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1.
J Natl Cancer Inst ; 2020 Dec 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33372680

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) suggest that the combined effects of breast cancer (BC)-associated single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) can improve BC risk stratification using polygenic risk scores (PRSs). The performance of PRSs in GWAS-independent clinical cohorts is poorly studied in individuals carrying mutations in moderately penetrant BC predisposition genes such as CHEK2. METHODS: 760 female CHEK2 mutation carriers were included; 561 women were affected with BC, of whom 74 developed metachronous contralateral BC (mCBC). For PRS calculations, two SNP sets covering 77 (SNP set 1, developed for BC risk stratification in women unselected for their BRCA1/2 germline mutation status) and 88 (SNP set 2, developed for BC risk stratification in female BRCA1/2 mutation carriers) BC-associated SNPs were used. All statistical tests were two-sided. RESULTS: Both SNP sets provided concordant PRS results at the individual level (r = 0.91, p < 2.20 × 10-16). Weighted cohort Cox regression analyses revealed statistically significant associations of PRSs with the risk for first BC. For SNP set 1, a hazard ratio (HR) of 1.71 per standard deviation of the PRS was observed (95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.36 to 2.15, p = 3.87x10-6). PRSs identify a subgroup of CHEK2 mutation carriers with a predicted lifetime risk for first BC that exceeds the surveillance thresholds defined by international guidelines. Association of PRS with mCBC was examined via Cox regression analysis (SNP set 1 HR =: 1.23, 95%CI = 0.86 to 1.78, p = .26). CONCLUSION: PRSs may be used to personalize risk-adapted preventive measures for women with CHEK2 mutations. Larger studies are required to assess the role of PRSs in mCBC predisposition.

3.
Genet Med ; 22(10): 1653-1666, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32665703

RESUMO

PURPOSE: We assessed the associations between population-based polygenic risk scores (PRS) for breast (BC) or epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) with cancer risks for BRCA1 and BRCA2 pathogenic variant carriers. METHODS: Retrospective cohort data on 18,935 BRCA1 and 12,339 BRCA2 female pathogenic variant carriers of European ancestry were available. Three versions of a 313 single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) BC PRS were evaluated based on whether they predict overall, estrogen receptor (ER)-negative, or ER-positive BC, and two PRS for overall or high-grade serous EOC. Associations were validated in a prospective cohort. RESULTS: The ER-negative PRS showed the strongest association with BC risk for BRCA1 carriers (hazard ratio [HR] per standard deviation = 1.29 [95% CI 1.25-1.33], P = 3×10-72). For BRCA2, the strongest association was with overall BC PRS (HR = 1.31 [95% CI 1.27-1.36], P = 7×10-50). HR estimates decreased significantly with age and there was evidence for differences in associations by predicted variant effects on protein expression. The HR estimates were smaller than general population estimates. The high-grade serous PRS yielded the strongest associations with EOC risk for BRCA1 (HR = 1.32 [95% CI 1.25-1.40], P = 3×10-22) and BRCA2 (HR = 1.44 [95% CI 1.30-1.60], P = 4×10-12) carriers. The associations in the prospective cohort were similar. CONCLUSION: Population-based PRS are strongly associated with BC and EOC risks for BRCA1/2 carriers and predict substantial absolute risk differences for women at PRS distribution extremes.

4.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 9688, 2020 06 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32546843

RESUMO

In breast cancer, high levels of homeobox protein Hox-B13 (HOXB13) have been associated with disease progression of ER-positive breast cancer patients and resistance to tamoxifen treatment. Since HOXB13 p.G84E is a prostate cancer risk allele, we evaluated the association between HOXB13 germline mutations and breast cancer risk in a previous study consisting of 3,270 familial non-BRCA1/2 breast cancer cases and 2,327 controls from the Netherlands. Although both recurrent HOXB13 mutations p.G84E and p.R217C were not associated with breast cancer risk, the risk estimation for p.R217C was not very precise. To provide more conclusive evidence regarding the role of HOXB13 in breast cancer susceptibility, we here evaluated the association between HOXB13 mutations and increased breast cancer risk within 81 studies of the international Breast Cancer Association Consortium containing 68,521 invasive breast cancer patients and 54,865 controls. Both HOXB13 p.G84E and p.R217C did not associate with the development of breast cancer in European women, neither in the overall analysis (OR = 1.035, 95% CI = 0.859-1.246, P = 0.718 and OR = 0.798, 95% CI = 0.482-1.322, P = 0.381 respectively), nor in specific high-risk subgroups or breast cancer subtypes. Thus, although involved in breast cancer progression, HOXB13 is not a material breast cancer susceptibility gene.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa/genética , Proteínas de Homeodomínio/genética , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Técnicas de Genotipagem , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco
5.
Geburtshilfe Frauenheilkd ; 80(4): 410-429, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32322110

RESUMO

More than ten years ago, the German Consortium for Hereditary Breast and Ovarian Cancer (GC-HBOC) set up a panel of experts (VUS Task Force) which was tasked with reviewing the classifications of genetic variants reported by individual centres of the GC-HBOC to the central database in Leipzig and reclassifying them, where necessary, based on the most recent data. When it evaluates variants, the VUS Task Force must arrive at a consensus. The resulting classifications are recorded in a central database where they serve as a basis for ensuring the consistent evaluation of previously known and newly identified variants in the different centres of the GC-HBOC. The standardised VUS evaluation by the VUS Task Force is a key element of the recall system which has also been set up by the GC-HBOC. The system will be used to pass on information to families monitored and managed by GC-HBOC centres in the event that previously classified variants are reclassified based on new information. The evaluation algorithm of the VUS Task Force was compiled using internationally established assessment methods (IARC, ACMG, ENIGMA) and is presented here together with the underlying evaluation criteria used to arrive at the classification decision using a flow chart. In addition, the characteristics and special features of specific individual risk genes associated with breast and/or ovarian cancer are discussed in separate subsections. The URLs of relevant databases have also been included together with extensive literature references to provide additional information and cover the scope and dynamism of the current state of knowledge on the evaluation of genetic variants. In future, if criteria are updated based on new information, the update will be published on the website of the GC-HBOC ( https://www.konsortium-familiaerer-brustkrebs.de/ ).

6.
Foods ; 9(2)2020 Feb 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32041163

RESUMO

High-performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC) coupled with negative ion desorption electrospray ionization high-resolution mass spectrometry (DESI-HRMS) was used for the analysis of anthraquinones in complex crude extracts of Chilean dermocyboid Cortinarii. For this proof-of-concept study, the known anthraquinones emodin, physcion, endocrocin, dermolutein, hypericin, and skyrin were identified by their elemental composition. HRMS also allowed the differentiation of the investigated anthraquinones from accompanying compounds with the same nominal mass in the crude extracts. An investigation of the characteristic fragmentation pattern of skyrin in comparison with a reference compound showed, exemplarily, the feasibility of the method for the determination of these coloring, bioactive and chemotaxonomically important marker compounds. Accordingly, we demonstrate that the coupling of HPTLC with DESI-HRMS represents an advanced and efficient technique for the detection of anthraquinones in complex matrices. This analytical approach may be applied in the field of anthraquinone-containing food and plants such as Rheum spp. (rhubarb), Aloe spp., Morinda spp., Cassia spp. and others. Furthermore, the described method can be suitable for the analysis of anthraquinone-based colorants and dyes, which are used in the food, cosmetic, and pharmaceutical industry.

7.
Int J Cancer ; 146(4): 999-1009, 2020 02 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31081934

RESUMO

Comparably little is known about breast cancer (BC) risks in women from families tested negative for BRCA1/2 mutations despite an indicative family history, as opposed to BRCA1/2 mutation carriers. We determined the age-dependent risks of first and contralateral breast cancer (FBC, CBC) both in noncarriers and carriers of BRCA1/2 mutations, who participated in an intensified breast imaging surveillance program. The study was conducted between January 1, 2005, and September 30, 2017, at 12 university centers of the German Consortium for Hereditary Breast and Ovarian Cancer. Two cohorts were prospectively followed up for incident FBC (n = 4,380; 16,398 person-years [PY], median baseline age: 39 years) and CBC (n = 2,993; 10,090 PY, median baseline age: 42 years). Cumulative FBC risk at age 60 was 61.8% (95% CI 52.8-70.9%) for BRCA1 mutation carriers, 43.2% (95% CI 32.1-56.3%) for BRCA2 mutation carriers and 15.7% (95% CI 11.9-20.4%) for noncarriers. FBC risks were significantly higher than in the general population, with incidence rate ratios of 23.9 (95% CI 18.9-29.8) for BRCA1 mutation carriers, 13.5 (95% CI 9.2-19.1) for BRCA2 mutation carriers and 4.9 (95% CI 3.8-6.3) for BRCA1/2 noncarriers. Cumulative CBC risk 10 years after FBC was 25.1% (95% CI 19.6-31.9%) for BRCA1 mutation carriers, 6.6% (95% CI 3.4-12.5%) for BRCA2 mutation carriers and 3.6% (95% CI 2.2-5.7%) for noncarriers. CBC risk in noncarriers was similar to women with unilateral BC from the general population. Further studies are needed to confirm whether less intensified surveillance is justified in women from BRCA1/2 negative families with elevated risk.


Assuntos
Proteína BRCA1/genética , Proteína BRCA2/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Monitoramento Epidemiológico , Feminino , Seguimentos , Alemanha/epidemiologia , Heterozigoto , Humanos , Incidência , Anamnese , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação , Estudos Prospectivos , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco
8.
Cancer Res ; 80(3): 624-638, 2020 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31723001

RESUMO

Pathogenic sequence variants (PSV) in BRCA1 or BRCA2 (BRCA1/2) are associated with increased risk and severity of prostate cancer. We evaluated whether PSVs in BRCA1/2 were associated with risk of overall prostate cancer or high grade (Gleason 8+) prostate cancer using an international sample of 65 BRCA1 and 171 BRCA2 male PSV carriers with prostate cancer, and 3,388 BRCA1 and 2,880 BRCA2 male PSV carriers without prostate cancer. PSVs in the 3' region of BRCA2 (c.7914+) were significantly associated with elevated risk of prostate cancer compared with reference bin c.1001-c.7913 [HR = 1.78; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.25-2.52; P = 0.001], as well as elevated risk of Gleason 8+ prostate cancer (HR = 3.11; 95% CI, 1.63-5.95; P = 0.001). c.756-c.1000 was also associated with elevated prostate cancer risk (HR = 2.83; 95% CI, 1.71-4.68; P = 0.00004) and elevated risk of Gleason 8+ prostate cancer (HR = 4.95; 95% CI, 2.12-11.54; P = 0.0002). No genotype-phenotype associations were detected for PSVs in BRCA1. These results demonstrate that specific BRCA2 PSVs may be associated with elevated risk of developing aggressive prostate cancer. SIGNIFICANCE: Aggressive prostate cancer risk in BRCA2 mutation carriers may vary according to the specific BRCA2 mutation inherited by the at-risk individual.


Assuntos
Proteína BRCA1/genética , Proteína BRCA2/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Genômica/métodos , Mutação , Neoplasias da Próstata/genética , Neoplasias da Próstata/patologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Associação Genética , Heterozigoto , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
9.
J Leukoc Biol ; 107(6): 1081-1095, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31833593

RESUMO

Epithelial ovarian cancer displays the highest mortality of all gynecological tumors. A relapse of the disease even after successful surgical treatment is a significant problem. Resistance against the current platinum-based chemotherapeutic standard regime requires a detailed ex vivo immune profiling of tumor-infiltrating cells and the development of new therapeutic strategies. In this study, we phenotypically and functionally characterize tumor cells and autologous tumor-derived αß and γδ T lymphocyte subsets. Tumor-infiltrating (TIL) and tumor-ascites lymphocytes (TAL) were ex vivo isolated out of tumor tissue and ascites, respectively, from high-grade ovarian carcinoma patients (FIGO-stage IIIa-IV). We observed an increased γδ T cell percentage in ascites compared to tumor-tissue and blood of these patients, whereas CD8+ αß T cells were increased within TAL and TIL. The number of Vδ1 and non-Vδ1/Vδ2-expressing γδ T cells was increased in the ascites and in the tumor tissue compared to the blood of the same donors. Commonly in PBL, the Vγ9 chain of the γδ T cell receptor is usually associated exclusively with the Vδ2 chain. Interestingly, we detected Vδ1 and non-Vδ1/Vδ2 T cells co-expressing Vγ9, which is so far not described for TAL and TIL. Importantly, our data demonstrated an expression of human epidermal growth factor receptor (HER)-2 on high-grade ovarian tumors, which can serve as an efficient tumor antigen to target CD3 TIL or selectively Vγ9-expressing γδ T cells by bispecific antibodies (bsAbs) to ovarian cancer cells. Our bsAbs efficiently enhance cytotoxicity of TIL and TAL against autologous HER-2-expressing ovarian cells.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Biespecíficos/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/farmacologia , Carcinoma Epitelial do Ovário/imunologia , Linfócitos do Interstício Tumoral/efeitos dos fármacos , Neoplasias Ovarianas/imunologia , Receptor ErbB-2/genética , Linfócitos T Citotóxicos/efeitos dos fármacos , Adulto , Ascite/genética , Ascite/imunologia , Ascite/patologia , Ascite/cirurgia , Complexo CD3/genética , Complexo CD3/imunologia , Carcinoma Epitelial do Ovário/genética , Carcinoma Epitelial do Ovário/patologia , Carcinoma Epitelial do Ovário/cirurgia , Técnicas de Cocultura , Citotoxicidade Imunológica/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Contagem de Linfócitos , Linfócitos do Interstício Tumoral/imunologia , Linfócitos do Interstício Tumoral/patologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Gradação de Tumores , Neoplasias Ovarianas/genética , Neoplasias Ovarianas/patologia , Neoplasias Ovarianas/cirurgia , Cultura Primária de Células , Receptor ErbB-2/imunologia , Receptores de Antígenos de Linfócitos T alfa-beta/genética , Receptores de Antígenos de Linfócitos T alfa-beta/imunologia , Receptores de Antígenos de Linfócitos T gama-delta/genética , Receptores de Antígenos de Linfócitos T gama-delta/imunologia , Linfócitos T Citotóxicos/imunologia , Linfócitos T Citotóxicos/patologia
10.
Oncotarget ; 10(60): 6494-6508, 2019 Nov 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31741713

RESUMO

Introduction: Mammography is the gold standard for early breast cancer detection, but shows important limitations. Blood-based approaches on basis of cell-free DNA (cfDNA) provide minimally invasive screening tools to characterize epigenetic alterations of tumor suppressor genes and could serve as a liquid biopsy, complementing mammography. Methods: Potential biomarkers were identified from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA), using HumanMethylation450-BeadChip data. Promoter methylation status was evaluated quantitatively by pyrosequencing in a serum test cohort (n = 103), a serum validation cohort (n = 368) and a plasma cohort (n = 125). Results: SPAG6, NKX2-6 and PER1 were identified as novel biomarker candidates. ITIH5 was included on basis of our previous work. In the serum test cohort, a panel of SPAG6 and ITIH5 showed 63% sensitivity for DCIS and 51% sensitivity for early invasive tumor (pT1, pN0) detection at 80% specificity. The serum validation cohort revealed 50% sensitivity for DCIS detection on basis of NKX2-6 and ITIH5. Furthermore, an inverse correlation between methylation frequency and cfDNA concentration was uncovered. Therefore, markers were tested in a plasma cohort, achieving a 64% sensitivity for breast cancer detection using SPAG6, PER1 and ITIH5. Conclusions: Although liquid biopsy remains challenging, a combination of SPAG6, NKX2-6, ITIH5 and PER1 (SNiPER) provides a promising tool for blood-based breast cancer detection.

11.
NPJ Breast Cancer ; 5: 38, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31700994

RESUMO

Breast cancer is a common disease partially caused by genetic risk factors. Germline pathogenic variants in DNA repair genes BRCA1, BRCA2, PALB2, ATM, and CHEK2 are associated with breast cancer risk. FANCM, which encodes for a DNA translocase, has been proposed as a breast cancer predisposition gene, with greater effects for the ER-negative and triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) subtypes. We tested the three recurrent protein-truncating variants FANCM:p.Arg658*, p.Gln1701*, and p.Arg1931* for association with breast cancer risk in 67,112 cases, 53,766 controls, and 26,662 carriers of pathogenic variants of BRCA1 or BRCA2. These three variants were also studied functionally by measuring survival and chromosome fragility in FANCM -/- patient-derived immortalized fibroblasts treated with diepoxybutane or olaparib. We observed that FANCM:p.Arg658* was associated with increased risk of ER-negative disease and TNBC (OR = 2.44, P = 0.034 and OR = 3.79; P = 0.009, respectively). In a country-restricted analysis, we confirmed the associations detected for FANCM:p.Arg658* and found that also FANCM:p.Arg1931* was associated with ER-negative breast cancer risk (OR = 1.96; P = 0.006). The functional results indicated that all three variants were deleterious affecting cell survival and chromosome stability with FANCM:p.Arg658* causing more severe phenotypes. In conclusion, we confirmed that the two rare FANCM deleterious variants p.Arg658* and p.Arg1931* are risk factors for ER-negative and TNBC subtypes. Overall our data suggest that the effect of truncating variants on breast cancer risk may depend on their position in the gene. Cell sensitivity to olaparib exposure, identifies a possible therapeutic option to treat FANCM-associated tumors.

12.
Nat Prod Res ; : 1-7, 2019 Aug 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31434501

RESUMO

The chemical investigation of the root barks leaves and stem barks of Brucea antidysenterica J. F. Mill. (Simaroubaceae) led to the isolation of a new pregnane glycoside, named Bruceadysentoside A or 3-O-ß-L-arabinopyranosyl-pregn-5-en-20-one (1) together with seventeen known compounds. Their structures were established from spectral data, mainly HRESIMS, 1 D and 2 D NMR and by comparison with literature data. Compounds 1, 2, 5, 6, 8, 10, 12 and 13 were tested in vitro for their effects on the viability of two different human cancer cell lines, namely prostate PC-3 adenocarcinoma cells and colorectal HT-29 adenocarcinoma cells. No substantial activities were recorded for 2, 10, 12 and 13 (up to 10 µM concentration). 1, 5 and 8 did not show strong anti-proliferative effects up to 100 µM, however, 6 exhibited a stronger anti-proliferative effect with IC50 values of ∼ 100 µM against PC-3 and ∼ 200 µM against HT-29.

13.
BMC Cancer ; 19(1): 787, 2019 Aug 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31395037

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Inherited pathogenic variants in BRCA1 and BRCA2 are the most common causes of hereditary breast and ovarian cancer (HBOC). The risk of developing breast cancer by age 80 in women carrying a BRCA1 pathogenic variant is 72%. The lifetime risk varies between families and even within affected individuals of the same family. The cause of this variability is largely unknown, but it is hypothesized that additional genetic factors contribute to differences in age at onset (AAO). Here we investigated whether truncating and rare missense variants in genes of different DNA-repair pathways contribute to this phenomenon. METHODS: We used extreme phenotype sampling to recruit 133 BRCA1-positive patients with either early breast cancer onset, below 35 (early AAO cohort) or cancer-free by age 60 (controls). Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) was used to screen for variants in 311 genes involved in different DNA-repair pathways. RESULTS: Patients with an early AAO (73 women) had developed breast cancer at a median age of 27 years (interquartile range (IQR); 25.00-27.00 years). A total of 3703 variants were detected in all patients and 43 of those (1.2%) were truncating variants. The truncating variants were found in 26 women of the early AAO group (35.6%; 95%-CI 24.7 - 47.7%) compared to 16 women of controls (26.7%; 95%-CI 16.1 to 39.7%). When adjusted for environmental factors and family history, the odds ratio indicated an increased breast cancer risk for those carrying an additional truncating DNA-repair variant to BRCA1 mutation (OR: 3.1; 95%-CI 0.92 to 11.5; p-value = 0.07), although it did not reach the conventionally acceptable significance level of 0.05. CONCLUSIONS: To our knowledge this is the first time that the combined effect of truncating variants in DNA-repair genes on AAO in patients with hereditary breast cancer is investigated. Our results indicate that co-occurring truncating variants might be associated with an earlier onset of breast cancer in BRCA1-positive patients. Larger cohorts are needed to confirm these results.


Assuntos
Proteína BRCA1/genética , Biomarcadores Tumorais , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Reparo do DNA , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Deleção de Sequência , Adulto , Idade de Início , Idoso , Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico , Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Bases de Dados Genéticas , Feminino , Estudos de Associação Genética , Loci Gênicos , Alemanha/epidemiologia , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Gradação de Tumores , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Vigilância da População , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco
14.
Appl Environ Microbiol ; 85(18)2019 09 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31285193

RESUMO

Many fungi are thought to have developed morphological and physiological adaptations to cope with exposure to UV-B radiation, but in most species, such responses and their protective effects have not been explored. Here, we study the adaptive response to UV-B radiation in the widespread, saprotrophic fungus Serpula himantioides, frequently found colonizing coniferous wood in nature. We report the morphological and chemical responses of S. himantioides to controlled intensities of UV-B radiation, under in vitro culture conditions. Ultraviolet radiation induced a decrease in the growth rate of S. himantioides but did not cause gross morphological changes. Instead, we observed accumulation of pigments near the cell wall with increasing intensities of UV-B radiation. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS) analyses revealed that xerocomic acid was the main pigment present, both before and after UV-B exposure, increasing from 7 mg/liter to 15 mg/liter after exposure. We show that xerocomic acid is a photoprotective metabolite with strong antioxidant abilities, as evidenced by DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl), ABTS [2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) diammonium salt], and oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) assays. Finally, we assessed the capacity of xerocomic acid as a photoprotective agent on HEK293 cells and observed better photoprotective properties than those of ß-carotene. Xerocomic acid is therefore a promising natural product for development as a UV-protective ingredient in cosmetic and pharmaceutical products.IMPORTANCE Our study shows the morphological and chemical responses of S. himantioides to controlled doses of UV-B radiation under in vitro culture conditions. We found that increased biosynthesis of xerocomic acid was the main strategy adopted by S. himantioides against UV-B radiation. Xerocomic acid showed strong antioxidant and photoprotective abilities, which has not previously been reported. Our results indicate that upon UV-B exposure, S. himantioides decreases its hyphal growth rate and uses this energy instead to increase the biosynthesis of xerocomic acid, which is allocated near the cell wall. This metabolic switch likely allows xerocomic acid to efficiently defend S. himantioides from UV radiation through its antioxidant and photoprotective properties. The findings further suggest that xerocomic acid is a promising candidate for development as a cosmetic ingredient to protect against UV radiation and should therefore be investigated in depth in the near future both in vitro and in vivo.


Assuntos
Brachyspira/metabolismo , Parede Celular/metabolismo , Pigmentos Biológicos/metabolismo , Raios Ultravioleta , Brachyspira/efeitos da radiação , Parede Celular/efeitos da radiação , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Pigmentos Biológicos/efeitos da radiação
15.
Fitoterapia ; 137: 104239, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31201886

RESUMO

In the search for bioactive natural products from the African flora, three previously undescribed compounds including one stilbene-coumarin derivative (1), one coumarin-carbinol (2) and one fatty glycoside (3) were isolated from the stem bark and leaves of Monotes kerstingii, together with sixteen known compounds (4-19). The structures of the isolated compounds were elucidated based on their NMR and MS spectroscopic data and by comparison of these data with those previously reported in the literature. Compounds 1-19 were screened for anthelmintic and antimicrobial activity. None of the compounds exhibited significant anthelmintic activity. However, compounds 4, 5, 8 and 14 displayed interesting antibacterial activity against B. subtilis at a concentration of 100 µM with respective inhibition percentages of 99, 79, 71 and 100%, respectively, compared to erythromycin used as positive control. In addition, at the same concentration, compound 6 showed remarkable antifungal activity against Septoria tritici with 93.6% growth inhibition and was found to be more active than the positive controls epoconazole and terbinafine displaying 76.6 and 84.3%, respectively .


Assuntos
Anti-Helmínticos/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Dipterocarpaceae/química , Anti-Helmínticos/isolamento & purificação , Antibacterianos/isolamento & purificação , Antifúngicos/isolamento & purificação , Camarões , Cumarínicos/isolamento & purificação , Cumarínicos/farmacologia , Glicosídeos/isolamento & purificação , Glicosídeos/farmacologia , Estrutura Molecular , Compostos Fitoquímicos/isolamento & purificação , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Casca de Planta/química , Folhas de Planta/química
16.
J Pharm Biomed Anal ; 174: 277-285, 2019 Sep 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31185339

RESUMO

Knipholone (1) and knipholone anthrone (2), isolated from the Ethiopian medicinal plant Kniphofia foliosa Hochst. are two phenyl anthraquinone derivatives, a compound class known for biological activity. In the present study, we describe the activity of both 1 and 2 in several biological assays including cytotoxicity against four human cell lines (Jurkat, HEK293, SH-SY5Y and HT-29), antiplasmodial activity against Plasmodium falciparum 3D7 strain, anthelmintic activity against the model organism Caenorhabditis elegans, antibacterial activity against Aliivibrio fischeri and Mycobacterium tuberculosis and anti-HIV-1 activity in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) infected with HIV-1c. In parallel, we investigated the stability of knipholone (2) in solution and in culture media. Compound 1 displays strong cytotoxicity against Jurkat, HEK293 and SH-SY5Y cells with growth inhibition ranging from approximately 62-95% when added to cells at 50 µM, whereas KA (2) exhibits weak to strong activity with 26, 48 and 70% inhibition of cell growth, respectively. Both 1 and 2 possess significant antiplasmodial activity against Plasmodium falciparum 3D7 strain with IC50 values of 1.9 and 0.7 µM, respectively. These results complement previously reported data on the cytotoxicity and antiplasmodial activity of 1 and 2. Furthermore, compound 2 showed HIV-1c replication inhibition (growth inhibition higher than 60% at tested concentrations 0.5, 5, 15 and 50 µg/ml and an EC50 value of 4.3 µM) associated with cytotoxicity against uninfected PBMCs. The stability study based on preincubation, HPLC and APCI-MS (atmospheric-pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry) analysis indicates that compound 2 is unstable in culture media and readily oxidizes to form compound 1. Therefore, the biological activity attributed to 2 might be influenced by its degradation products in media including 1 and other possible dimers. Hence, bioactivity results previously reported from this compound should be taken with caution and checked if they differ from those of its degradation products. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on the anti-HIV activity and stability analysis of compound 2.


Assuntos
Antracenos/análise , Antracenos/farmacologia , Antraquinonas/farmacologia , Fármacos Anti-HIV/farmacologia , Leucócitos Mononucleares/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Anti-Helmínticos/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antimaláricos/farmacologia , Bioensaio , Caenorhabditis elegans/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Avaliação Pré-Clínica de Medicamentos , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Células Jurkat , Liliaceae/química , Estrutura Molecular , Mycobacterium tuberculosis , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Plantas Medicinais/química , Plasmodium falciparum/efeitos dos fármacos
17.
Br J Cancer ; 121(2): 180-192, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31213659

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Height and body mass index (BMI) are associated with higher ovarian cancer risk in the general population, but whether such associations exist among BRCA1/2 mutation carriers is unknown. METHODS: We applied a Mendelian randomisation approach to examine height/BMI with ovarian cancer risk using the Consortium of Investigators for the Modifiers of BRCA1/2 (CIMBA) data set, comprising 14,676 BRCA1 and 7912 BRCA2 mutation carriers, with 2923 ovarian cancer cases. We created a height genetic score (height-GS) using 586 height-associated variants and a BMI genetic score (BMI-GS) using 93 BMI-associated variants. Associations were assessed using weighted Cox models. RESULTS: Observed height was not associated with ovarian cancer risk (hazard ratio [HR]: 1.07 per 10-cm increase in height, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.94-1.23). Height-GS showed similar results (HR = 1.02, 95% CI: 0.85-1.23). Higher BMI was significantly associated with increased risk in premenopausal women with HR = 1.25 (95% CI: 1.06-1.48) and HR = 1.59 (95% CI: 1.08-2.33) per 5-kg/m2 increase in observed and genetically determined BMI, respectively. No association was found for postmenopausal women. Interaction between menopausal status and BMI was significant (Pinteraction < 0.05). CONCLUSION: Our observation of a positive association between BMI and ovarian cancer risk in premenopausal BRCA1/2 mutation carriers is consistent with findings in the general population.


Assuntos
Estatura , Índice de Massa Corporal , Genes BRCA1 , Genes BRCA2 , Heterozigoto , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana , Mutação , Neoplasias Ovarianas/etiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Menopausa , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias Ovarianas/genética , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais
18.
Phytochemistry ; 165: 112048, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31229789

RESUMO

For the first time, the pigment composition of basidiocarps from the Chilean mushroom Cortinarius pyromyxa was studied under various aspects like phylogeny, chemistry and antibiotic activity. A molecular biological study supports the monotypic position of C. pyromyxa in subgenus Myxacium, genus Cortinarius. Four undescribed diterpenoids, named pyromyxones A-D, were isolated from fruiting bodies of C. pyromyxa. Their chemical structures were elucidated based on comprehensive one- and two-dimensional NMR spectroscopic analysis, ESI-HRMS measurements, as well as X-ray crystallography. In addition, the absolute configurations of pyromyxones A-D were established with the aid of JH,H, NOESY spectra and quantum chemical CD calculation. The pyromyxones A-D possess the undescribed nor-guanacastane skeleton. Tested pyromyxones A, B, and D exhibit only weak activity against gram-positive Bacillus subtilis and gram-negative Aliivibrio fischeri as well as the phytopathogenic fungi Botrytis cinerea, Septoria tritici and Phytophthora infestans.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Cortinarius/química , Bactérias Gram-Negativas/efeitos dos fármacos , Bactérias Gram-Positivas/efeitos dos fármacos , Pigmentos Biológicos/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/química , Antibacterianos/isolamento & purificação , Cristalografia por Raios X , Diterpenos/química , Diterpenos/isolamento & purificação , Diterpenos/farmacologia , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Modelos Moleculares , Estrutura Molecular , Filogenia , Pigmentos Biológicos/química , Pigmentos Biológicos/isolamento & purificação , Teoria Quântica
19.
Hum Mutat ; 40(9): 1557-1578, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31131967

RESUMO

The multifactorial likelihood analysis method has demonstrated utility for quantitative assessment of variant pathogenicity for multiple cancer syndrome genes. Independent data types currently incorporated in the model for assessing BRCA1 and BRCA2 variants include clinically calibrated prior probability of pathogenicity based on variant location and bioinformatic prediction of variant effect, co-segregation, family cancer history profile, co-occurrence with a pathogenic variant in the same gene, breast tumor pathology, and case-control information. Research and clinical data for multifactorial likelihood analysis were collated for 1,395 BRCA1/2 predominantly intronic and missense variants, enabling classification based on posterior probability of pathogenicity for 734 variants: 447 variants were classified as (likely) benign, and 94 as (likely) pathogenic; and 248 classifications were new or considerably altered relative to ClinVar submissions. Classifications were compared with information not yet included in the likelihood model, and evidence strengths aligned to those recommended for ACMG/AMP classification codes. Altered mRNA splicing or function relative to known nonpathogenic variant controls were moderately to strongly predictive of variant pathogenicity. Variant absence in population datasets provided supporting evidence for variant pathogenicity. These findings have direct relevance for BRCA1 and BRCA2 variant evaluation, and justify the need for gene-specific calibration of evidence types used for variant classification.


Assuntos
Proteína BRCA1/genética , Proteína BRCA2/genética , Biologia Computacional/métodos , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto , Neoplasias/diagnóstico , Processamento Alternativo , Detecção Precoce de Câncer , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Funções Verossimilhança , Masculino , Herança Multifatorial , Neoplasias/genética
20.
Breast Cancer Res ; 21(1): 55, 2019 04 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31036035

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The role of the BARD1 gene in breast cancer (BC) and ovarian cancer (OC) predisposition remains elusive, as published case-control investigations have revealed controversial results. We aimed to assess the role of deleterious BARD1 germline variants in BC/OC predisposition in a sample of 4920 BRCA1/2-negative female BC/OC index patients of the German Consortium for Hereditary Breast and Ovarian Cancer (GC-HBOC). METHODS: A total of 4469 female index patients with BC, 451 index patients with OC, and 2767 geographically matched female control individuals were screened for loss-of-function (LoF) mutations and potentially damaging rare missense variants in BARD1. All patients met the inclusion criteria of the GC-HBOC for germline testing and reported at least one relative with BC or OC. Additional control datasets (Exome Aggregation Consortium, ExAC; Fabulous Ladies Over Seventy, FLOSSIES) were included for the calculation of odds ratios (ORs). RESULTS: We identified LoF variants in 23 of 4469 BC index patients (0.51%) and in 36 of 37,265 control individuals (0.10%), resulting in an OR of 5.35 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 3.17-9.04; P < 0.00001). BARD1-mutated BC index patients showed a significantly younger mean age at first diagnosis (AAD; 42.3 years, range 24-60 years) compared with the overall study sample (48.6 years, range 17-92 years; P = 0.00347). In the subgroup of BC index patients with an AAD < 40 years, an OR of 12.04 (95% CI = 5.78-25.08; P < 0.00001) was observed. An OR of 7.43 (95% CI = 4.26-12.98; P < 0.00001) was observed when stratified for an AAD < 50 years. LoF variants in BARD1 were not significantly associated with BC in the subgroup of index patients with an AAD ≥ 50 years (OR = 2.29; 95% CI = 0.82-6.45; P = 0.11217). Overall, rare and predicted damaging BARD1 missense variants were significantly more prevalent in BC index patients compared with control individuals (OR = 2.15; 95% CI = 1.26-3.67; P = 0.00723). Neither LoF variants nor predicted damaging rare missense variants in BARD1 were identified in 451 familial index patients with OC. CONCLUSIONS: Due to the significant association of germline LoF variants in BARD1 with early-onset BC, we suggest that intensified BC surveillance programs should be offered to women carrying pathogenic BARD1 gene variants.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa , Mutação com Perda de Função , Proteínas Supressoras de Tumor/genética , Ubiquitina-Proteína Ligases/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Idade de Início , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Estudos de Associação Genética , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Razão de Chances , Neoplasias Ovarianas/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Ovarianas/genética , Prevalência , Adulto Jovem
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