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1.
Genome Med ; 13(1): 74, 2021 Apr 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33931109

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: DNA methylation (DNAm) is associated with gene regulation and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), a measure of kidney function. Decreased eGFR is more common among US Hispanics and African Americans. The causes for this are poorly understood. We aimed to identify trans-ethnic and ethnic-specific differentially methylated positions (DMPs) associated with eGFR using an agnostic, genome-wide approach. METHODS: The study included up to 5428 participants from multi-ethnic studies for discovery and 8109 participants for replication. We tested the associations between whole blood DNAm and eGFR using beta values from Illumina 450K or EPIC arrays. Ethnicity-stratified analyses were performed using linear mixed models adjusting for age, sex, smoking, and study-specific and technical variables. Summary results were meta-analyzed within and across ethnicities. Findings were assessed using integrative epigenomics methods and pathway analyses. RESULTS: We identified 93 DMPs associated with eGFR at an FDR of 0.05 and replicated 13 and 1 DMPs across independent samples in trans-ethnic and African American meta-analyses, respectively. The study also validated 6 previously published DMPs. Identified DMPs showed significant overlap enrichment with DNase I hypersensitive sites in kidney tissue, sites associated with the expression of proximal genes, and transcription factor motifs and pathways associated with kidney tissue and kidney development. CONCLUSIONS: We uncovered trans-ethnic and ethnic-specific DMPs associated with eGFR, including DMPs enriched in regulatory elements in kidney tissue and pathways related to kidney development. These findings shed light on epigenetic mechanisms associated with kidney function, bridging the gap between population-specific eGFR-associated DNAm and tissue-specific regulatory context.

2.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 2182, 2021 04 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33846329

RESUMO

Autosomal genetic analyses of blood lipids have yielded key insights for coronary heart disease (CHD). However, X chromosome genetic variation is understudied for blood lipids in large sample sizes. We now analyze genetic and blood lipid data in a high-coverage whole X chromosome sequencing study of 65,322 multi-ancestry participants and perform replication among 456,893 European participants. Common alleles on chromosome Xq23 are strongly associated with reduced total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, and triglycerides (min P = 8.5 × 10-72), with similar effects for males and females. Chromosome Xq23 lipid-lowering alleles are associated with reduced odds for CHD among 42,545 cases and 591,247 controls (P = 1.7 × 10-4), and reduced odds for diabetes mellitus type 2 among 54,095 cases and 573,885 controls (P = 1.4 × 10-5). Although we observe an association with increased BMI, waist-to-hip ratio adjusted for BMI is reduced, bioimpedance analyses indicate increased gluteofemoral fat, and abdominal MRI analyses indicate reduced visceral adiposity. Co-localization analyses strongly correlate increased CHRDL1 gene expression, particularly in adipose tissue, with reduced concentrations of blood lipids.


Assuntos
Cromossomos Humanos X/genética , Lipídeos/sangue , Proteínas do Olho/metabolismo , Feminino , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Estudos de Associação Genética , Loci Gênicos , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Genótipo , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/metabolismo , Fenômica , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Tela Subcutânea/metabolismo , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma
3.
Am J Hypertens ; 34(3): 267-273, 2021 04 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33821945

RESUMO

Genetic studies of DNA have been unable to explain a significant portion of the variance of the estimated heritability of blood pressure (BP). Epigenetic mechanisms, particularly DNA methylation, have helped explain additional biological processes linked to BP phenotypes and diseases. Candidate gene methylation studies and genome-wide methylation studies of BP have highlighted impactful cytosine-phosphate-guanine (CpG) markers across different ethnicities. Furthermore, many of these BP-related CpG sites are also linked to metabolism-related phenotypes. Integrating epigenome-wide association study data with other layers of molecular data such as genotype data (from single nucleotide polymorphism arrays or sequencing), other epigenetic data, and/or transcriptome data can provide additional information about the significance and complexity of these relationships. Recent data suggest that epigenetic changes can be consequences rather than causes of BP variation. Finally, these data can give insight into downstream effects of long-standing high BP (due to target organ damage (TOD)). The current review provides a literature overview of epigenetic modifications in BP and TOD. Recent studies strongly support the importance of epigenetic modifications, such as DNA methylation, in BP and TOD for relevant biological insights, reliable biomarkers, and possible future therapeutics.

4.
Lipids Health Dis ; 20(1): 30, 2021 Apr 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33812378

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Developing an understanding of the biochemistry of aging in both sexes is critical for managing disease throughout the lifespan. Lipidomic associations with age and sex have been reported, but prior studies are limited by measurements in serum rather than plasma or by participants taking lipid-lowering medications. METHODS: Our study included lipidomic data from 980 participants aged 18-87 years old from the Genetics of Lipid-Lowering Drugs and Diet Network (GOLDN). Participants were off lipid-lowering medications for at least 4 weeks, and signal intensities of 413 known lipid species were measured in plasma. We examined linear age and sex associations with signal intensity of (a) 413 lipid species; (b) 6 lipid classes (glycerolipids, glycerophospholipids, sphingolipids, sterol lipids, fatty acids, and acylcarnitines); and (c) 15 lipid subclasses; as well as with the particle sizes of three lipoproteins. RESULTS: Significant age associations were identified in 4 classes, 11 subclasses, 147 species, and particle size of one lipoprotein while significant sex differences were identified in 5 classes, 12 subclasses, 248 species, and particle sizes of two lipoproteins. For many lipid species (n = 97), age-related associations were significantly different between males and females. Age*sex interaction effects were most prevalent among phosphatidylcholines, sphingomyelins, and triglycerides. CONCLUSION: We identified several lipid species, subclasses, and classes that differ by age and sex; these lipid phenotypes may serve as useful biomarkers for lipid changes and associated cardiovascular risk with aging in the future. Future studies of age-related changes throughout the adult lifespan of both sexes are warranted. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00083369 ; May 21, 2004.

5.
Am J Epidemiol ; 2021 Apr 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33861317

RESUMO

Genotype-phenotype association studies often combine phenotype data from multiple studies to increase power. Harmonization of the data usually requires substantial effort due to heterogeneity in phenotype definitions, study design, data collection procedures, and data set organization. Here we describe a centralized system for phenotype harmonization that includes input from phenotype domain and study experts, quality control, documentation, reproducible results, and data sharing mechanisms. This system was developed for the National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute's Trans-Omics for Precision Medicine program, which is generating genomic and other omics data for >80 studies with extensive phenotype data. To date, 63 phenotypes have been harmonized across thousands of participants from up to 17 studies per phenotype (participants recruited 1948-2012). We discuss challenges in this undertaking and how they were addressed. The harmonized phenotype data and associated documentation have been submitted to National Institutes of Health data repositories for controlled-access by the scientific community. We also provide materials to facilitate future harmonization efforts by the community, which include (1) the code used to generate the 63 harmonized phenotypes, enabling others to reproduce, modify or extend these harmonizations to additional studies; and (2) results of labeling thousands of phenotype variables with controlled vocabulary terms.

6.
Am J Hum Genet ; 108(4): 564-582, 2021 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33713608

RESUMO

Although many loci have been associated with height in European ancestry populations, very few have been identified in African ancestry individuals. Furthermore, many of the known loci have yet to be generalized to and fine-mapped within a large-scale African ancestry sample. We performed sex-combined and sex-stratified meta-analyses in up to 52,764 individuals with height and genome-wide genotyping data from the African Ancestry Anthropometry Genetics Consortium (AAAGC). We additionally combined our African ancestry meta-analysis results with published European genome-wide association study (GWAS) data. In the African ancestry analyses, we identified three novel loci (SLC4A3, NCOA2, ECD/FAM149B1) in sex-combined results and two loci (CRB1, KLF6) in women only. In the African plus European sex-combined GWAS, we identified an additional three novel loci (RCCD1, G6PC3, CEP95) which were equally driven by AAAGC and European results. Among 39 genome-wide significant signals at known loci, conditioning index SNPs from European studies identified 20 secondary signals. Two of the 20 new secondary signals and none of the 8 novel loci had minor allele frequencies (MAF) < 5%. Of 802 known European height signals, 643 displayed directionally consistent associations with height, of which 205 were nominally significant (p < 0.05) in the African ancestry sex-combined sample. Furthermore, 148 of 241 loci contained ≤20 variants in the credible sets that jointly account for 99% of the posterior probability of driving the associations. In summary, trans-ethnic meta-analyses revealed novel signals and further improved fine-mapping of putative causal variants in loci shared between African and European ancestry populations.

8.
Circulation ; 143(8): 837-851, 2021 Feb 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33617315

RESUMO

More than 40 years after the 1978 Bethesda Conference on the Declining Mortality from Coronary Heart Disease provided the scientific community with a blueprint for systematic analysis to understand declining rates of coronary heart disease, there are indications the decline has ended or even reversed despite advances in our knowledge about the condition and treatment. Recent data show a more complex situation, with mortality rates for overall cardiovascular disease, including coronary heart disease and stroke, decelerating, whereas those for heart failure are increasing. To mark the 40th anniversary of the Bethesda Conference, the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute and the American Heart Association cosponsored the "Bending the Curve in Cardiovascular Disease Mortality: Bethesda + 40" symposium. The objective was to examine the immediate and long-term outcomes of the 1978 conference and understand the current environment. Symposium themes included trends and future projections in cardiovascular disease (in the United States and internationally), the evolving obesity and diabetes epidemics, and harnessing emerging and innovative opportunities to preserve and promote cardiovascular health and prevent cardiovascular disease. In addition, participant-led discussion explored the challenges and barriers in promoting cardiovascular health across the lifespan and established a potential framework for observational research and interventions that would begin in early childhood (or ideally in utero). This report summarizes the relevant research, policy, and practice opportunities discussed at the symposium.

9.
Eur J Hum Genet ; 2021 Feb 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33637890

RESUMO

Hypertension, obesity, chronic kidney disease and type 2 diabetes are comorbidities that have very high prevalence among persons with hyperuricemia (serum urate > 6.8 mg/dL) and gout. Here we use multivariate genetic models to test the hypothesis that the co-association of traits representing hyperuricemia and its comorbidities is genetically based. Using Bayesian whole-genome regression models, we estimated the genetic marker-based variance and the covariance between serum urate, serum creatinine, systolic blood pressure (SBP), blood glucose and body mass index (BMI) from two independent family-based studies: The Framingham Heart Study-FHS and the Hypertension Genetic Epidemiology Network study-HyperGEN. The main genetic findings that replicated in both FHS and HyperGEN, were (1) creatinine was genetically correlated only with urate and (2) BMI was genetically correlated with urate, SBP, and glucose. The environmental covariance among the traits was generally highest for trait pairs involving BMI. The genetic overlap of traits representing the comorbidities of hyperuricemia and gout appears to cluster in two separate axes of genetic covariance. Because creatinine is genetically correlated with urate but not with metabolic traits, this suggests there is one genetic module of shared loci associated with hyperuricemia and chronic kidney disease. Another module of shared loci may account for the association of hyperuricemia and metabolic syndrome. This study provides a clear quantitative genetic basis for the clustering of comorbidities with hyperuricemia.

10.
Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol ; 320(3): H954-H968, 2021 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33416449

RESUMO

Exosomes are an important mechanism of cell-cell interaction in the cardiovascular system, both in maintaining homeostasis and in stress response. Interindividual differences that alter content in exosomes may play a role in cardiovascular disease pathology. To study the effect of interindividual cardiomyocyte (CM) variation, we characterized exosomal content in phenotypically diverse human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived CMs (hiPSC-CMs). Cell lines were generated from six participants in the HyperGEN cohort: three with left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) and three with normal left ventricular mass (LVM). Sequence analysis of the intracellular and exosomal RNA populations showed distinct expression pattern differences between hiPSC-CM lines derived from individuals with LVH and those with normal LVM. Functional analysis of hiPSC-endothelial cells (hiPSC-ECs) treated with exosomes from both hiPSC-CM groups showed significant variation in response, including differences in tube formation, migration, and proliferation. Overall, treatment of hiPSC-ECs with exosomes resulted in significant expression changes associated with angiogenesis and endothelial cell vasculogenesis. However, the hiPSC-ECs treated with exosomes from the LVH-affected donors exhibited significantly increased proliferation but decreased tube formation and migration, suggesting angiogenic dysregulation.NEW & NOTEWORTHY The intracellular RNA and the miRNA content in exosomes are significantly different in hiPSC-CMs derived from LVH-affected individuals compared with those from unaffected individuals. Treatment of endothelial cells with these exosomes functionally affects cellular phenotypes in a donor-specific manner. These findings provide novel insight into underlying mechanisms of hypertrophic cell signaling between different cell types. With a growing interest in stem cells and exosomes for cardiovascular therapeutic use, this also provides information important for regenerative medicine.


Assuntos
Diferenciação Celular , Exossomos/metabolismo , Hipertrofia Ventricular Esquerda/metabolismo , Células-Tronco Pluripotentes Induzidas/metabolismo , Miócitos Cardíacos/metabolismo , Neovascularização Fisiológica , Doadores de Tecidos , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Movimento Celular , Proliferação de Células , Separação Celular , Células Cultivadas , Exossomos/genética , Exossomos/ultraestrutura , Feminino , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Hipertrofia Ventricular Esquerda/genética , Hipertrofia Ventricular Esquerda/patologia , Células-Tronco Pluripotentes Induzidas/ultraestrutura , Masculino , MicroRNAs/genética , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Miócitos Cardíacos/ultraestrutura , Neovascularização Fisiológica/genética , Fenótipo , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Transcriptoma
11.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(1): e2030435, 2021 01 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33399855

RESUMO

Importance: The incidence of and mortality from coronary heart disease (CHD) are substantially higher among African American individuals compared with non-Hispanic White individuals, even after adjusting for traditional factors associated with CHD. The unexplained excess risk might be due to genetic factors related to African ancestry that are associated with a higher risk of CHD, such as the heterozygous state for the sickle cell variant or sickle cell trait (SCT). Objective: To evaluate whether there is an association between SCT and the incidence of myocardial infarction (MI) or composite CHD outcomes in African American individuals. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cohort study included 5 large, prospective, population-based cohorts of African American individuals in the Women's Health Initiative (WHI) study, the Reasons for Geographic and Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS) study, the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA), the Jackson Heart Study (JHS), and the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) study. The follow-up periods included in this study were 1993 and 1998 to 2014 for the WHI study, 2003 to 2014 for the REGARDS study, 2002 to 2016 for the MESA, 2002 to 2015 for the JHS, and 1987 to 2016 for the ARIC study. Data analysis began in October 2013 and was completed in October 2020. Exposures: Sickle cell trait status was evaluated by either direct genotyping or high-quality imputation of rs334 (the sickle cell variant). Participants with sickle cell disease and those with a history of CHD were excluded from the analyses. Main Outcomes and Measures: Incident MI, defined as adjudicated nonfatal or fatal MI, and incident CHD, defined as adjudicated nonfatal MI, fatal MI, coronary revascularization procedures, or death due to CHD. Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to estimate the hazard ratio for incident MI or CHD comparing SCT carriers with noncarriers. Models were adjusted for age, sex (except for the WHI study), study site or region of residence, hypertension status or systolic blood pressure, type 1 or 2 diabetes, serum high-density lipoprotein level, total cholesterol level, and global ancestry (estimated from principal components analysis). Results: A total of 23 197 African American men (29.8%) and women (70.2%) were included in the combined sample, of whom 1781 had SCT (7.7% prevalence). Mean (SD) ages at baseline were 61.2 (6.9) years in the WHI study (n = 5904), 64.0 (9.3) years in the REGARDS study (n = 10 714), 62.0 (10.0) years in the MESA (n = 1556), 50.3 (12.0) years in the JHS (n = 2175), and 53.2 (5.8) years in the ARIC study (n = 2848). There were no significant differences in the distribution of traditional factors associated with cardiovascular disease by SCT status within cohorts. A combined total of 1034 participants (76 with SCT) had incident MI, and 1714 (137 with SCT) had the composite CHD outcome. The meta-analyzed crude incidence rate of MI did not differ by SCT status and was 3.8 per 1000 person-years (95% CI, 3.3-4.5 per 1000 person-years) among those with SCT and 3.6 per 1000 person-years (95% CI, 2.7-5.1 per 1000 person-years) among those without SCT. For the composite CHD outcome, these rates were 7.3 per 1000 person-years (95% CI, 5.5-9.7 per 1000 person-years) among those with SCT and 6.0 per 1000 person-years (95% CI, 4.9-7.4 per 1000 person-years) among those without SCT. Meta-analysis of the 5 study results showed that SCT status was not significantly associated with MI (hazard ratio, 1.03; 95% CI, 0.81-1.32) or the composite CHD outcome (hazard ratio, 1.16; 95% CI, 0.92-1.47). Conclusions and Relevance: In this cohort study, there was not an association between SCT and increased risk of MI or CHD in African American individuals. These disorders may not be associated with sickle cell trait-related sudden death in this population.


Assuntos
Afro-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Doença das Coronárias , Traço Falciforme , Idoso , Estudos de Coortes , Doença das Coronárias/complicações , Doença das Coronárias/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Traço Falciforme/complicações , Traço Falciforme/epidemiologia
12.
Epigenetics ; : 1-14, 2020 10 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33100131

RESUMO

Target organ damage (TOD) manifests as vascular injuries in the body organ systems associated with long-standing hypertension. DNA methylation in peripheral blood leukocytes can capture inflammatory processes and gene expression changes underlying TOD. We investigated the association between epigenome-wide DNA methylation and five measures of TOD (estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), urinary albumin-creatinine ratio (UACR), left ventricular mass index (LVMI), relative wall thickness (RWT), and white matter hyperintensity (WMH)) in 961 African Americans from hypertensive sibships. A multivariate (multi-trait) model of eGFR, UACR, LVMI, and RWT identified seven CpGs associated with at least one of the traits (cg21134922, cg04816311 near C7orf50, cg09155024, cg10254690 near OAT, cg07660512, cg12661888 near IFT43, and cg02264946 near CATSPERD) at FDR q < 0.1. Adjusting for blood pressure, body mass index, and type 2 diabetes attenuated the association for four CpGs. DNA methylation was associated with cis-gene expression for some CpGs, but no significant mediation by gene expression was detected. Mendelian randomization analyses suggested causality between three CpGs and eGFR (cg04816311, cg10254690, and cg07660512). We also assessed whether the identified CpGs were associated with TOD in 614 African Americans in the Hypertension Genetic Epidemiology Network (HyperGEN) study. Out of three CpGs available for replication, cg04816311 was significantly associated with eGFR (p = 0.0003), LVMI (p = 0.0003), and RWT (p = 0.002). This study found evidence of an association between DNA methylation and TOD in African Americans and highlights the utility of using a multivariate-based model that leverages information across related traits in epigenome-wide association studies.

13.
Nature ; 586(7831): 763-768, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33057201

RESUMO

Age is the dominant risk factor for most chronic human diseases, but the mechanisms through which ageing confers this risk are largely unknown1. The age-related acquisition of somatic mutations that lead to clonal expansion in regenerating haematopoietic stem cell populations has recently been associated with both haematological cancer2-4 and coronary heart disease5-this phenomenon is termed clonal haematopoiesis of indeterminate potential (CHIP)6. Simultaneous analyses of germline and somatic whole-genome sequences provide the opportunity to identify root causes of CHIP. Here we analyse high-coverage whole-genome sequences from 97,691 participants of diverse ancestries in the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Trans-omics for Precision Medicine (TOPMed) programme, and identify 4,229 individuals with CHIP. We identify associations with blood cell, lipid and inflammatory traits that are specific to different CHIP driver genes. Association of a genome-wide set of germline genetic variants enabled the identification of three genetic loci associated with CHIP status, including one locus at TET2 that was specific to individuals of African ancestry. In silico-informed in vitro evaluation of the TET2 germline locus enabled the identification of a causal variant that disrupts a TET2 distal enhancer, resulting in increased self-renewal of haematopoietic stem cells. Overall, we observe that germline genetic variation shapes haematopoietic stem cell function, leading to CHIP through mechanisms that are specific to clonal haematopoiesis as well as shared mechanisms that lead to somatic mutations across tissues.

14.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 112(5): 1200-1211, 2020 11 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32930325

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Epigenome-wide association studies identified the cg00574958 DNA methylation site at the carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1A (CPT1A) gene to be associated with reduced risk of metabolic diseases (hypertriglyceridemia, obesity, type 2 diabetes, hypertension, metabolic syndrome), but the mechanism underlying these associations is unknown. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to elucidate whether carbohydrate and fat intakes modulate cg00574958 methylation and the risk of metabolic diseases. METHODS: We examined associations between carbohydrate (CHO) and fat (FAT) intake, as percentages of total diet energy, and the CHO/FAT ratio with CPT1A-cg00574958, and the risk of metabolic diseases in 3 populations (Genetics of Lipid Lowering Drugs and Diet Network, n = 978; Framingham Heart Study, n = 2331; and REgistre GIroní del COR study, n = 645) while adjusting for confounding factors. To understand possible causal effects of dietary intake on the risk of metabolic diseases, we performed meta-analysis, CPT1A transcription analysis, and mediation analysis with CHO and FAT intakes as exposures and cg00574958 methylation as the mediator. RESULTS: We confirmed strong associations of cg00574958 methylation with metabolic phenotypes (BMI, triglyceride, glucose) and diseases in all 3 populations. Our results showed that CHO intake and CHO/FAT ratio were positively associated with cg00574958 methylation, whereas FAT intake was negatively correlated with cg00574958 methylation. Meta-analysis further confirmed this strong correlation, with ß = 58.4 ± 7.27, P = 8.98 x 10-16 for CHO intake; ß = -36.4 ± 5.95, P = 9.96 x 10-10 for FAT intake; and ß = 3.30 ± 0.49, P = 1.48 x 10-11 for the CHO/FAT ratio. Furthermore, CPT1A mRNA expression was negatively associated with CHO intake, and positively associated with FAT intake, and metabolic phenotypes. Mediation analysis supports the hypothesis that CHO intake induces CPT1A methylation, hence reducing the risk of metabolic diseases, whereas FAT intake inhibits CPT1A methylation, thereby increasing the risk of metabolic diseases. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that the proportion of total energy supplied by CHO and FAT can have a causal effect on the risk of metabolic diseases via the epigenetic status of CPT1A.Study registration at https://www.clinicaltrials.gov/: the Genetics of Lipid Lowering Drugs and Diet Network (GOLDN)-NCT01023750; and the Framingham Heart Study (FHS)-NCT00005121.

15.
Nat Genet ; 52(9): 969-983, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32839606

RESUMO

Large-scale whole-genome sequencing studies have enabled the analysis of rare variants (RVs) associated with complex phenotypes. Commonly used RV association tests have limited scope to leverage variant functions. We propose STAAR (variant-set test for association using annotation information), a scalable and powerful RV association test method that effectively incorporates both variant categories and multiple complementary annotations using a dynamic weighting scheme. For the latter, we introduce 'annotation principal components', multidimensional summaries of in silico variant annotations. STAAR accounts for population structure and relatedness and is scalable for analyzing very large cohort and biobank whole-genome sequencing studies of continuous and dichotomous traits. We applied STAAR to identify RVs associated with four lipid traits in 12,316 discovery and 17,822 replication samples from the Trans-Omics for Precision Medicine Program. We discovered and replicated new RV associations, including disruptive missense RVs of NPC1L1 and an intergenic region near APOC1P1 associated with low-density lipoprotein cholesterol.


Assuntos
Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Variação Genética/genética , Genoma/genética , LDL-Colesterol/genética , Simulação por Computador , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Humanos , Modelos Genéticos , Anotação de Sequência Molecular/métodos , Fenótipo , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma/métodos
16.
J Nutr ; 150(10): 2635-2645, 2020 10 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32840624

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Excess sodium intake and insufficient potassium intake are risk factors for hypertension, but there is limited knowledge regarding genetic factors that influence intake. Twenty-hour or half-day urine samples provide robust estimates of sodium and potassium intake, outperforming other measures such as spot urine samples and dietary self-reporting. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate genomic regions associated with sodium intake, potassium intake, and sodium-to-potassium ratio measured from 24-h or half-day urine samples. METHODS: Using samples of European ancestry (mean age: 54.2 y; 52.3% women), we conducted a meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies in 4 cohorts with 24-h or half-day urine samples (n = 6,519), followed by gene-based analysis. Suggestive loci (P < 10-6) were examined in additional European (n = 844), African (n = 1,246), and Asian (n = 2,475) ancestry samples. RESULTS: We found suggestive loci (P < 10-6) for all 3 traits, including 7 for 24-h sodium excretion, 4 for 24-h potassium excretion, and 4 for sodium-to-potassium ratio. The most significant locus was rs77958157 near cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript prepropeptide (CARTPT) , a gene involved in eating behavior and appetite regulation (P = 2.3 × 10-8 with sodium-to-potassium ratio). Two suggestive loci were replicated in additional samples: for sodium excretion, rs12094702 near zinc finger SWIM-type containing 5 (ZSWIM5) was replicated in the Asian ancestry sample reaching Bonferroni-corrected significance (P = 0.007), and for potassium excretion rs34473523 near sodium leak channel (NALCN) was associated at a nominal P value with potassium excretion both in European (P = 0.043) and African (P = 0.043) ancestry cohorts. Gene-based tests identified 1 significant gene for sodium excretion, CDC42 small effector 1 (CDC42SE1), which is associated with blood pressure regulation. CONCLUSIONS: We identified multiple suggestive loci for sodium and potassium intake near genes associated with eating behavior, nervous system development and function, and blood pressure regulation in individuals of European ancestry. Further research is needed to replicate these findings and to provide insight into the underlying genetic mechanisms by which these genomic regions influence sodium and potassium intake.

17.
Stroke ; 51(8): 2454-2463, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32693751

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Stroke is a complex disease with multiple genetic and environmental risk factors. Blacks endure a nearly 2-fold greater risk of stroke and are 2× to 3× more likely to die from stroke than European Americans. METHODS: The COMPASS (Consortium of Minority Population Genome-Wide Association Studies of Stroke) has conducted a genome-wide association meta-analysis of stroke in >22 000 individuals of African ancestry (3734 cases, 18 317 controls) from 13 cohorts. RESULTS: In meta-analyses, we identified one single nucleotide polymorphism (rs55931441) near the HNF1A gene that reached genome-wide significance (P=4.62×10-8) and an additional 29 variants with suggestive evidence of association (P<1×10-6), representing 24 unique loci. For validation, a look-up analysis for a 100 kb region flanking the COMPASS single nucleotide polymorphism was performed in SiGN (Stroke Genetics Network) Europeans, SiGN Hispanics, and METASTROKE (Europeans). Using a stringent Bonferroni correction P value of 2.08×10-3 (0.05/24 unique loci), we were able to validate associations at the HNF1A locus in both SiGN (P=8.18×10-4) and METASTROKE (P=1.72×10-3) European populations. Overall, 16 of 24 loci showed evidence for validation across multiple populations. Previous studies have reported associations between variants in the HNF1A gene and lipids, C-reactive protein, and risk of coronary artery disease and stroke. Suggestive associations with variants in the SFXN4 and TMEM108 genes represent potential novel ischemic stroke loci. CONCLUSIONS: These findings represent the most thorough investigation of genetic determinants of stroke in individuals of African descent, to date.


Assuntos
Afro-Americanos/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/genética , Afro-Americanos/etnologia , Estudos de Coortes , Predisposição Genética para Doença/etnologia , Humanos , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/etnologia
19.
Lipids Health Dis ; 19(1): 153, 2020 Jun 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32586392

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The lipoprotein insulin resistance (LPIR) score was shown to predict insulin resistance (IR) and type 2 diabetes (T2D) in healthy adults. However, the molecular basis underlying the LPIR utility for classification remains unclear. OBJECTIVE: To identify small molecule lipids associated with variation in the LPIR score, a weighted index of lipoproteins measured by nuclear magnetic resonance, in the Genetics of Lipid Lowering Drugs and Diet Network (GOLDN) study (n = 980). METHODS: Linear mixed effects models were used to test the association between the LPIR score and 413 lipid species and their principal component analysis-derived groups. Significant associations were tested for replication with homeostatic model assessment-IR (HOMA-IR), a phenotype correlated with the LPIR score (r = 0.48, p <  0.001), in the Heredity and Phenotype Intervention (HAPI) Heart Study (n = 590). RESULTS: In GOLDN, 319 lipids were associated with the LPIR score (false discovery rate-adjusted p-values ranging from 4.59 × 10- 161 to 49.50 × 10- 3). Factors 1 (triglycerides and diglycerides/storage lipids) and 3 (mixed lipids) were positively (ß = 0.025, p = 4.52 × 10- 71 and ß = 0.021, p = 5.84 × 10- 41, respectively) and factor 2 (phospholipids/non-storage lipids) was inversely (ß = - 0.013, p = 2.28 × 10- 18) associated with the LPIR score. These findings were replicated for HOMA-IR in the HAPI Heart Study (ß = 0.10, p = 1.21 × 10- 02 for storage, ß = - 0.13, p = 3.14 × 10- 04 for non-storage, and ß = 0.19, p = 8.40 × 10- 07 for mixed lipids). CONCLUSIONS: Non-storage lipidomics species show a significant inverse association with the LPIR metabolic dysfunction score and present a promising focus for future therapeutic and prevention studies.

20.
PLoS One ; 15(5): e0230815, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32379818

RESUMO

Smoking is a potentially causal behavioral risk factor for type 2 diabetes (T2D), but not all smokers develop T2D. It is unknown whether genetic factors partially explain this variation. We performed genome-environment-wide interaction studies to identify loci exhibiting potential interaction with baseline smoking status (ever vs. never) on incident T2D and fasting glucose (FG). Analyses were performed in participants of European (EA) and African ancestry (AA) separately. Discovery analyses were conducted using genotype data from the 50,000-single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) ITMAT-Broad-CARe (IBC) array in 5 cohorts from from the Candidate Gene Association Resource Consortium (n = 23,189). Replication was performed in up to 16 studies from the Cohorts for Heart Aging Research in Genomic Epidemiology Consortium (n = 74,584). In meta-analysis of discovery and replication estimates, 5 SNPs met at least one criterion for potential interaction with smoking on incident T2D at p<1x10-7 (adjusted for multiple hypothesis-testing with the IBC array). Two SNPs had significant joint effects in the overall model and significant main effects only in one smoking stratum: rs140637 (FBN1) in AA individuals had a significant main effect only among smokers, and rs1444261 (closest gene C2orf63) in EA individuals had a significant main effect only among nonsmokers. Three additional SNPs were identified as having potential interaction by exhibiting a significant main effects only in smokers: rs1801232 (CUBN) in AA individuals, rs12243326 (TCF7L2) in EA individuals, and rs4132670 (TCF7L2) in EA individuals. No SNP met significance for potential interaction with smoking on baseline FG. The identification of these loci provides evidence for genetic interactions with smoking exposure that may explain some of the heterogeneity in the association between smoking and T2D.


Assuntos
Glicemia/análise , Fumar Cigarros/genética , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/genética , Jejum/sangue , Genótipo , Adulto , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Africano/genética , Idoso , Fumar Cigarros/etnologia , Estudos de Coortes , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/etnologia , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/genética , Estudos de Viabilidade , Feminino , Loci Gênicos , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Risco
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