Cohen's d were employed to investigate possible inter-limb differences. Inter-limb associations in Achilles tendon properties and intra-limb associations between triceps surae activations were assessed using Pearson's correlation coefficients. No differences were observed between the preferred and non-preferred limb in terms of triceps surae muscle activation amplitude and Achilles tendon properties. However, intra-limb association among triceps surae activation ratios were not identical between limbs. Runners and triathletes present similar Achilles tendons properties between limbs, and thus initial observations of unilateral changes in the Achilles tendon properties might be used as a strategy to prevent the onset of overuse tendon injury. The non-similar associations within activation ratios between limbs should be further explored since triceps surae activation strategies may alter loading of the Achilles tendon.


Assuntos
Tendão do Calcâneo , Tendão do Calcâneo/diagnóstico por imagem , Eletromiografia , Contração Isométrica , Perna (Membro) , Músculo Esquelético
5.
J Sci Med Sport ; 24(11): 1193-1198, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34024734

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Whilst cycling performance has been studied extensively, very little is known about the performance of para-cyclists. This study assessed the relation between sprint power and road time trial performance in elite para-cyclists, and whether this relation differed based on impairment type and type of bike used. DESIGN: Cross-sectional. METHODS: During international para-cycling events, 168 athletes (88 bicycles, 17 tricycles, 56 recumbent handbikes and 7 kneeling handbikes) performed 20-s sport-specific sprint tests (mean power output (POmean) W), and their road time trial performance (average speed (km/h)) was taken from the official results. Multilevel regression models to assess the relation of sprint with time trial performance were composed for i. leg-cyclists: bicycle and tricycle and ii. arm-cyclists: recumbent- and kneeling handbike, adjusted for identified confounders. Furthermore, impairment type (categorized as i) muscle power/range of motion, ii) limb deficiency/leg length difference, and iii) coordination) and bike type were tested as effect modifiers. RESULTS: POmean ranged from 303 ±â€¯12 W for recumbent handcyclists to 482 ±â€¯156 W for bicyclists. POmean was significantly related to time trial performance, for both leg-cyclists (ß = 0.010, SE = 0.003, p < 0.01) and arm-cyclists (ß = 0.029; SE = 0.005, p < 0.01), and impairment type and bike type were not found to be effect modifiers. CONCLUSIONS: Sprint power was related to road time trial performance in all para-cyclists, with no differences found in this relation based on impairment type nor bike type. For those competing on a bicycle, tricycle, recumbent- or kneeling handbike, sprint tests might therefore be useful to predict or monitor time trial performance.


Assuntos
Desempenho Atlético/fisiologia , Ciclismo/fisiologia , Esportes para Pessoas com Deficiência/fisiologia , Adulto , Braço/fisiologia , Comportamento Competitivo/fisiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Perna (Membro)/fisiologia , Masculino , Consumo de Oxigênio , Postura , Análise de Regressão , Equipamentos Esportivos , Análise e Desempenho de Tarefas
6.
Biomed Res Int ; 2021: 8899699, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33628828

RESUMO

The in vivo characterization of the passive mechanical properties of the human triceps surae musculotendinous unit is important for gaining a deeper understanding of the interactive responses of the tendon and muscle tissues to loading during passive stretching. This study sought to quantify a comprehensive set of passive muscle-tendon properties such as slack length, stiffness, and the stress-strain relationship using a combination of ultrasound imaging and a three-dimensional motion capture system in healthy adults. By measuring tendon length, the cross-section areas of the Achilles tendon subcompartments (i.e., medial gastrocnemius and soleus aspects), and the ankle torque simultaneously, the mechanical properties of each individual compartment can be specifically identified. We found that the medial gastrocnemius (GM) and soleus (SOL) aspects of the Achilles tendon have similar mechanical properties in terms of slack angle (GM: -10.96° ± 3.48°; SOL: -8.50° ± 4.03°), moment arm at 0° of ankle angle (GM: 30.35 ± 6.42 mm; SOL: 31.39 ± 6.42 mm), and stiffness (GM: 23.18 ± 13.46 Nmm-1; SOL: 31.57 ± 13.26 Nmm-1). However, maximal tendon stress in the GM was significantly less than that in SOL (GM: 2.96 ± 1.50 MPa; SOL: 4.90 ± 1.88 MPa, p = 0.024), largely due to the higher passive force observed in the soleus compartment (GM: 99.89 ± 39.50 N; SOL: 174.59 ± 79.54 N, p = 0.020). Moreover, the tendon contributed to more than half of the total muscle-tendon unit lengthening during the passive stretch. This unequal passive stress between the medial gastrocnemius and the soleus tendon might contribute to the asymmetrical loading and deformation of the Achilles tendon during motion reported in the literature. Such information is relevant to understanding the Achilles tendon function and loading profile in pathological populations in the future.


Assuntos
Tendão do Calcâneo/fisiologia , Fenômenos Biomecânicos/fisiologia , Músculo Esquelético/fisiologia , Adulto , Articulação do Tornozelo/fisiologia , Eletromiografia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Amplitude de Movimento Articular/fisiologia , Torque
7.
J Sports Sci ; 39(2): 154-160, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32814515

RESUMO

Overuse injuries are a common problem to triathletes' population. Overuse injuries may arise from inter-limb biomechanical differences during running, but the literature lacks information regarding inter-limb differences in triathletes. In this study inter-limb differences were investigated in injury-free triathletes during the running portion of a simulated cycle-run transition. Thirteen triathletes performed a 5 km run preceded by a 20 min cycling trial at 70% of maximal power output. During the Start, Mid and End stages of running, kinetic, kinematic and muscle activation variables were compared between the preferred and non-preferred limbs across the stance phase. A statistical parametric mapping analysis showed no differences between limbs when considering kinetic and kinematic variables (p > 0.05, ES<0.60). A lower soleus activation was observed in the preferred limb (p < 0.05, ES>0.60) from 53.40-75.9% of the stance phase at the End stage of running. In conclusion, inter-limb differences in kinetic or kinematic variables may not represent a risk for overloading in triathletes. However, inter-limb differences in triceps surae activation during running after cycling may represent one potential factor leading to overuse injuries in triathletes and should be further investigated.


Assuntos
Ciclismo/fisiologia , Extremidade Inferior/fisiologia , Músculo Esquelético/fisiologia , Corrida/fisiologia , Adulto , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Transtornos Traumáticos Cumulativos/fisiopatologia , Eletromiografia , Humanos , Cinética , Masculino , Resistência Física/fisiologia , Fatores de Risco , Tendões/fisiologia
8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33345010

RESUMO

Background: Following an Achilles tendon rupture, ankle foot orthoses (AFO) of different designs are used to protect the healing tendon. They are generally designed to protect against re-rupture by preventing undesired dorsiflexion and to prevent elongation by achieving plantarflexion in the ankle. There is limited knowledge of the biomechanical effects of different AFO designs and ankle angles on the tendon and lower leg muscles. Hypothesis: The hypothesis was that non-uniform displacement in the Achilles tendon, lower leg muscle activity, and plantar pressure distribution would be affected differently in different designs of AFO and by varying the degree of dorsiflexion limitation. Study Design: Controlled laboratory study. Methods: Ultrasound of the Achilles tendon, EMG of the lower leg muscles and plantar pressure distribution were recorded in 16 healthy subjects during walking on a treadmill unbraced and wearing three designs of AFO. Ultrasound speckle tracking was used to estimate motion within the tendon. The tested AFO designs were a rigid AFO and a dorsal brace used together with wedges and an AFO with an adjustable ankle angle restricting dorsiflexion to various degrees. Results: There were no significant differences in non-uniform tendon displacement or muscle activity between the different designs of AFO. For the rigid AFO and the adjustable AFO there was a significant reduction in non-uniform displacement within the tendon and soleus muscle activity as restriction in dorsiflexion increased. Conclusion: The degree of dorsiflexion allowed within an AFO had greater effects on Achilles tendon displacement patterns and muscle activity in the calf than differences in AFO design. AFO settings that allowed ankle dorsiflexion to neutral resulted in displacement patterns in the Achilles tendon and muscle activity in the lower leg which were close to those observed during unbraced walking.

9.
J Sports Sci ; 38(19): 2200-2207, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32921248

RESUMO

The aims of this study were (a) to describe the kinematics underlying the phenomenon of the knee of the swing leg passing medially in front of the athlete during the single push (SP) phase of the block sprint start, and (b) to determine the relationships between block phase pelvis range of motion (RoM), 1st step width and block phase performance. Three-dimensional kinematic data (250 Hz) were collected from eleven competitive sprinters (100 m PB: 11.17 ± 0.41) performing maximal effort block starts. The joint angles of the rear hip with respect to the pelvis and the pelvis segment angles with respect to the laboratory coordinate system were calculated during the block start phase to the end of the 1st stance. A combination of pelvis list and rotation (not hip adduction) was coupled with the thigh of the swing leg moving medially during the SP phase. A very high positive correlation was found between pelvic list RoM and 1st step width (r = 0.799, p = 0.003). No other significant correlations were found. Attempting to reduce pelvic RoM or changing frontal and transverse plane hip joint angles to minimise medial thigh motion is unlikely to lead to an improvement to performance.


Assuntos
Articulação do Joelho/fisiologia , Pelve/fisiologia , Corrida/fisiologia , Aceleração , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Feminino , Análise da Marcha , Articulação do Quadril/fisiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Postura/fisiologia , Amplitude de Movimento Articular , Coxa da Perna/fisiologia , Estudos de Tempo e Movimento , Adulto Jovem
10.
J Electromyogr Kinesiol ; 55: 102474, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32979677

RESUMO

One of the purposes of footwear is to assist locomotion, but some footwear types seem to restrict natural foot motion, which may affect the contribution of ankle plantar flexor muscles to propulsion. This study examined the effects of different footwear conditions on the activity of ankle plantar flexors during walking. Ten healthy habitually shod individuals walked overground in shoes, barefoot and in flip-flops while fine-wire electromyography (EMG) activity was recorded from flexor hallucis longus (FHL), soleus (SOL), and medial and lateral gastrocnemius (MG and LG) muscles. EMG signals were peak-normalised and analysed in the stance phase using Statistical Parametric Mapping (SPM). We found highly individual EMG patterns. Although walking with shoes required higher muscle activity for propulsion than walking barefoot or with flip-flops in most participants, this did not result in statistically significant differences in EMG amplitude between footwear conditions in any muscle (p > 0.05). Time to peak activity showed the lowest coefficient of variation in shod walking (3.5, 7.0, 8.0 and 3.4 for FHL, SOL, MG and LG, respectively). Future studies should clarify the sources and consequences of individual EMG responses to different footwear.


Assuntos
Eletromiografia/métodos , Pé/fisiologia , Músculo Esquelético/fisiologia , Sapatos , Caminhada/fisiologia , Adulto , Articulação do Tornozelo/fisiologia , Feminino , Marcha/fisiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
11.
Adapt Phys Activ Q ; 37(3): 241-252, 2020 Mar 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32143189

RESUMO

The purpose of this study was to examine the interrater reliability of a new evidence-based classification system for Para Va'a. Twelve Para Va'a athletes were classified by three classifier teams each consisting of a medical and a technical classifier. Interrater reliability was assessed by calculating intraclass correlation for the overall class allocation and total scores of trunk, leg, and on-water test batteries and by calculating Fleiss's kappa and percentage of total agreement in the individual tests of each test battery. All classifier teams agreed with the overall class allocation of all athletes, and all three test batteries exhibited excellent interrater reliability. At a test level, agreement between classifiers was almost perfect in 14 tests, substantial in four tests, moderate in four tests, and fair in one test. The results suggest that a Para Va'a athlete can expect to be allocated to the same class regardless of which classifier team conducts the classification.


Assuntos
Paratletas , Esportes para Pessoas com Deficiência/fisiologia , Esportes , Esportes Aquáticos/classificação , Humanos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
12.
Disabil Rehabil ; : 1-5, 2020 Mar 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32174176

RESUMO

Purpose: The para-cycling classification system, consisting of five classes (C1-C5) for bicycling (C5 athletes having least impairments), is mostly based on expert-opinion rather than scientific evidence. The aim of this study was to determine the differences in race performance between para-cycling classes. Methods: From official results of the men's 1 km time trials for classes C1-C5 of seven Union Cycliste Internationale World Championships and Paralympics, median race speed of the five fastest athletes in each class was calculated (n = 175). Para-cycling results were expressed as a percentage of able-bodied performance using race results from the same years (n = 35). To assess differences between consecutive classes, Kruskal-Wallis tests with Mann-Whitney U post hoc tests were performed, correcting for multiple testing (p < 0.013). Results: Para-cyclists in C1 reached 75% (median ± interquartile range = 44.8 ± 4.2 km/h) and in C5 90% (53.5 ± 2.9 km/h) of able-bodied race speed (59.4 ± 0.9 km/h). Median race speed between consecutive classes was significantly different (χ2 = 142.6, p < 0.01), except for C4 (52.1 ± 2.8 km/h) and C5 (U = 447.0, p = 0.05). Conclusion: Current para-cycling classification does not clearly differentiate between classes with least impairments.IMPLICATIONS FOR REHABILITATIONThe current classification system is not evidence-based and does not clearly differentiate between relevant groups of para-cyclists.An evidence-based para-cycling classification system is essential for a fair and equitable competition.Fair competition will make it more interesting and increase participation.Para-cycling can inspire everyone with and even those without disabilities to be physically active.

13.
Front Physiol ; 10: 1283, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31649557

RESUMO

Ankle plantar flexor muscles are active in the stance phase of walking to propel the body forward. Increasing walking speed requires increased plantar flexor excitation, frequently assessed using surface electromyography (EMG). Despite its popularity, validity of surface EMG applied on shank muscles is mostly unclear. Thus, we examined the agreement between surface and intramuscular EMG at a range of walking speeds. Ten participants walked overground at slow, preferred, fast, and maximum walking speeds (1.01 ± 0.13, 1.43 ± 0.19, 1.84 ± 0.23, and 2.20 ± 0.38 m s-1, respectively) while surface and fine-wire EMG activities of flexor hallucis longus (FHL), soleus (SOL), medial gastrocnemius (MG) and lateral gastrocnemius (LG), and tibialis anterior (TA) muscles were recorded. Surface and intramuscular peak-normalised EMG amplitudes were compared for each muscle and speed across the stance phase using Statistical Parametric Mapping. In FHL, we found differences around peak activity at all speeds except fast. There was no difference in MG at any speed or in LG at slow and preferred speeds. For SOL and LG, differences were seen in the push-off phase at fast and maximum walking speeds. In SOL and TA, surface EMG registered activity during phases in which intramuscular EMG indicated inactivity. Our results suggest that surface EMG is generally a suitable method to measure MG and LG EMG activity across several walking speeds. Minimising cross-talk in FHL remains challenging. Furthermore, SOL and TA muscle onset/offset defined by surface EMG should be interpreted cautiously. These findings should be considered when recording and interpreting surface EMG of shank muscles in walking.

14.
Clin Biomech (Bristol, Avon) ; 70: 115-122, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31476603

RESUMO

Electromechanical delay (EMD) presumably depends upon both contractile and tensile factors. It has recently been used as an indirect measure of muscle tendon stiffness to study adaptations to stretching and training. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether contractile properties induced by a 6 s maximum voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC) could affect EMD without altering passive muscle tendon stiffness or stiffness index. Plantar flexor twitches were evoked via electrical stimulation of the tibial nerve in eight highly trained male sprinters before and after a 6 s MVIC in passive isometric or passively shortening or lengthening muscles. For each twitch, EMD, twitch contractile properties and SOLM-Wave were measured. Passive muscle tendon stiffness was measured from the slope of the relation between torque and ankle angle during controlled passive dorsal flexion and stiffness index by curve-fitting the torque angle data using a second-order polynomial function. EMD did not differ between isometric, lengthening or shortening movements. EMD was reduced by up to 11.56 ±â€¯5.64% immediately after the MVIC and stayed depressed for up to 60 s after conditioning. Peak twitch torque and rate of torque development were potentiated by up to 119.41 ±â€¯37.15% and 116.06 ±â€¯37.39%, respectively. Rising time was reduced by up to 14.46 ±â€¯7.22%. No significant changes occurred in passive muscle tendon stiffness or stiffness index. Using a conditioning MVIC, it was shown that there was an acute enhancement of contractile muscle properties as well as a significant reduction in EMD with no corresponding changes in stiffness. Therefore, caution should be taken when using and interpreting EMD as a proxy for muscle tendon stiffness.


Assuntos
Contração Isométrica , Músculo Esquelético/fisiologia , Torque , Adulto , Tornozelo , Articulação do Tornozelo/fisiologia , Atletas , Estimulação Elétrica , Eletromiografia , Humanos , Masculino , Amplitude de Movimento Articular , Tendões/fisiologia , Resistência à Tração , Adulto Jovem
15.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 11836, 2019 08 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31413264

RESUMO

Skeletal muscle architecture significantly influences the performance capacity of a muscle. A DTI-based method has been recently considered as a new reference standard to validate measurement of muscle structure in vivo. This study sought to quantify muscle architecture parameters such as fascicle length (FL), pennation angle (PA) and muscle thickness (tm) in post-stroke patients using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and to quantitatively compare the differences with 2D ultrasonography (US) and DTI. Muscle fascicles were reconstructed to examine the anatomy of the medial gastrocnemius, posterior soleus and tibialis anterior in seven stroke survivors using US- and DTI-based techniques, respectively. By aligning the US and DTI coordinate system, DTI reconstructed muscle fascicles at the same scanning plane of the US data can be identified. The architecture parameters estimated based on two imaging modalities were further compared. Significant differences were observed for PA and tm between two methods. Although mean FL was not significantly different, there were considerable intra-individual differences in FL and PA. On the individual level, parameters measured by US agreed poorly with those from DTI in both deep and superficial muscles. The significant differences in muscle parameters we observed suggested that the DTI-based method seems to be a better method to quantify muscle architecture parameters which can provide important information for treatment planning and to personalize a computational muscle model.


Assuntos
Imagem de Tensor de Difusão , Músculo Esquelético/diagnóstico por imagem , Músculo Esquelético/patologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/diagnóstico por imagem , Sobreviventes , Ultrassonografia , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
16.
J Sports Sci ; 37(17): 1942-1950, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31006343

RESUMO

Para Va'a is a new Paralympic sport in which athletes with trunk and/or leg impairment compete over 200 m. The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of impairment on kinematic and kinetic variables during Va'a ergometer paddling. Ten able-bodied and 44 Para Va'a athletes with impairments affecting: trunk and legs (TL), legs bilaterally (BL) or leg unilaterally (UL) participated. Differences in stroke frequency, mean paddling force, and joint angles and correlation of the joint angles with paddling force were examined. Able-bodied demonstrated significantly greater paddling force as well as knee and ankle flexion ranges of movement (ROM) on the top hand paddling side compared to TL, BL and UL. Able-bodied, BL and UL demonstrated greater paddling force and trunk flexion compared to TL, and UL demonstrated larger bottom hand paddling side knee and ankle flexion ROM compared to BL. Significant positive correlations were observed for both male and female athletes between paddling force and all trunk flexion angles and ROM in the trunk and pelvis rotation and bottom hand paddling side hip, knee and ankle flexion. The results of this study are important for creating an evidence-based classification system for Para Va'a.


Assuntos
Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Amplitude de Movimento Articular , Esportes para Pessoas com Deficiência/fisiologia , Esportes Aquáticos/fisiologia , Adulto , Articulação do Tornozelo , Atletas , Ergometria , Feminino , Humanos , Cinética , Articulação do Joelho , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pelve , Tronco
17.
Top Stroke Rehabil ; 26(4): 261-266, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30890042

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The spasticity could lead to decreased functional capacity and changes in musculoskeletal tissue. OBJECTIVE: To compare the Achilles tendon properties between the affected and contralateral limbs of participants with spasticity due to stroke and the healthy subjects. METHODS: Fifteen individuals with ankle spasticity due to stroke and 15 healthy subjects were recruited. Maximal isometric ankle joint torque was obtained with an isokinetic dynamometer, and an ultrasound was used to determine tendon length, tendon cross-sectional area, and the medial gastrocnemius myotendinous junction displacement. The Achilles tendon strength, displacement, stress, strain, stiffness, and Young's modulus were obtained during a maximum voluntary isometric plantarflexion contraction. RESULTS: There were no differences between Achilles tendon length among participants. Both limbs of participants with stroke showed reduced tendon cross-sectional area (~18%) compared to healthy limb. The affected limb showed decreased tendon strength (686 ± 293.3 N), displacement (10.6 ± 1.7 mm), Young's modulus values (849 ± 235.6 MPa), and lower stiffness (196.6 ± 67.6 N/mm) compared to the contralateral limb (strength, 1357.1 ± 294.8 N; displacement, 15.2 ± 5.5 mm; Young's modulus, 1431.8 ± 301.9 MPa; stiffness, 337.5 ± 98.1 N/mm) and to the healthy limb. The contralateral limb also showed decreased tendon strength (~26.2%) and stiffness (~21.5%) compared to the healthy group. CONCLUSION: There is a decrement in Achilles tendon morphological and mechanical properties of the affected limb in individuals with spasticity due to stroke. The contralateral limb had a thinner tendon more compliant likely to physical activity reduction.


Assuntos
Tendão do Calcâneo/fisiopatologia , Espasticidade Muscular/fisiopatologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/fisiopatologia , Tendão do Calcâneo/diagnóstico por imagem , Adulto , Idoso , Tornozelo/fisiopatologia , Articulação do Tornozelo/fisiopatologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Módulo de Elasticidade , Feminino , Humanos , Contração Isométrica , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Espasticidade Muscular/diagnóstico por imagem , Espasticidade Muscular/etiologia , Músculo Esquelético/fisiopatologia , Amplitude de Movimento Articular , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/complicações , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/diagnóstico por imagem , Ultrassonografia
18.
J Sports Sci ; 37(9): 1046-1054, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30460879

RESUMO

This study investigated how manipulating first step width affects 3D external force production, centre of mass (CoM) motion and performance in athletic sprinting. Eight male and 2 female competitive sprinters (100m PB: 11.03 ± 0.36 s male and 11.6 ± 0.45 s female) performed 10 maximal effort block starts. External force and three-dimensional kinematics were recorded in both the block and first stance phases. Five trials were performed with the athletes performing their preferred technique (Skating) and five trials with the athletes running inside a 0.3 m lane (Narrow). By reducing step width from a mean of 0.31 ± 0.06 m (Skating) to 0.19 ± 0.03 m (Narrow), reductions were found between the two styles in medial block and medial 1st stance impulses, 1st stance anterior toe-off velocity and mediolateral motion of the CoM. No differences were found in block time, step length, stance time, average net resultant force vector, net anteroposterior impulse nor normalised external power. Step width correlated positively with medial impulse but not with braking nor net anteroposterior impulse. Despite less medially directed forces and less mediolateral motion of the CoM in the Narrow trials, no immediate improvement to performance was found by restricting step width.


Assuntos
Desempenho Atlético/fisiologia , Postura , Corrida/fisiologia , Aceleração , Adolescente , Adulto , Atletas , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
19.
J Appl Biomech ; 35(2): 93-100, 2019 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30300050

RESUMO

Trunk, pelvis, and leg movements are important for performance in sprint kayaking. Para-kayaking is a new Paralympic sport in which athletes with trunk and/or leg impairment compete in 3 classification groups. The purpose of this study was to identify how physical impairments impact on performance by examining: differences in 3-dimensional joint range of motion (RM) between 10 (4 females and 6 males) elite able-bodied kayakers and 41 (13 females and 28 males) elite para-kayakers from the 3 classification groups, and which joint angles were correlated with power output during high-intensity kayak ergometer paddling. There were significant differences in RM between the able-bodied kayakers and the 3 para-kayak groups for the shoulders (flexion, rotation: able-bodied kayakers < para-kayakers); trunk and pelvis (rotation: able-bodied kayakers > para-kayakers); and legs (hip, knee, and ankle flexion: able-bodied kayakers > para-kayakers) during paddling. Furthermore, athletes with greater impairment exhibited lower trunk and leg RM compared with those with less impairment. Significant positive correlations were observed for both males and females between power output and peak shoulder and trunk flexion; trunk and pelvis rotation RM; and hip, knee, and ankle flexion RM. This information is important for understanding how key kinematic and kinetic variables for para-kayaking performance vary between athletes from different classification groups.


Assuntos
Atletas , Pessoas com Deficiência , Força Muscular , Amplitude de Movimento Articular , Esportes Aquáticos/fisiologia , Adulto , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Feminino , Humanos , Perna (Membro) , Masculino , Rotação , Ombro , Esportes para Pessoas com Deficiência , Tronco
20.
PLoS One ; 13(8): e0201014, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30071032

RESUMO

The purpose of this study was to describe the effect of increasing workload on individual thigh muscle activation during a 20 minute incremental cycling test. Intramuscular electromyographic signals were recorded from the knee extensors rectus femoris, vastus lateralis, vastus medialis and vastus intermedius and the knee flexors semimembranosus, semitendinosus, and the short and long heads of the biceps femoris during increasing workloads. Mean activation levels were compared over the whole pedaling cycle and the crank angles at which onset and offset of activation and peak activity occurred were identified for each muscle. These data were compared between three workloads. EMG activation level significantly increased (p<0.05) with increasing workload in the rectus femoris, vastus medialis, vastus lateralis, vastus intermedius, biceps femoris long head, semitendinosus and semimembranosus but not in the biceps femoris short head. A significant change in activation timing was found for the rectus femoris, vastus lateralis, vastus medialis and semitendinosus. Of the knee flexors only the short head of the biceps femoris had its peak activity during the upstroke phase at the two highest workloads indicating a unique contribution to knee flexion.


Assuntos
Ciclismo/fisiologia , Músculo Esquelético/fisiologia , Adulto , Atletas , Eletromiografia , Frequência Cardíaca , Humanos , Joelho , Masculino
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