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1.
Occup Environ Med ; 77(3): 172-178, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31949041

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to assess the association between maternal occupational exposure to solvents and gastroschisis in offspring. METHODS: We used data from the National Birth Defects Prevention Study, a large population-based case-control study of major birth defects conducted in 10 US states from 1997 to 2011. Infants with gastroschisis were ascertained by active birth defects surveillance systems. Control infants without major birth defects were selected from vital records or birth hospital records. Self-reported maternal occupational histories were collected by telephone interview. Industrial hygienists reviewed this information to estimate exposure to aromatic, chlorinated and petroleum-based solvents from 1 month before conception through the first trimester of pregnancy. Cumulative exposure to solvents was estimated for the same period accounting for estimated exposure intensity and frequency, job duration and hours worked per week. ORs and 95% CIs were estimated to assess the association between exposure to any solvents or solvent classes, and gastroschisis risk. RESULTS: Among 879 cases and 7817 controls, the overall prevalence of periconceptional solvent exposure was 7.3% and 7.4%, respectively. Exposure to any solvent versus no exposure to solvents was not associated with gastroschisis after adjusting for maternal age (OR 1.00, 95% CI 0.75 to 1.32), nor was an association noted for solvent classes. There was no exposure-response relationship between estimated cumulative solvent exposure and gastroschisis after adjusting for maternal age. CONCLUSION: Our study found no association between maternal occupational solvent exposure and gastroschisis in offspring. Further research is needed to understand risk factors for gastroschisis.

2.
PLoS One ; 14(10): e0223093, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31574132

RESUMO

Over the last 20 years, a new group of systemic insecticides-the neonicotinoids-has gained prominence in arable systems, and their application globally has risen year on year. Previous modelling studies using long-term data have suggested that neonicotinoid application has had a detrimental impact on bird populations, but these studies were either limited to a single species or neglected to analyse specific exposure pathways in conjunction with observed population trends. Using bird abundance data, neonicotinoid usage records and cropping data for England at a 5x5 km resolution, generalised linear mixed models were used to test for spatio-temporal associations between neonicotinoid use and changes in the populations of 22 farmland bird species between 1994 and 2014, and to determine whether any associations were explained by dietary preferences. We assigned farmland bird species to three categories of dietary exposure to neonicotinoids based on literature data for species diets and neonicotinoid residues present in dietary items. Significant estimates of neonicotinoid-related population change were obtained for 13 of the 22 species (9 positive effects, 4 negative effects). Model estimates for individual species were not collectively explained by dietary risk categories, so dietary exposure to neonicotinoids via ingestion of treated seeds and seedlings could not be confirmed as a causal factor in farmland bird declines. Although it is not possible to infer any generic effect of dietary exposure to neonicotinoids on farmland bird populations, our analysis identifies three species with significant negative estimates that may warrant further research (house sparrow Passer domesticus, skylark Alauda arvensis and red-legged partridge Alectoris rufa). We conclude that there was either no consistent effect of dietary exposure to neonicotinoids on farmland bird populations in England, or that any over-arching effect was not detectable using our study design. The potential for indirect effects of insecticide use on bird populations via reduced food availability was not considered here and should be a focus for future research.

3.
PLoS One ; 14(7): e0219357, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31291318

RESUMO

Despite advances in technology, there are still constraints on the use of some tracking devices for small species when gathering high temporal and spatial resolution data on movement and resource use. For small species, weight limits imposed on GPS loggers and the consequent impacts on battery life, restrict the volume of data that can be collected. Research on home range and habitat selection for these species should therefore incorporate a consideration of how different sampling parameters and methods may affect the structure of the data and the conclusions drawn. However, factors such as these are seldom explicitly considered. We applied two commonly-used methods of home range estimation, Movement-based Kernel Density Estimation (MKDE) and Kernel Density Estimation (KDE) to investigate the influence of fix rate, tracking duration and method on home range size and habitat selection, using GPS tracking data collected at two different fix rates from a small, aerially-insectivorous bird, the European nightjar Caprimulgus europaeus. Effects of tracking parameters varied with home range estimation method. Fix rate and tracking duration most strongly explained change in MKDE and KDE home range size respectively. Total number of fixes and tracking duration had the strongest impact on habitat selection. High between- and within-individual variation strongly influenced outcomes and was most evident when exploring the effects of varying tracking duration. To reduce skew and bias in home range size estimation and especially habitat selection caused by individual variation and estimation method, we recommend tracking animals for the longest period possible even if this results in a reduced fix rate. If accurate movement properties, (e.g. trajectory length and turning angle) and biologically-representative movement occurrence ranges are more important, then a higher fix rate should be used, but priority habitats can still be identified with an infrequent sampling strategy.


Assuntos
Migração Animal/fisiologia , Aves/fisiologia , Sistemas de Informação Geográfica , Comportamento de Retorno ao Território Vital/fisiologia , Animais , Ecossistema , Movimento/fisiologia
4.
BMJ Open ; 9(3): e026297, 2019 03 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30928950

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess the association between occurrence and timing of maternal self-reported genitourinary tract infection (urinary tract infections [UTIs] and/or sexually transmitted infection [STI]) and risk for gastroschisis in the offspring. DESIGN: Population-based case-control study. SETTING: National Birth Defects Prevention Study, a multisite study in the USA. PARTICIPANTS: Mothers of 1366 gastroschisis cases and 11 238 healthy controls. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Crude and adjusted ORs (aORs) with 95% CIs. RESULTS: Genitourinary infections were frequent in case (19.3%) and control women (9.9%) during the periconceptional period (defined as 3 months prior to 3 months after conception). UTI and/or STI in the periconceptional period were associated with similarly increased risks for gastroschisis (aOR 1.5, 95% CI 1.3 to 1.8; aOR 1.6, 95% CI 1.2 to 2.3, respectively). The risk was increased with a UTI before (aOR 2.5; 95% CI 1.4 to 4.5) or after (aOR 1.7; 95% CI 1.1 to 2.6) conception only among women ≥25 years of age. The risk was highest among women <20 years of age with an STI before conception (aOR 3.6; 95% CI 1.5 to 8.4) and in women ≥25 years of age, the risk was similar for before (aOR 2.9; 95% CI 1.0 to 8.5) and after (aOR 2.8; 95% CI 1.3 to 6.1) conception. A specific STI pathogen was reported in 89.3% (50/56) of cases and 84.3% (162/191) of controls with Chlamydia trachomatis the most common (25/50 cases, 50%; 58/162 controls, 36%) and highest among women <20 years of age (16/25 cases, 64%; 22/33 controls, 67%). CONCLUSIONS: UTI and/or STI were associated with an increased risk for gastroschisis, with the strength of the association varying by maternal age and timing of infection.

5.
Environ Int ; 125: 497-504, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30700387

RESUMO

Soils in tropical and temperate locations are known to be a sink for the genetic potential of anthropogenic-driven acquired antibiotic resistance (AR). In contrast, accumulation of acquired AR is less probable in most Polar soils, providing a platform for characterizing background resistance and establishing a benchmark for assessing AR spread. Here, high-throughput qPCR and geochemistry were used to quantify the abundance and diversity of both antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) and selected mobile genetic elements (MGEs) across eight soil clusters in the Kongsfjorden region of Svalbard in the High Arctic. Relative ARG levels ranged by over two orders of magnitude (10-6 to 10-4 copies/16S rRNA gene copy), and showed a gradient of potential human and wildlife impacts across clusters as evidenced by altered geochemical conditions and increased "foreign" ARG abundances (i.e., allochthonous), including blaNDM-1. Impacted clusters exhibited 100× higher total ARGs and MGEs in tandem with elevated secondary nutrients, especially available P that is typically low and limiting in Arctic soils. In contrast, ARGs in less-impacted clusters correlated strongly to local soil lithology. The most plausible source of exogenous P and allochthonous ARGs in this region is bird and other wildlife guano, disseminated either by local human wastes or via direct carriage and deposition. Regardless of pathway, accumulation of apparent allochthonous ARGs and MGEs in High Arctic soils is concerning, highlighting the importance of characterizing Arctic sites now to establish benchmarks for tracking AR spread around the world.


Assuntos
Bactérias/genética , Resistência Microbiana a Medicamentos/genética , Genes Bacterianos , Microbiologia do Solo , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Svalbard
6.
Environ Int ; 126: 193-201, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30802636

RESUMO

The contamination of the environment with human pharmaceuticals is widespread and demand for such products is mounting globally. Wild vertebrates may be at particular risk from any effects from pharmaceuticals, because of the evolutionary conservation of drug targets. However, exposure of wildlife to pharmaceuticals is poorly characterised, partly due to challenges associated with detecting rapidly metabolised compounds. As part of a wider study on the behavioural effects of fluoxetine (Prozac) on Eurasian starlings (Sturnus vulgaris), we investigated which avian samples are best suited for detecting exposure to fluoxetine in free-living birds. We analysed plasma, various tissues and tail feathers (grown both in the wild and in captivity during the dosing period) from fluoxetine-treated birds (dosed daily with 0.035 mg kg-1 bodyweight for 28 weeks), and liver tissue and tail feathers from sham-dosed birds. We detected fluoxetine in only two of twelve plasma samples from dosed birds. In dosed birds, median concentrations of free fluoxetine/norfluoxetine in tissues (two hour post-final dose) were: 111.2/67.6 ng g-1 in liver, 29.6/5.7 ng g-1 in kidney, 14.2/4.0 ng g-1 in lung, 15.1/1.6 ng g-1 in brain. We estimated that fluoxetine would remain detectable in liver and kidney approximately 4.5 times longer (90 h) than in brain (20h). In dosed birds, fluoxetine was detected in feathers regrown during the dosing period (median concentration = 11.4 ng g-1) at concentrations significantly higher than in regrown feathers from control birds. Fluoxetine residues were detected in wild-grown feathers (grown before the birds were brought into captivity) at concentrations up to 27.0 ng g-1, providing some evidence of likely exposure in the wild. Our results show liver and kidney can be used for detecting fluoxetine in avian carcasses and provide a first indication that feathers may be useful for assessing exposure to fluoxetine, and possibly other pharmaceuticals.


Assuntos
Antidepressivos de Segunda Geração/análise , Poluentes Ambientais/análise , Plumas/química , Fluoxetina/análogos & derivados , Rim/química , Fígado/química , Estorninhos , Animais , Monitoramento Ambiental , Feminino , Fluoxetina/análise , Masculino
7.
Sci Total Environ ; 649: 12-20, 2019 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30170212

RESUMO

The isolation of antimicrobial resistant bacteria (ARB) from wildlife living adjacent to humans has led to the suggestion that such antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is anthropogenically driven by exposure to antimicrobials and ARB. However, ARB have also been detected in wildlife living in areas without interaction with humans. Here, we investigated patterns of resistance in Escherichia coli isolated from 408 wild bird and mammal faecal samples. AMR and multi-drug resistance (MDR) prevalence in wildlife samples differed significantly between a Sewage Treatment Plant (STP; wastes of antibiotic-treated humans) and a Farm site (antibiotic-treated livestock wastes) and Central site (no sources of wastes containing anthropogenic AMR or antimicrobials), but patterns of resistance also varied significantly over time and between mammals and birds. Over 30% of AMR isolates were resistant to colistin, a last-resort antibiotic, but resistance was not due to the mcr-1 gene. ESBL and AmpC activity were common in isolates from mammals. Wildlife were, therefore, harbouring resistance of clinical relevance. AMR E. coli, including MDR, were found in diverse wildlife species, and the patterns and prevalence of resistance were not consistently associated with site and therefore different exposure risks. We conclude that AMR in commensal bacteria of wildlife is not driven simply by anthropogenic factors, and, in practical terms, this may limit the utility of wildlife as sentinels of spatial variation in the transmission of environmental AMR.


Assuntos
Aves/microbiologia , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Escherichia coli/efeitos dos fármacos , Roedores/microbiologia , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Animais Selvagens/microbiologia , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana Múltipla , Inglaterra , Meio Ambiente , Escherichia coli/fisiologia , Mutação
8.
Birth Defects Res ; 110(19): 1443-1454, 2018 11 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30402975

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Genitourinary infections (GUIs) are common among sexually active women. Yet, little is known about the risk of birth defects associated with GUIs. METHODS: Using data from the National Birth Defects Prevention Study, a multisite, population-based, case-control study, we assessed self-reported maternal GUIs in the month before through the third month of pregnancy (periconception) from 29,316 birth defect cases and 11,545 unaffected controls. We calculated odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals to estimate the risk of 52 major structural birth defects associated with GUIs. We also calculated risk of birth defects associated with each type of GUI: urinary tract infection (UTI) and sexually transmitted infection (STI). RESULTS: In our analysis, 10% (n = 2,972) of case and 9% (n = 1,014) of control mothers reported a periconceptional GUI. A GUI was significantly associated with 11 of the 52 birth defects examined (ORs ranging from 1.19 to 2.26): encephalocele, cataracts, cleft lip, esophageal atresia, duodenal atresia/stenosis, small intestinal atresia/stenosis, colonic atresia/stenosis, transverse limb deficiency, conoventricular septal defect, atrioventricular septal defect, and secundum atrial septal defect. A periconceptional UTI was significantly associated with nine birth defects (ORs from 1.21 to 2.48), and periconceptional STI was significantly associated with four birth defects (ORs ranging from 1.63 to 3.72). CONCLUSIONS: While misclassification of GUIs in our analysis is likely, our findings suggest GUIs during the periconceptional period may increase the risk for specific birth defects.


Assuntos
Anormalidades Congênitas/epidemiologia , Vigilância da População/métodos , Adulto , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Anormalidades Congênitas/classificação , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido de Baixo Peso , Recém-Nascido , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Mães , Razão de Chances , Gravidez , Primeiro Trimestre da Gravidez , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/induzido quimicamente , Infecções do Sistema Genital/complicações , Infecções do Sistema Genital/fisiopatologia , Fatores de Risco , Autorrelato , Infecções Urinárias/complicações , Infecções Urinárias/fisiopatologia
9.
Chemosphere ; 211: 17-24, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30071429

RESUMO

Pharmaceuticals in the environment are a recently identified global threat to wildlife, including birds. Like other human pharmaceuticals, the antidepressant fluoxetine (Prozac) enters the environment via sewage and has been detected at wastewater treatment plants. Birds foraging on invertebrates at these sites can be exposed to pharmaceuticals, although the implications of exposure are poorly understood. We conducted experiments to test whether chronic exposure to a maximally environmentally relevant concentration of fluoxetine (2.7 µg day-1) altered courtship behaviour and female reproductive physiology in wild-caught starlings (Sturnus vulgaris), a species commonly found foraging on invertebrates at wastewater treatment plants. When paired with a female over two days, males sang less and were more aggressive towards fluoxetine-treated females than controls. Fluoxetine-treated females were initially aggressive towards males, becoming significantly less aggressive by the second day. In contrast, control females expressed intermediate levels of aggression throughout. We found no effect of female treatment on female courtship behaviour. Female body condition, circulating testosterone and circulating oestradiol were unaffected by treatment and did not account for male preference. Our findings suggest that exposure to an antidepressant reduced female attractiveness, adding to growing evidence that environmental concentrations of pharmaceuticals can alter important traits related to individual fitness and population dynamics.


Assuntos
Antidepressivos/efeitos adversos , Corte/psicologia , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Aves Canoras/fisiologia , Animais , Feminino , Masculino
10.
Proc Biol Sci ; 285(1885)2018 08 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30135169

RESUMO

Chemical contaminants (e.g. metals, pesticides, pharmaceuticals) are changing ecosystems via effects on wildlife. Indeed, recent work explicitly performed under environmentally realistic conditions reveals that chemical contaminants can have both direct and indirect effects at multiple levels of organization by influencing animal behaviour. Altered behaviour reflects multiple physiological changes and links individual- to population-level processes, thereby representing a sensitive tool for holistically assessing impacts of environmentally relevant contaminant concentrations. Here, we show that even if direct effects of contaminants on behavioural responses are reasonably well documented, there are significant knowledge gaps in understanding both the plasticity (i.e. individual variation) and evolution of contaminant-induced behavioural changes. We explore implications of multi-level processes by developing a conceptual framework that integrates direct and indirect effects on behaviour under environmentally realistic contexts. Our framework illustrates how sublethal behavioural effects of contaminants can be both negative and positive, varying dynamically within the same individuals and populations. This is because linkages within communities will act indirectly to alter and even magnify contaminant-induced effects. Given the increasing pressure on wildlife and ecosystems from chemical pollution, we argue there is a need to incorporate existing knowledge in ecology and evolution to improve ecological hazard and risk assessments.


Assuntos
Animais Selvagens/fisiologia , Comportamento Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Evolução Biológica , Ecossistema , Exposição Ambiental , Poluentes Ambientais/efeitos adversos , Traços de História de Vida , Animais , Metais/efeitos adversos , Praguicidas/efeitos adversos , Preparações Farmacêuticas
11.
Ecol Evol ; 8(10): 4852-4859, 2018 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29876063

RESUMO

Group living is favorable to pathogen spread due to the increased risk of disease transmission among individuals. Similar to individual immune defenses, social immunity, that is antiparasite defenses mounted for the benefit of individuals other than the actor, is predicted to be altered in social groups. The eusocial honey bee (Apis mellifera) secretes glucose oxidase (GOX), an antiseptic enzyme, throughout its colony, thereby providing immune protection to other individuals in the hive. We conducted a laboratory experiment to investigate the effects of group density on social immunity, specifically GOX activity, body mass and feeding behavior in caged honey bees. Individual honeybees caged in a low group density displayed increased GOX activity relative to those kept at a high group density. In addition, we provided evidence for a trade-off between GOX activity and body mass: Individuals caged in the low group density had a lower body mass, despite consuming more food overall. Our results provide the first experimental evidence that group density affects a social immune response in a eusocial insect. Moreover, we showed that the previously reported trade-off between immunity and body mass extends to social immunity. GOX production appears to be costly for individuals, and potentially the colony, given that low body mass is correlated with small foraging ranges in bees. At high group densities, individuals can invest less in social immunity than at low densities, while presumably gaining shared protection from infection. Thus, there is evidence that trade-offs at the individual level (GOX vs. body mass) can affect colony-level fitness.

12.
Sci Total Environ ; 642: 679-689, 2018 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29909336

RESUMO

Many wild animals can be adversely affected by trace metals around point sources but little is known about the risks to birds across their ranges. Trace metals in the soil are ubiquitously, if heterogeneously distributed, across the world due to natural and anthropogenic sources. Here, we built, parameterized and applied a spatially explicit modelling framework to determine the risks of soil-associated metals to 30 invertebrate-consuming passerine species across their spatial distribution in England and Wales. The model uses a risk characterization approach to assess the risks of soil-associated metals. Various monitoring datasets were used as input parameters: soil metal concentrations in England and Wales, bird spatial distribution; bird diet, bioaccumulation and toxicity data were extracted from the literature. Our model highlights significant differences in toxicity risks from Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn across the UK distributions of different species; Pb and Zn posed risks to all species across most of species' distributions, with more localised risks to some species of conservation concern from Cd and Cu. No single taxa of invertebrate prey drove avian exposure to metal toxicity. Adults were found to be at higher risk from Pb and Zn toxicity across their distributions than nestlings. This risk was partially driven by diet, with age differences in diets identified. Our spatially explicit model allowed us to identify areas of each species' national distribution in which the population was at risk. Overall, we determined that for all species studied an average of 32.7 ±â€¯0.2%, 8.0 ±â€¯0.1%, 86.1 ±â€¯0.1% and 93.2 ±â€¯0.1% of the songbird spatial distributions in the UK were characterized at risk of Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn, respectively. Despite some limitations, our spatially explicit model helps in understanding the risks of metals to wildlife and provides an efficient method of prioritising areas, contaminants and species for environmental risk assessments. The model could be further evaluated using a targeted monitoring dataset of metal concentration in bird tissues. Our model can assess and communicate to stakeholders the potential risks of environmental contaminants to wildlife species at a national and potentially international scale.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental , Poluentes Ambientais/metabolismo , Metais Pesados/metabolismo , Aves Canoras/metabolismo , Animais , Inglaterra , Medição de Risco , Solo/química , País de Gales
13.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 67(1): 18-22, 2018 Jan 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29324733

RESUMO

Urinary tract infections (UTIs) occur in about 8% of pregnant women, and untreated UTIs can have serious consequences, including pyelonephritis, preterm labor, low birth weight, and sepsis (1). Pregnant women are typically screened for UTIs during early pregnancy, and those with bacteriuria are treated with antibiotics (1,2). Antibiotic stewardship is critical to improving patient safety and to combating antibiotic resistance. Because of the potential risk for birth defects, including anencephaly, heart defects, and orofacial clefts, associated with use of sulfonamides and nitrofurantoin during pregnancy (3), a 2011 committee opinion from the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG) recommended that sulfonamides and nitrofurantoin may be prescribed in the first trimester of pregnancy only when other antimicrobial therapies are deemed clinically inappropriate (4). To assess the effects of these recommendations, CDC analyzed the Truven Health MarketScan Commercial Database* to examine antibiotic prescriptions filled by pregnant women with UTIs. Among 482,917 pregnancies in 2014, 7.2% of women had an outpatient UTI diagnosis during the 90 days before the date of last menstrual period (LMP) or during pregnancy. Among pregnant women with UTIs, the most frequently prescribed antibiotics during the first trimester were nitrofurantoin, ciprofloxacin, cephalexin, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. Given the potential risks associated with use of some of these antibiotics in early pregnancy and the potential for unrecognized pregnancy, women's health care providers should be familiar with the ACOG recommendations and consider the possibility of early pregnancy when treating women of reproductive age.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Prescrições de Medicamentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Seguro Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Setor Privado , Infecções Urinárias/tratamento farmacológico , Feminino , Humanos , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Gravidez , Primeiro Trimestre da Gravidez , Estados Unidos
14.
Environ Toxicol Chem ; 36(9): 2335-2344, 2017 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28198558

RESUMO

We present and evaluate a framework for estimating concentrations of pharmaceuticals over time in wildlife feeding at wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). The framework is composed of a series of predictive steps involving the estimation of pharmaceutical concentration in wastewater, accumulation into wildlife food items, and uptake by wildlife with subsequent distribution into, and elimination from, tissues. Because many pharmacokinetic parameters for wildlife are unavailable for the majority of drugs in use, a read-across approach was employed using either rodent or human data on absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion. Comparison of the different steps in the framework against experimental data for the scenario where birds are feeding on a WWTP contaminated with fluoxetine showed that estimated concentrations in wastewater treatment works were lower than measured concentrations; concentrations in food could be reasonably estimated if experimental bioaccumulation data are available; and read-across from rodent data worked better than human to bird read-across. The framework provides adequate predictions of plasma concentrations and of elimination behavior in birds but yields poor predictions of distribution in tissues. The approach holds promise, but it is important that we improve our understanding of the physiological similarities and differences between wild birds and domesticated laboratory mammals used in pharmaceutical efficacy/safety trials, so that the wealth of data available can be applied more effectively in ecological risk assessments. Environ Toxicol Chem 2017;36:2335-2344. © 2017 SETAC.


Assuntos
Aves/metabolismo , Preparações Farmacêuticas/metabolismo , Águas Residuárias/química , Animais , Animais Selvagens , Antidepressivos/farmacocinética , Fluoxetina/farmacocinética , Humanos , Modelos Biológicos , Roedores
15.
Biol Lett ; 12(8)2016 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27531155

RESUMO

Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) has been detected in the microbiota of many wildlife species, including long-distance migrants. Inadequately treated wastes from humans and livestock dosed with antimicrobial drugs are often assumed to be the main sources of AMR to wildlife. While wildlife populations closely associated with human populations are more likely to harbour clinically important AMR related to that found in local humans and livestock, AMR is still common in remote wildlife populations with little direct human influence. Most reports of AMR in wildlife are survey based and/or small scale, so researchers can only speculate on possible sources and sinks of AMR or the impact of wildlife AMR on clinical resistance. This lack of quantitative data on the flow of AMR genes and AMR bacteria across the natural environment could reflect the numerous AMR sources and amplifiers in the populated world. Ecosystems with relatively simple and well-characterized potential inputs of AMR can provide tractable, but realistic, systems for studying AMR in the natural environment. New tools, such as animal tracking technologies and high-throughput sequencing of resistance genes and mobilomes, should be integrated with existing methodologies to understand how wildlife maintains and disperses AMR.


Assuntos
Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Animais , Animais Selvagens , Antibacterianos , Bactérias , Humanos , Gado
16.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 65(29): 739-44, 2016 Jul 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27467820

RESUMO

CDC has updated its interim guidance for U.S. health care providers caring for pregnant women with possible Zika virus exposure, to include the emerging data indicating that Zika virus RNA can be detected for prolonged periods in some pregnant women. To increase the proportion of pregnant women with Zika virus infection who receive a definitive diagnosis, CDC recommends expanding real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR) testing. Possible exposures to Zika virus include travel to or residence in an area with active Zika virus transmission, or sex* with a partner who has traveled to or resides in an area with active Zika virus transmission without using condoms or other barrier methods to prevent infection.(†) Testing recommendations for pregnant women with possible Zika virus exposure who report clinical illness consistent with Zika virus disease(§) (symptomatic pregnant women) are the same, regardless of their level of exposure (i.e., women with ongoing risk for possible exposure, including residence in or frequent travel to an area with active Zika virus transmission, as well as women living in areas without Zika virus transmission who travel to an area with active Zika virus transmission, or have unprotected sex with a partner who traveled to or resides in an area with active Zika virus transmission). Symptomatic pregnant women who are evaluated <2 weeks after symptom onset should receive serum and urine Zika virus rRT-PCR testing. Symptomatic pregnant women who are evaluated 2-12 weeks after symptom onset should first receive a Zika virus immunoglobulin (IgM) antibody test; if the IgM antibody test result is positive or equivocal, serum and urine rRT-PCR testing should be performed. Testing recommendations for pregnant women with possible Zika virus exposure who do not report clinical illness consistent with Zika virus disease (asymptomatic pregnant women) differ based on the circumstances of possible exposure. For asymptomatic pregnant women who live in areas without active Zika virus transmission and who are evaluated <2 weeks after last possible exposure, rRT-PCR testing should be performed. If the rRT-PCR result is negative, a Zika virus IgM antibody test should be performed 2-12 weeks after the exposure. Asymptomatic pregnant women who do not live in an area with active Zika virus transmission, who are first evaluated 2-12 weeks after their last possible exposure should first receive a Zika virus IgM antibody test; if the IgM antibody test result is positive or equivocal, serum and urine rRT-PCR should be performed. Asymptomatic pregnant women with ongoing risk for exposure to Zika virus should receive Zika virus IgM antibody testing as part of routine obstetric care during the first and second trimesters; immediate rRT-PCR testing should be performed when IgM antibody test results are positive or equivocal. This guidance also provides updated recommendations for the clinical management of pregnant women with confirmed or possible Zika virus infection. These recommendations will be updated when additional data become available.


Assuntos
Testes Diagnósticos de Rotina/normas , Surtos de Doenças/prevenção & controle , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/prevenção & controle , Infecção por Zika virus/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Humanos , Imunoglobulina M/sangue , Imunoglobulina M/imunologia , Gravidez , RNA Viral/sangue , Características de Residência/estatística & dados numéricos , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa , Viagem/estatística & dados numéricos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Infecção por Zika virus/transmissão
17.
Environ Pollut ; 214: 847-858, 2016 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27155931

RESUMO

Many populations of bat species across the globe are declining, with chemical contamination one of many potential stressors implicated in these demographic changes. Metals still contaminate a wide range of habitats, but the risks to bats remain poorly understood. This study is the first to present a national scale assessment of toxic metal (Cd, Pb) and essential trace metal (Cu, Zn) concentrations in bats. Metal concentrations in tissues (kidneys, liver, stomach -stomach content, bones and fur) were measured in 193 Pipistrellus sp. in England and Wales using ICP-MS, and compared to critical toxic concentrations for small mammals. The concentrations of metals determined in bat tissues were generally lower than those reported elsewhere. Strong positive associations were found between concentrations in tissues for a given metal (liver and kidneys for Cd, Cu and Pb; stomach and fur and fur and bones for Pb), suggesting recent as well as long term exposure to these contaminants. In addition, positive correlations between concentrations of different metals in the same tissues (Cd and Zn, Cu and Zn, Cd and Pb, Pb and Zn) suggest a co-exposure of metals to bats. Approximately 21% of the bats sampled contained residues of at least one metal at concentrations high enough to elicit toxic effects (associated with kidney damage), or to be above the upper level measured in other mammal species. Pb was found to pose the greatest risk (with 7-11% of the bats containing concentrations of toxicological concern), followed by Cu (4-9%), Zn (0.5-5.2%) and Cd (0%). Our data suggest that leaching of metals into our storage matrix, formaldehyde, may have occurred, especially for Cu. The overall findings suggest that metal contamination is an environmental stressor affecting bat populations, and that further research is needed into the direct links between metal contamination and bat population declines worldwide.


Assuntos
Quirópteros/metabolismo , Exposição Ambiental , Metais Pesados/metabolismo , Oligoelementos/metabolismo , Animais , Inglaterra , Monitoramento Ambiental , Espectrometria de Massas , Distribuição Tecidual , País de Gales
18.
Environ Toxicol Chem ; 35(9): 2349-57, 2016 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26896322

RESUMO

Wildlife can be exposed to human pharmaceuticals via prey that have accumulated the compounds from wastewater, surface water, sediment, and soil. One factor affecting internal absorption of pharmaceuticals is bioaccessibility, the proportion of the compound that enters solution in the gastrointestinal tract. Currently, the bioaccessibility of most pharmaceuticals in prey remains unknown for most wildlife species. The authors evaluated the potential of a 2-compartment in vitro gastrointestinal tract model to compare the bioaccessibility of the antidepressant fluoxetine from invertebrate prey for birds and mammals. Samples of gizzard (or stomach) and intestinal-phase digestive juices were obtained from the in vitro models along with the residual solid material. High-performance liquid chromatographic analysis revealed that the bioaccessibility of fluoxetine in the avian in vitro models was statistically significantly lower than that in the mammalian models as a percentage of what was recovered; however, there were no statistically or biologically significant interspecies difference in terms of the amount recovered per gram of "food" inserted at the start of the simulation. This in vitro model provides a useful method of comparing the bioaccessibility of pharmaceuticals in different prey for species with different gastrointestinal conditions. There is merit for ecological risk assessments in further developing this in vitro approach to improve estimates of internal exposure for organics. Environ Toxicol Chem 2016;35:2349-2357. © 2016 SETAC.


Assuntos
Animais Selvagens/metabolismo , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Poluentes Ambientais/análise , Trato Gastrointestinal/metabolismo , Modelos Teóricos , Preparações Farmacêuticas/análise , Animais , Disponibilidade Biológica , Aves/metabolismo , Poluentes Ambientais/metabolismo , Humanos , Oligoquetos/metabolismo , Preparações Farmacêuticas/metabolismo , Medição de Risco , Especificidade da Espécie
19.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 65(2): 23-6, 2016 Jan 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26796490

RESUMO

Gastroschisis is a serious congenital defect in which the intestines protrude through an opening in the abdominal wall. Gastroschisis requires surgical repair soon after birth and is associated with an increased risk for medical complications and mortality during infancy. Reports from multiple surveillance systems worldwide have documented increasing prevalence of gastroschisis since the 1980s, particularly among younger mothers; however, since publication of a multistate U.S. report that included data through 2005, it is not known whether prevalence has continued to increase. Data on gastroschisis from 14 population-based state surveillance programs were pooled and analyzed to assess the average annual percent change (AAPC) in prevalence and to compare the prevalence during 2006-2012 with that during 1995-2005, stratified by maternal age and race/ethnicity. The pooled data included approximately 29% of U.S. births for the period 1995-2012. During 1995-2012, gastroschisis prevalence increased in every category of maternal age and race/ethnicity, and the AAPC ranged from 3.1% in non-Hispanic white (white) mothers aged <20 years to 7.9% in non-Hispanic black (black) mothers aged <20 years. These corresponded to overall percentage increases during 1995-2012 that ranged from 68% in white mothers aged <20 years to 263% in black mothers aged <20 years. Gastroschisis prevalence increased 30% between the two periods, from 3.6 per 10,000 births during 1995-2005 to 4.9 per 10,000 births during 2006-2012 (prevalence ratio = 1.3, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.3-1.4), with the largest increase among black mothers aged <20 years (prevalence ratio = 2.0, 95% CI: 1.6-2.5). Public health research is urgently needed to identify factors contributing to this increase.


Assuntos
Gastrosquise/epidemiologia , Vigilância da População , Adulto , Afro-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Distribuição por Idade , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Gastrosquise/etnologia , Hispano-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Gravidez , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
20.
Chemosphere ; 147: 376-81, 2016 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26774302

RESUMO

This paper presents a novel assessment of the use of fur as a non-invasive proxy to biomonitor metal contamination in insectivorous bats. Concentrations of metals (cadmium, copper, lead and zinc) were measured using ICP-MS in tissues (kidneys, liver, stomach and stomach content, bones and fur) obtained from 193 Pipistrellus pipistrellus/pygmaeus bats. The bats were collected across a gradient of metal pollution in England and Wales. The utility of small samples of fur as an indicator of metal exposure from the environment was demonstrated with strong relationships obtained between the concentrations of non-essential metals in fur with concentrations in stomach content, kidneys, liver and bones. Stronger relationships were observed for non-essential metals than for essential metals. Fur analyses might therefore be a useful non-invasive proxy for understanding recent, as well as long term and chronic, metal exposure of live animals. The use of fur may provide valuable information on the level of endogenous metal exposure and contamination of bat populations and communities.


Assuntos
Quirópteros/metabolismo , Exposição Ambiental , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Poluentes Ambientais/metabolismo , Cabelo/química , Metais Pesados/metabolismo , Animais , Inglaterra , Masculino , País de Gales
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