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1.
J Biomed Inform ; 97: 103267, 2019 Aug 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31401235

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: We study the performance of machine learning (ML) methods, including neural networks (NNs), to extract mutational test results from pathology reports collected by cancer registries. Given the lack of hand-labeled datasets for mutational test result extraction, we focus on the particular use-case of extracting Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor mutation results in non-small cell lung cancers. We explore the generalization of NNs across different registries where our goals are twofold: (1) to assess how well models trained on a registry's data port to test data from a different registry and (2) to assess whether and to what extent such models can be improved using state-of-the-art neural domain adaptation techniques under different assumptions about what is available (labeled vs unlabeled data) at the target registry site. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We collected data from two registries: the Kentucky Cancer Registry (KCR) and the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center (FH) Cancer Surveillance System. We combine NNs with adversarial domain adaptation to improve cross-registry performance. We compare to other classifiers in the standard supervised classification, unsupervised domain adaptation, and supervised domain adaptation scenarios. RESULTS: The performance of ML methods varied between registries. To extract positive results, the basic convolutional neural network (CNN) had an F1 of 71.5% on the KCR dataset and 95.7% on the FH dataset. For the KCR dataset, the CNN F1 results were low when trained on FH data (Positive F1: 23%). Using our proposed adversarial CNN, without any labeled data, we match the F1 of the models trained directly on each target registry's data. The adversarial CNN F1 improved when trained on FH and applied to KCR dataset (Positive F1: 70.8%). We found similar performance improvements when we trained on KCR and tested on FH reports (Positive F1: 45% to 96%). CONCLUSION: Adversarial domain adaptation improves the performance of NNs applied to pathology reports. In the unsupervised domain adaptation setting, we match the performance of models that are trained directly on target registry's data by using source registry's labeled data and unlabeled examples from the target registry.

2.
JCO Clin Cancer Inform ; 3: 1-15, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31058542

RESUMO

PURPOSE: SEER registries do not report results of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) mutation tests. To facilitate population-based research in molecularly defined subgroups of non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC), we assessed the validity of natural language processing (NLP) for the ascertainment of EGFR and ALK testing from electronic pathology (e-path) reports of NSCLC cases included in two SEER registries: the Cancer Surveillance System (CSS) and the Kentucky Cancer Registry (KCR). METHODS: We obtained 4,278 e-path reports from 1,634 patients who were diagnosed with stage IV nonsquamous NSCLC from September 1, 2011, to December 31, 2013, included in CSS. We used 855 CSS reports to train NLP systems for the ascertainment of EGFR and ALK test status (reported v not reported) and test results (positive v negative). We assessed sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values in an internal validation sample of 3,423 CSS e-path reports and repeated the analysis in an external sample of 1,041 e-path reports from 565 KCR patients. Two oncologists manually reviewed all e-path reports to generate gold-standard data sets. RESULTS: NLP systems yielded internal validity metrics that ranged from 0.95 to 1.00 for EGFR and ALK test status and results in CSS e-path reports. NLP showed high internal accuracy for the ascertainment of EGFR and ALK in CSS patients-F scores of 0.95 and 0.96, respectively. In the external validation analysis, NLP yielded metrics that ranged from 0.02 to 0.96 in KCR reports and F scores of 0.70 and 0.72, respectively, in KCR patients. CONCLUSION: NLP is an internally valid method for the ascertainment of EGFR and ALK test information from e-path reports available in SEER registries, but future work is necessary to increase NLP external validity.

3.
Cancer Control ; 26(1): 1073274819845873, 2019 Jan-Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31014079

RESUMO

Recent metabolic and genetic research has demonstrated that risk for specific histological types of lung cancer varies in relation to cigarette smoking and obesity. This study investigated the spatial and temporal distribution of lung cancer histological types in Kentucky, a largely rural state with high rates of smoking and obesity, to discern population-level trends that might reflect variation in these and other risk factors. The Kentucky Cancer Registry provided residential geographic coordinates for lung cancer cases diagnosed from 1995 through 2014. We used multinomial and discrete Poisson spatiotemporal scan statistics, adjusted for age, gender, and race, to characterize risk for specific histological types-small cell, adenocarcinoma, squamous cell, and other types-throughout Kentucky and compared to maps of risk factors. Toward the end of the study period, adenocarcinoma was more common among all population subgroups in north-central Kentucky, where smoking and obesity are less prevalent. During the same time frame, squamous cell, small cell, and other types were more common in rural Appalachia, where smoking and obesity are more prevalent, and in some high poverty urban areas. Spatial and temporal patterns in the distribution of histological types of lung cancer are likely related to regional variation in multiple risk factors. High smoking and obesity rates in the Appalachian region, and likely in high poverty urban areas, appeared to coincide with high rates of squamous cell and small cell lung cancer. In north-central Kentucky, environmental exposures might have resulted in higher risk for adenocarcinoma specifically.

4.
Invest New Drugs ; 2019 Feb 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30820810

RESUMO

Background AR-67 is a novel camptothecin analogue at early stages of drug development. The phase 1 clinical trial in cancer patients with solid tumors was completed and a population pharmacokinetic model (POP PK) was developed to facilitate further development of this investigational agent. Methods Pharmacokinetic data collected in the phase 1 clinical trial were utilized for the development of a population POP PK by implementing the non-linear mixed effects approach. Patient characteristics at study entry were evaluated as covariates in the model. Subjects (N = 26) were treated at nine dosage levels (1.2-12.4 mg/m2/day) on a daily × 5 schedule. Hematological toxicity data were modeled against exposure metrics. Results A two-compartment POP PK model best described the disposition of AR-67 by fitting a total of 328 PK observations from 25 subjects. Following covariate model selection, age remained as a significant covariate on central volume. The final model provided a good fit for the concentration versus time data and PK parameters were estimated with good precision. Clearance, inter-compartmental clearance, central volume and peripheral volume were estimated to be 32.2 L/h, 28.6 L/h, 6.83 L and 25.0 L, respectively. Finally, exposure-pharmacodynamic analysis using Emax models showed that plasma drug concentration versus time profiles are better predictors of AR-67-related hematologic toxicity were better predictors of leukopenia and thrombocytopenia, as compared to total dose. Conclusions A POP PK model was developed to characterize AR-67 pharmacokinetics and identified age as a significant covariate. Exposure PK metrics Cmax and AUC were shown to predict hematological toxicity. Further efforts to identify clinically relevant determinants of AR-67 disposition and effects in a larger patient population are warranted.

5.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 28(5): 935-942, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30700444

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Platelets are a critical element in coagulation and inflammation, and activated platelets are linked to cancer risk through diverse mechanisms. However, a causal relationship between platelets and risk of lung cancer remains unclear. METHODS: We performed single and combined multiple instrumental variable Mendelian randomization analysis by an inverse-weighted method, in addition to a series of sensitivity analyses. Summary data for associations between SNPs and platelet count are from a recent publication that included 48,666 Caucasian Europeans, and the International Lung Cancer Consortium and Transdisciplinary Research in Cancer of the Lung data consisting of 29,266 cases and 56,450 controls to analyze associations between candidate SNPs and lung cancer risk. RESULTS: Multiple instrumental variable analysis incorporating six SNPs showed a 62% increased risk of overall non-small cell lung cancer [NSCLC; OR, 1.62; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.15-2.27; P = 0.005] and a 200% increased risk for small-cell lung cancer (OR, 3.00; 95% CI, 1.27-7.06; P = 0.01). Results showed only a trending association with NSCLC histologic subtypes, which may be due to insufficient sample size and/or weak effect size. A series of sensitivity analysis retained these findings. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest a causal relationship between elevated platelet count and increased risk of lung cancer and provide evidence of possible antiplatelet interventions for lung cancer prevention. IMPACT: These findings provide a better understanding of lung cancer etiology and potential evidence for antiplatelet interventions for lung cancer prevention.

6.
PLoS One ; 14(2): e0212340, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30811496

RESUMO

Appalachian Kentucky (App KY) leads the nation in lung cancer incidence and mortality. Trace elements, such as As, have been associated with lung cancers in other regions of the country and we hypothesized that a population-based study would reveal higher trace element concentrations in App KY individuals with cancer compared to controls. Using toenail and drinking water trace element concentrations, this study investigated a possible association between lung cancer incidence and trace-element exposure in residents of this region. This population-based case-control study had 520 subjects, and 367 subjects provided toenail samples. Additionally, we explored the relationship between toenail and fingernail trace-element concentrations to determine if fingernails could be used as a surrogate for toenails when patients are unable to provide toenail samples. We found that, contrary to our initial hypothesis, trace element concentrations (Al, As, Cr, Mn, Co, Fe, Ni, Cu, Se, and Pb) were not higher in cancer cases than controls with the exception of Zn where concentrations were slightly higher in cases. In fact, univariate logistic regression models showed that individuals with lower concentrations of several elements (Al, Mn, Cr, and Se) were more likely to have lung cancer, although only Mn was significant in multivariate models which controlled for confounding factors. While drinking water concentrations of Al, Cr and Co were positively related to cancer incidence in univariate models, only Co remained significant in multivariate models. However, since the drinking water concentrations were extremely low and not reflected in the toenail concentrations, the significance of this finding is unclear. We also found that fingernail concentrations were not consistently predictive of toenail concentrations, indicating that fingernails should not be used as surrogates for toenails in future studies.

7.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 431, 2019 01 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30683880

RESUMO

Quantifying the genetic correlation between cancers can provide important insights into the mechanisms driving cancer etiology. Using genome-wide association study summary statistics across six cancer types based on a total of 296,215 cases and 301,319 controls of European ancestry, here we estimate the pair-wise genetic correlations between breast, colorectal, head/neck, lung, ovary and prostate cancer, and between cancers and 38 other diseases. We observed statistically significant genetic correlations between lung and head/neck cancer (rg = 0.57, p = 4.6 × 10-8), breast and ovarian cancer (rg = 0.24, p = 7 × 10-5), breast and lung cancer (rg = 0.18, p =1.5 × 10-6) and breast and colorectal cancer (rg = 0.15, p = 1.1 × 10-4). We also found that multiple cancers are genetically correlated with non-cancer traits including smoking, psychiatric diseases and metabolic characteristics. Functional enrichment analysis revealed a significant excess contribution of conserved and regulatory regions to cancer heritability. Our comprehensive analysis of cross-cancer heritability suggests that solid tumors arising across tissues share in part a common germline genetic basis.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/genética , Padrões de Herança , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Neoplasias Ovarianas/genética , Neoplasias da Próstata/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico , Neoplasias da Mama/etnologia , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Neoplasias Colorretais/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Colorretais/etnologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/diagnóstico , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/etnologia , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/patologia , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Pulmonares/etnologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Masculino , Transtornos Mentais/etnologia , Transtornos Mentais/genética , Transtornos Mentais/fisiopatologia , Proteínas de Neoplasias/genética , Neoplasias Ovarianas/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Ovarianas/etnologia , Neoplasias Ovarianas/patologia , Fenótipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Neoplasias da Próstata/diagnóstico , Neoplasias da Próstata/etnologia , Neoplasias da Próstata/patologia , Fumar/etnologia , Fumar/genética , Fumar/fisiopatologia
8.
Int J Cancer ; 2018 Nov 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30499135

RESUMO

Vitamin B supplementation can have side effects for human health, including cancer risk. We aimed to elucidate the role of vitamin B12 in lung cancer aetiology via direct measurements of pre-diagnostic circulating vitamin B12 concentrations in a nested case-control study, complemented with a Mendelian randomization (MR) approach in an independent case-control sample. We used pre-diagnostic biomarker data from 5,183 case-control pairs nested within 20 prospective cohorts, and genetic data from 29,266 cases and 56,450 controls. Exposures included directly measured circulating vitamin B12 in pre-diagnostic blood samples from the nested case-control study, and 8 single nucleotide polymorphisms associated with vitamin B12 concentrations in the MR study. Our main outcome of interest was increased risk for lung cancer, overall and by histological subtype, per increase in circulating vitamin B12 concentrations. We found circulating vitamin B12 to be positively associated with overall lung cancer risk in a dose response fashion (odds ratio for a doubling in B12 [ORlog2B12 ] = 1.15, 95% confidence interval (95%CI) = 1.06-1.25). The MR analysis based on 8 genetic variants also indicated that genetically determined higher vitamin B12 concentrations were positively associated with overall lung cancer risk (OR per 150 pmol/L standard deviation increase in B12 [ORSD ]= 1.08, 95%CI= 1.00-1.16). Considering the consistency of these two independent and complementary analyses, these findings support the hypothesis that high vitamin B12 status increases the risk of lung cancer. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30377206

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer mortality in the United States (US). Squamous cell carcinoma (SQCC) represents 22.6% of all lung cancers nationally, and 26.4% in Appalachian Kentucky (AppKY), where death from lung cancer is exceptionally high. The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) characterized genetic alterations in lung SQCC, but this cohort did not focus on AppKY residents. METHODS: Whole exome sequencing was performed on tumor and normal DNA samples from 51 lung SQCC subjects from AppKY. Somatic genomic alterations were compared between the AppKY and TCGA SQCC cohorts. RESULTS: From this AppKY cohort, we identified an average of 237 non-silent mutations per patient and, in comparison to TCGA, we found that PCMTD1 (18%) and IDH1 (12%) were more commonly altered in AppKY versus TCGA. Using IDH1 as a starting point, we identified a mutually exclusive mutational pattern (IDH1, KDM6A, KDM4E, JMJD1C) involving functionally-related genes. We also found actionable mutations (10%) and/or intermediate or high tumor mutation burden (65%), indicating potential therapeutic targets in 65% of subjects. CONCLUSIONS: This study has identified an increased percentage of IDH1 and PCMTD1 mutations in SQCC arising in the AppKY residents versus TCGA, with population-specific implications for the personalized treatment of this disease. IMPACT: Our study is the first report to characterize genomic alterations in lung SQCC from AppKY. These findings suggest population differences in the genetics of lung SQCC between AppKY and US populations, highlighting the importance of the relevant population when developing personalized treatment approaches for this disease.

10.
Oncotarget ; 9(18): 14738-14740, 2018 Mar 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29581877

RESUMO

Introduction: Large cell neuroendocrine carcinomas (LCNEC) are a group of rare high grade neuroendocrine tumors that often behave clinically like small cell carcinoma (SCLC) and are treated as such. No major advancement in the management of these tumors has occurred in the last 30 years. Methods: We present a case series of three cases from Markey Cancer center along with a review of 13 published cases in the literature wherein immune-checkpoint inhibitors were utilized in the management of LCNEC. Results: Immune-checkpoint inhibitors might have clinical activity in LCNEC. Conclusion: Role of immune-checkpoint inhibitors should be explored in prospective LCNEC clinical trials. We summarize current evidence regarding use of immune checkpoint inhibitors in the treatment of LCNEC.

11.
Carcinogenesis ; 39(3): 336-346, 2018 03 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29059373

RESUMO

Non-small cell lung cancer is the most common type of lung cancer. Both environmental and genetic risk factors contribute to lung carcinogenesis. We conducted a genome-wide interaction analysis between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and smoking status (never- versus ever-smokers) in a European-descent population. We adopted a two-step analysis strategy in the discovery stage: we first conducted a case-only interaction analysis to assess the relationship between SNPs and smoking behavior using 13336 non-small cell lung cancer cases. Candidate SNPs with P-value <0.001 were further analyzed using a standard case-control interaction analysis including 13970 controls. The significant SNPs with P-value <3.5 × 10-5 (correcting for multiple tests) from the case-control analysis in the discovery stage were further validated using an independent replication dataset comprising 5377 controls and 3054 non-small cell lung cancer cases. We further stratified the analysis by histological subtypes. Two novel SNPs, rs6441286 and rs17723637, were identified for overall lung cancer risk. The interaction odds ratio and meta-analysis P-value for these two SNPs were 1.24 with 6.96 × 10-7 and 1.37 with 3.49 × 10-7, respectively. In addition, interaction of smoking with rs4751674 was identified in squamous cell lung carcinoma with an odds ratio of 0.58 and P-value of 8.12 × 10-7. This study is by far the largest genome-wide SNP-smoking interaction analysis reported for lung cancer. The three identified novel SNPs provide potential candidate biomarkers for lung cancer risk screening and intervention. The results from our study reinforce that gene-smoking interactions play important roles in the etiology of lung cancer and account for part of the missing heritability of this disease.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/etiologia , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/genética , Neoplasias Pulmonares/etiologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Fumar/efeitos adversos , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu , Interação Gene-Ambiente , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Genótipo , Humanos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único
12.
Lancet Oncol ; 19(1): 101-114, 2018 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29169877

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: EGFR antibodies have shown promise in patients with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC), particularly with squamous cell histology. We hypothesised that EGFR copy number by fluorescence in-situ hybridisation (FISH) can identify patients most likely to benefit from these drugs combined with chemotherapy and we aimed to explore the activity of cetuximab with chemotherapy in patients with advanced NSCLC who are EGFR FISH-positive. METHODS: We did this open-label, phase 3 study (SWOG S0819) at 277 sites in the USA and Mexico. We randomly assigned (1:1) eligible patients with treatment-naive stage IV NSCLC to receive paclitaxel (200 mg/m2; every 21 days) plus carboplatin (area under the curve of 6 by modified Calvert formula; every 21 days) or carboplatin plus paclitaxel and bevacizumab (15 mg/kg; every 21 days), either with cetuximab (250 mg/m2 weekly after loading dose; cetuximab group) or without (control group), stratified by bevacizumab treatment, smoking status, and M-substage using a dynamic-balancing algorithm. Co-primary endpoints were progression-free survival in patients with EGFR FISH-positive cancer and overall survival in the entire study population. We analysed clinical outcomes with the intention-to-treat principle and analysis of safety outcomes included patients who received at least one dose of study drug. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov (number NCT00946712). FINDINGS: Between Aug 13, 2009, and May 30, 2014, we randomly assigned 1313 patients to the control group (n=657; 277 with bevacizumab and 380 without bevacizumab in the intention-to-treat population) or the cetuximab group (n=656; 283 with bevacizumab and 373 without bevacizumab in the intention-to-treat population). EGFR FISH was assessable in 976 patients and 400 patients (41%) were EGFR FISH-positive. The median follow-up for patients last known to be alive was 35·2 months (IQR 22·9-39·9). After 194 progression-free survival events in the cetuximab group and 198 in the control group in the EGFR FISH-positive subpopulation, progression-free survival did not differ between treatment groups (hazard ratio [HR] 0·92, 95% CI 0·75-1·12; p=0·40; median 5·4 months [95% CI 4·5-5·7] vs 4·8 months [3·9-5·5]). After 570 deaths in the cetuximab group and 593 in the control group, overall survival did not differ between the treatment groups in the entire study population (HR 0·93, 95% CI 0·83-1·04; p=0·22; median 10·9 months [95% CI 9·5-12·0] vs 9·2 months [8·7-10·3]). In the prespecified analysis of EGFR FISH-positive subpopulation with squamous cell histology, overall survival was significantly longer in the cetuximab group than in the control group (HR 0·58, 95% CI 0·36-0·86; p=0·0071), although progression-free survival did not differ between treatment groups in this subgroup (0·68, 0·46-1·01; p=0·055). Overall survival and progression-free survival did not differ among patients who were EGFR FISH non-positive with squamous cell histology (HR 1·04, 95% CI 0·78-1·40; p=0·77; and 1·02, 0·77-1·36; p=0·88 respectively) or patients with non-squamous histology regardless of EGFR FISH status (for EGFR FISH-positive 0·88, 0·68-1·14; p=0·34; and 0·99, 0·78-1·27; p=0·96; respectively; and for EGFR FISH non-positive 1·00, 0·85-1·17; p=0·97; and 1·03, 0·88-1·20; p=0·69; respectively). The most common grade 3-4 adverse events were decreased neutrophil count (210 [37%] in the cetuximab group vs 158 [25%] in the control group), decreased leucocyte count (103 [16%] vs 74 [20%]), fatigue (81 [13%] vs 74 [20%]), and acne or rash (52 [8%] vs one [<1%]). 59 (9%) patients in the cetuximab group and 31 (5%) patients in the control group had severe adverse events. Deaths related to treatment occurred in 32 (6%) patients in the cetuximab group and 13 (2%) patients in the control group. INTERPRETATION: Although this study did not meet its primary endpoints, prespecified subgroup analyses of patients with EGFR FISH-positive squamous-cell carcinoma cancers are encouraging and support continued evaluation of anti-EGFR antibodies in this subpopulation. FUNDING: National Cancer Institute and Eli Lilly and Company.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Carboplatina/administração & dosagem , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/tratamento farmacológico , Cetuximab/administração & dosagem , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Paclitaxel/administração & dosagem , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/efeitos adversos , Carboplatina/efeitos adversos , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/genética , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/mortalidade , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/patologia , Cetuximab/efeitos adversos , Progressão da Doença , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Receptores ErbB/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Hibridização in Situ Fluorescente , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Neoplasias Pulmonares/mortalidade , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Masculino , México , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação , Paclitaxel/efeitos adversos , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento , Estados Unidos
13.
Clin Cancer Res ; 23(24): 7550-7557, 2017 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28974547

RESUMO

Purpose: DNA topoisomerase inhibitors are commonly used for treating small-cell lung cancer (SCLC). Tyrosyl-DNA phosphodiesterase (TDP1) repairs DNA damage caused by this class of drugs and may therefore influence treatment outcome. In this study, we investigated whether common TDP1 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) are associated with overall survival among SCLC patients.Experimental Design: Two TDP1 SNPs (rs942190 and rs2401863) were analyzed in 890 patients from 10 studies in the International Lung Cancer Consortium (ILCCO). The Kaplan-Meier method and Cox regression analyses were used to evaluate genotype associations with overall mortality at 36 months postdiagnosis, adjusting for age, sex, race, and tumor stage.Results: Patients homozygous for the minor allele (GG) of rs942190 had poorer survival compared with those carrying AA alleles, with a HR of 1.36 [95% confidence interval (CI): 1.08-1.72, P = 0.01), but no association with survival was observed for patients carrying the AG genotype (HR = 1.04, 95% CI, 0.84-1.29, P = 0.72). For rs2401863, patients homozygous for the minor allele (CC) tended to have better survival than patients carrying AA alleles (HR = 0.79; 95% CI, 0.61-1.02, P = 0.07). Results from the Genotype Tissue Expression (GTEx) Project, the Encyclopedia of DNA Elements (ENCODE), and the ePOSSUM web application support the potential function of rs942190.Conclusions: We found the rs942190 GG genotype to be associated with relatively poor survival among SCLC patients. Further investigation is needed to confirm the result and to determine whether this genotype may be a predictive marker for treatment efficacy of DNA topoisomerase inhibitors. Clin Cancer Res; 23(24); 7550-7. ©2017 AACR.


Assuntos
Predisposição Genética para Doença , Diester Fosfórico Hidrolases/genética , Carcinoma de Pequenas Células do Pulmão/epidemiologia , Carcinoma de Pequenas Células do Pulmão/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Alelos , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Reparo do DNA/genética , Feminino , Genótipo , Homozigoto , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Carcinoma de Pequenas Células do Pulmão/patologia , Análise de Sobrevida , Resultado do Tratamento
14.
BMC Cancer ; 17(1): 602, 2017 Aug 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28854908

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Describe a single-center real-world experience with comprehensive genomic profiling (CGP) to identify genotype directed therapy (GDT) options for patients with malignancies refractory to standard treatment options. METHODS: Patients who had CGP by a CLIA-certified laboratory between November 2012 and December 2015 were included. The medical records were analyzed retrospectively after Institutional Review Board (IRB) approval. The treating oncologist made the decision to obtain the assay to provide potential therapeutic options. The objectives of this study were to determine the proportion of patients who benefited from GDT, and to identify barriers to receiving GDT. RESULTS: A total of 125 pediatric and adult patients with a histologically confirmed diagnosis of malignancy were included. Among these, 106 samples were from adult patients, and 19 samples were from pediatric patients. The median age was 54 years for adults. The majority had stage IV malignancy (53%) and were pretreated with 2-3 lines of therapy (45%). The median age was 8 years for pediatric patients. The majority had brain tumors (47%) and had received none or 1 line of therapy (58%) when the profiling was requested. A total of 111 (92%) patients had genomic alterations and were candidates for GDT either via on/off-label use or a clinical trial (phase 1 through 3). Fifteen patients (12%) received GDT based on these results including two patients who were referred for genomically matched phase 1 clinical trials. Three patients (2%) derived benefit from their GDT that ranged from 2 to 6 months of stable disease. CONCLUSIONS: CGP revealed potential treatment options in the majority of patients profiled. However, multiple barriers to therapy were identified, and only a small minority of the patients derived benefit from GDT.


Assuntos
Neoplasias/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto , Feminino , Genômica/métodos , Genótipo , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Adulto Jovem
15.
PLoS One ; 12(6): e0177875, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28594918

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Assessing the relationship between lung cancer and metabolic conditions is challenging because of the confounding effect of tobacco. Mendelian randomization (MR), or the use of genetic instrumental variables to assess causality, may help to identify the metabolic drivers of lung cancer. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We identified genetic instruments for potential metabolic risk factors and evaluated these in relation to risk using 29,266 lung cancer cases (including 11,273 adenocarcinomas, 7,426 squamous cell and 2,664 small cell cases) and 56,450 controls. The MR risk analysis suggested a causal effect of body mass index (BMI) on lung cancer risk for two of the three major histological subtypes, with evidence of a risk increase for squamous cell carcinoma (odds ratio (OR) [95% confidence interval (CI)] = 1.20 [1.01-1.43] and for small cell lung cancer (OR [95%CI] = 1.52 [1.15-2.00]) for each standard deviation (SD) increase in BMI [4.6 kg/m2]), but not for adenocarcinoma (OR [95%CI] = 0.93 [0.79-1.08]) (Pheterogeneity = 4.3x10-3). Additional analysis using a genetic instrument for BMI showed that each SD increase in BMI increased cigarette consumption by 1.27 cigarettes per day (P = 2.1x10-3), providing novel evidence that a genetic susceptibility to obesity influences smoking patterns. There was also evidence that low-density lipoprotein cholesterol was inversely associated with lung cancer overall risk (OR [95%CI] = 0.90 [0.84-0.97] per SD of 38 mg/dl), while fasting insulin was positively associated (OR [95%CI] = 1.63 [1.25-2.13] per SD of 44.4 pmol/l). Sensitivity analyses including a weighted-median approach and MR-Egger test did not detect other pleiotropic effects biasing the main results. CONCLUSIONS: Our results are consistent with a causal role of fasting insulin and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol in lung cancer etiology, as well as for BMI in squamous cell and small cell carcinoma. The latter relation may be mediated by a previously unrecognized effect of obesity on smoking behavior.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Pulmonares/metabolismo , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana , Obesidade/complicações , Índice de Massa Corporal , Jejum , Humanos , Insulina/sangue , Resistência à Insulina , Funções Verossimilhança , Lipídeos/sangue , Neoplasias Pulmonares/sangue , Neoplasias Pulmonares/complicações , Obesidade/sangue , Fenótipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Fatores de Risco
16.
Invest New Drugs ; 35(5): 608-615, 2017 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28204981

RESUMO

Introduction Proteasome inhibition is an established therapy for many malignancies. Carfilzomib, a novel proteasome inhibitor, was combined with irinotecan to provide a synergistic approach in relapsed, irinotecan-sensitive cancers. Materials and Methods Patients with relapsed irinotecan-sensitive cancers received carfilzomib (Day 1, 2, 8, 9, 15, and 16) at three dose levels (20/27 mg/m2, 20/36 mg/m2 and 20/45 mg/m2/day) in combination with irinotecan (Days 1, 8 and 15) at 125 mg/m2/day. Key eligibility criteria included measurable disease, a Zubrod PS of 0 or 1, and acceptable organ function. Patients with stable asymptomatic brain metastases were eligible. Dose escalation utilized a standard 3 + 3 design. Results Overall, 16 patients were enrolled to three dose levels, with four patients replaced. Three patients experienced dose limiting toxicity (DLT) and the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) was exceeded in Cohort 3. The RP2 dose was carfilzomib 20/36 mg/m2 (given on Days 1, 2, 8, 9, 15, and 16) and irinotecan 125 mg/m2 (Days 1, 8 and 15). Common Grade (Gr) 3 and 4 toxicities included fatigue (19%), thrombocytopenia (19%), and diarrhea (13%). Conclusions Irinotecan and carfilzomib were well tolerated, with common toxicities of fatigue, thrombocytopenia and neutropenic fever. Objective clinical response was 19% (one confirmed partial response (PR) in small cell lung cancer (SCLC) and two unconfirmed); stable disease (SD) was 6% for a disease control rate (DCR) of 25%. The recommended phase II dose was carfilzomib 20/36 mg/m2 and irinotecan125 mg/m2. The phase II evaluation is ongoing in relapsed small cell lung cancer.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Adolescente , Camptotecina/administração & dosagem , Camptotecina/análogos & derivados , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Esquema de Medicação , Feminino , Humanos , Irinotecano , Masculino , Dose Máxima Tolerável , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/tratamento farmacológico , Oligopeptídeos/administração & dosagem , Inibidores de Proteassoma/administração & dosagem
17.
Biomaterials ; 120: 115-125, 2017 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28056401

RESUMO

Magnetic hyperthermia as a treatment modality is acquiring increased recognition for loco-regional therapy of primary and metastatic lung malignancies by pulmonary delivery of magnetic nanoparticles (MNP). The unique characteristic of magnetic nanoparticles to induce localized hyperthermia in the presence of an alternating magnetic field (AMF) allows for preferential killing of cells at the tumor site. In this study we demonstrate the effect of hyperthermia induced by low and high dose of MNP under the influence of an AMF using 3D tumor tissue analogs (TTA) representing the micrometastatic, perfusion independent stage of triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) that infiltrates the lungs. While application of inhalable magnetic nanocomposite microparticles or magnetic nanocomposites (MnMs) to the micrometastatic TNBC model comprised of TTA generated from cancer and stromal cells, showed no measureable adverse effects in the absence of AMF-exposure, magnetic hyperthermia generated under the influence of an AMF in TTA incubated in a high concentration of MNP (1 mg/mL) caused significant increase in cellular death/damage with mechanical disintegration and release of cell debris indicating the potential of these inhalable composites as a promising approach for thermal treatment of diseased lungs. The novelty and significance of this study lies in the development of methods to evaluate in vitro the application of inhalable composites containing MNPs in thermal therapy using a physiologically relevant metastatic TNBC model representative of the microenvironmental characteristics in secondary lung malignancies.


Assuntos
Hipertermia Induzida/métodos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/secundário , Neoplasias Pulmonares/terapia , Terapia de Campo Magnético/métodos , Nanopartículas de Magnetita/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/patologia , Animais , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Sobrevivência Celular , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Camundongos , Micrometástase de Neoplasia/patologia , Micrometástase de Neoplasia/terapia , Resultado do Tratamento , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/terapia
18.
JCO Clin Cancer Inform ; 1: 1-12, 2017 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30657380

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Cohort studies report associations between statin use and improved survival in patients with cancer. We used pharmacoepidemiologic methods to evaluate the survival of patients with cancer who received statins alone or in ostensibly synergistic drug combinations. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients with cancer who were diagnosed from 2010 to 2013 were identified in a large health care claims database. The rate of all-cause death up to 1 year after diagnosis was compared by Cox proportional hazard regression. Sensitivity analyses included age stratification, statin type and intensity, and comparison with or without bisphosphonates and dipyridamole. RESULTS: Among 312,907 identified patients with cancer, treatment groups included statin users (n = 65,440), nonstatin users who received medications that block cholesterol absorption (n = 9,289), and nonusers (n = 226,007). Statin use before diagnosis was associated with improved overall survival compared with no treatment (hazard ratio [HR], 0.85; 95% CI, 0.80 to 0.91) and specifically in patients with leukemia, lung, or renal cancers. Nonstatin users had increased overall survival compared with no treatment (HR, 0.73; 95% CI, 0.62 to 0.85); when stratified, this difference held true only for pancreatic cancer and leukemia. No differences were observed between statin and nonstatin groups. Bisphosphonate use alone had no effect (n = 4,528), but patients who used both statins and bisphosphonates (n = 4,090) had increased survival compared with no treatment (HR, 0.60; 95% CI, 0.45 to 0.81). The effect of the combination of dipyridamole and statin use (n = 651) was not significant compared with no treatment. CONCLUSION: This study suggests that the combination of statins with drugs that affect isoprenylation, such as bisphosphonates, improves survival in patients with cancer. Consideration of pathway-specific pharmacology allows for hypotheses testing with the pharmacoepidemiologic approach. Prospective evaluation of these findings warrants clinical investigation and preclinical mechanistic studies.


Assuntos
Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Comorbidade , Bases de Dados Factuais , Difosfonatos/administração & dosagem , Difosfonatos/uso terapêutico , Gerenciamento Clínico , Quimioterapia Combinada , Feminino , Humanos , Inibidores de Hidroximetilglutaril-CoA Redutases/administração & dosagem , Inibidores de Hidroximetilglutaril-CoA Redutases/uso terapêutico , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias/diagnóstico , Neoplasias/mortalidade , Neoplasias/terapia , Prognóstico , Resultado do Tratamento , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
19.
Oncotarget ; 7(23): 34630-42, 2016 Jun 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27127879

RESUMO

S100A4 (metastasin-1), a metastasis-associated protein and marker of the epithelial to mesenchymal transition, contributes to several hallmarks of cancer and has been implicated in the progression of several types of cancer. However, the impacts of S100A4 signaling in lung cancer progression and its potential use as a target for therapy in lung cancer have not been properly explored. Using established lung cancer cell lines, we demonstrate that S100A4 knockdown reduces cell proliferation, invasion and three-dimensional invasive growth, while overexpression of S100A4 increases invasive potential. In patient-derived tissues, S100A4 is preferentially elevated in lung adenocarcinoma. This elevation is associated with lymphovascular invasion and decreased overall survival. In addition, depletion of S100A4 by shRNA inhibits NF-κB activity and decreases TNFα-induced MMP9 expression. Furthermore, inhibition of the NF-κB/MMP9 axis decreases lung carcinoma invasive potential. Niclosamide, a reported inhibitor of S100A4, blocks expression and function of S100A4 with a reduction in proliferation, invasion and NF-κB-mediated MMP9 expression. Collectively, this study highlights the importance of the S100A4/NF-κB/MMP9 axis in lung cancer invasion and provides a rationale for targeting S100A4 to combat lung cancer.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma/tratamento farmacológico , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Niclosamida/farmacologia , Proteína A4 de Ligação a Cálcio da Família S100/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteína A4 de Ligação a Cálcio da Família S100/metabolismo , Células A549 , Adenocarcinoma/patologia , Adenocarcinoma de Pulmão , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/patologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/genética , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Metaloproteinase 9 da Matriz/biossíntese , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Invasividade Neoplásica/genética , Invasividade Neoplásica/patologia , Prognóstico , Interferência de RNA , RNA Interferente Pequeno/genética , Proteína A4 de Ligação a Cálcio da Família S100/genética , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo
20.
Adv Radiat Oncol ; 1(4): 252-259, 2016 Oct-Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28740895

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Low-dose fractionated radiation therapy (LDFRT) induces effective cell killing through hyperradiation sensitivity and potentiates effects of chemotherapy. We report our second investigation of LDFRT as a potentiator of the chemotherapeutic effect of induction carboplatin and paclitaxel in locally advanced squamous cell cancer of the head and neck (SCCHN). EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Two cycles of induction therapy were given every 21 days: paclitaxel (75 mg/m2) on days 1, 8, and 15; carboplatin (area under the curve 6) day 1; and LDFRT 50 cGy fractions (2 each on days 1, 2, 8, and 15). Objectives included primary site complete response rate; secondary included overall survival, progression-free survival (PFS), disease-specific survival, and toxicity. RESULTS: A total of 24 evaluable patients were enrolled. Primary sites included oropharynx (62.5%), larynx (20.8%), oral cavity (8.3%), and hypopharynx (8.3%). Grade 3/4 toxicities included neutropenia (20%), leukopenia (32%), dehydration/hypotension (8%), anemia (4%), infection (4%), pulmonary/allergic rhinitis (4%), and diarrhea (4%). Primary site response rate was 23/24 (95.8%): 15/24 (62.5%) complete response, 8/24 (33.3%) partial response, and 1/24 (4.2%) stable disease. With median follow-up of 7.75 years, 9-year rates for overall survival were 49.4% (95% confidence interval [CI], 30.5-79.9), PFS was 72.2% (CI, 55.3-94.3), and disease-specific survival was 65.4% (44.3-96.4). CONCLUSION: Chemopotentiating LDFRT combined with paclitaxel and carboplatin is effective in SCCHN and provided an excellent median overall survival of 107.2 months, with median PFS not yet reached in this locally advanced SCCHN cohort. This compares favorably to prior investigations and caused fewer grade 3 and 4 toxicities than more intensive, 3-drug induction regimens. This trial demonstrates the innovative use of LDFRT as a potentiator of chemotherapy.

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