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1.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 27, 2020 Jan 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31911640

RESUMO

Impaired lung function is often caused by cigarette smoking, making it challenging to disentangle its role in lung cancer susceptibility. Investigation of the shared genetic basis of these phenotypes in the UK Biobank and International Lung Cancer Consortium (29,266 cases, 56,450 controls) shows that lung cancer is genetically correlated with reduced forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1: rg = 0.098, p = 2.3 × 10-8) and the ratio of FEV1 to forced vital capacity (FEV1/FVC: rg = 0.137, p = 2.0 × 10-12). Mendelian randomization analyses demonstrate that reduced FEV1 increases squamous cell carcinoma risk (odds ratio (OR) = 1.51, 95% confidence intervals: 1.21-1.88), while reduced FEV1/FVC increases the risk of adenocarcinoma (OR = 1.17, 1.01-1.35) and lung cancer in never smokers (OR = 1.56, 1.05-2.30). These findings support a causal role of pulmonary impairment in lung cancer etiology. Integrative analyses reveal that pulmonary function instruments, including 73 novel variants, influence lung tissue gene expression and implicate immune-related pathways in mediating the observed effects on lung carcinogenesis.

2.
Int J Cancer ; 146(7): 1862-1878, 2020 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31696517

RESUMO

We have recently completed the largest GWAS on lung cancer including 29,266 cases and 56,450 controls of European descent. The goal of our study has been to integrate the complete GWAS results with a large-scale expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL) mapping study in human lung tissues (n = 1,038) to identify candidate causal genes for lung cancer. We performed transcriptome-wide association study (TWAS) for lung cancer overall, by histology (adenocarcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma and small cell lung cancer) and smoking subgroups (never- and ever-smokers). We performed replication analysis using lung data from the Genotype-Tissue Expression (GTEx) project. DNA damage assays were performed in human lung fibroblasts for selected TWAS genes. As expected, the main TWAS signal for all histological subtypes and ever-smokers was on chromosome 15q25. The gene most strongly associated with lung cancer at this locus using the TWAS approach was IREB2 (pTWAS = 1.09E-99), where lower predicted expression increased lung cancer risk. A new lung adenocarcinoma susceptibility locus was revealed on 9p13.3 and associated with higher predicted expression of AQP3 (pTWAS = 3.72E-6). Among the 45 previously described lung cancer GWAS loci, we mapped candidate target gene for 17 of them. The association AQP3-adenocarcinoma on 9p13.3 was replicated using GTEx (pTWAS = 6.55E-5). Consistent with the effect of risk alleles on gene expression levels, IREB2 knockdown and AQP3 overproduction promote endogenous DNA damage. These findings indicate genes whose expression in lung tissue directly influences lung cancer risk.

3.
BMC Bioinformatics ; 20(1): 620, 2019 Dec 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31791231

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cancer arises through accumulation of somatically acquired genetic mutations. An important question is to delineate the temporal order of somatic mutations during carcinogenesis, which contributes to better understanding of cancer biology and facilitates identification of new therapeutic targets. Although a number of statistical and computational methods have been proposed to estimate the temporal order of mutations, they do not account for the differences in the functional impacts of mutations and thus are likely to be obscured by the presence of passenger mutations that do not contribute to cancer progression. In addition, many methods infer the order of mutations at the gene level, which have limited power due to the low mutation rate in most genes. RESULTS: In this paper, we develop a Probabilistic Approach for estimating the Temporal Order of Pathway mutations by leveraging functional Annotations of mutations (PATOPA). PATOPA infers the order of mutations at the pathway level, wherein it uses a probabilistic method to characterize the likelihood of mutational events from different pathways occurring in a certain order. The functional impact of each mutation is incorporated to weigh more on a mutation that is more integral to tumor development. A maximum likelihood method is used to estimate parameters and infer the probability of one pathway being mutated prior to another. Simulation studies and analysis of whole exome sequencing data from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) demonstrate that PATOPA is able to accurately estimate the temporal order of pathway mutations and provides new biological insights on carcinogenesis of colorectal and lung cancers. CONCLUSIONS: PATOPA provides a useful tool to estimate temporal order of mutations at the pathway level while leveraging functional annotations of mutations.

4.
Orphanet J Rare Dis ; 14(1): 266, 2019 Nov 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31752927

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Primary neuroendocrine carcinomas of the gallbladder and biliary tract are rare, with pure large cell neuroendocrine carcinomas (LCNEC) being exceedingly rare and with a particularly poor prognosis. METHODS: We performed a review of published data on biliary tract large cell neuroendocrine carcinomas in PubMed. RESULTS: Preliminary search revealed over 2000 results but we found only 12 cases of pure large cell neuroendocrine carcinomas of biliary tract noted in literature to date. Because it commonly presents with non-specific symptoms of abdominal pain and jaundice, diagnosis is made after resection with histo-pathological and immunohistochemical analysis. These cancers are particularly aggressive with high recurrence rates, most often presenting with metastasis to regional lymph nodes and/or the liver resulting in a poor prognosis. Overall, complete surgical excision with systemic chemotherapy is the treatment mainstay. If the cancer is unresectable due to multiple metastases, medical management with systemic chemotherapy is the primary treatment modality. CONCLUSION: The prognosis of hepatobiliary LCNEC remains poor with median survival of only 11 months from initial diagnosis. Studies focusing on high grade neuroendocrine carcinoma are needed to enhance our understanding of biology and therapeutics in this rare but aggressive cancer.

5.
BMC Bioinformatics ; 20(1): 501, 2019 Oct 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31623550

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Identifying differentially abundant features between different experimental groups is a common goal for many metabolomics and proteomics studies. However, analyzing data from mass spectrometry (MS) is difficult because the data may not be normally distributed and there is often a large fraction of zero values. Although several statistical methods have been proposed, they either require the data normality assumption or are inefficient. RESULTS: We propose a new semi-parametric differential abundance analysis (SDA) method for metabolomics and proteomics data from MS. The method considers a two-part model, a logistic regression for the zero proportion and a semi-parametric log-linear model for the possibly non-normally distributed non-zero values, to characterize data from each feature. A kernel-smoothed likelihood method is developed to estimate model coefficients and a likelihood ratio test is constructed for differential abundant analysis. The method has been implemented into an R package, SDAMS, which is available at https://www.bioconductor.org/packages/release/bioc/html/SDAMS.html . CONCLUSION: By introducing the two-part semi-parametric model, SDA is able to handle both non-normally distributed data and large fraction of zero values in a MS dataset. It also allows for adjustment of covariates. Simulations and real data analyses demonstrate that SDA outperforms existing methods.


Assuntos
Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Metabolômica/métodos , Proteômica/métodos , Software , Modelos Estatísticos
6.
Int J Cancer ; 2019 Oct 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31577861

RESUMO

Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified 45 susceptibility loci associated with lung cancer. Only less than SNPs, small insertions and deletions (INDELs) are the second most abundant genetic polymorphisms in the human genome. INDELs are highly associated with multiple human diseases, including lung cancer. However, limited studies with large-scale samples have been available to systematically evaluate the effects of INDELs on lung cancer risk. Here, we performed a large-scale meta-analysis to evaluate INDELs and their risk for lung cancer in 23,202 cases and 19,048 controls. Functional annotations were performed to further explore the potential function of lung cancer risk INDELs. Conditional analysis was used to clarify the relationship between INDELs and SNPs. Four new risk loci were identified in genome-wide INDEL analysis (1p13.2: rs5777156, Insertion, OR = 0.92, p = 9.10 × 10-8 ; 4q28.2: rs58404727, Deletion, OR = 1.19, p = 5.25 × 10-7 ; 12p13.31: rs71450133, Deletion, OR = 1.09, p = 8.83 × 10-7 ; and 14q22.3: rs34057993, Deletion, OR = 0.90, p = 7.64 × 10-8 ). The eQTL analysis and functional annotation suggested that INDELs might affect lung cancer susceptibility by regulating the expression of target genes. After conducting conditional analysis on potential causal SNPs, the INDELs in the new loci were still nominally significant. Our findings indicate that INDELs could be potentially functional genetic variants for lung cancer risk. Further functional experiments are needed to better understand INDEL mechanisms in carcinogenesis.

8.
J Biomed Inform ; 97: 103267, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31401235

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: We study the performance of machine learning (ML) methods, including neural networks (NNs), to extract mutational test results from pathology reports collected by cancer registries. Given the lack of hand-labeled datasets for mutational test result extraction, we focus on the particular use-case of extracting Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor mutation results in non-small cell lung cancers. We explore the generalization of NNs across different registries where our goals are twofold: (1) to assess how well models trained on a registry's data port to test data from a different registry and (2) to assess whether and to what extent such models can be improved using state-of-the-art neural domain adaptation techniques under different assumptions about what is available (labeled vs unlabeled data) at the target registry site. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We collected data from two registries: the Kentucky Cancer Registry (KCR) and the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center (FH) Cancer Surveillance System. We combine NNs with adversarial domain adaptation to improve cross-registry performance. We compare to other classifiers in the standard supervised classification, unsupervised domain adaptation, and supervised domain adaptation scenarios. RESULTS: The performance of ML methods varied between registries. To extract positive results, the basic convolutional neural network (CNN) had an F1 of 71.5% on the KCR dataset and 95.7% on the FH dataset. For the KCR dataset, the CNN F1 results were low when trained on FH data (Positive F1: 23%). Using our proposed adversarial CNN, without any labeled data, we match the F1 of the models trained directly on each target registry's data. The adversarial CNN F1 improved when trained on FH and applied to KCR dataset (Positive F1: 70.8%). We found similar performance improvements when we trained on KCR and tested on FH reports (Positive F1: 45% to 96%). CONCLUSION: Adversarial domain adaptation improves the performance of NNs applied to pathology reports. In the unsupervised domain adaptation setting, we match the performance of models that are trained directly on target registry's data by using source registry's labeled data and unlabeled examples from the target registry.

9.
Am J Health Syst Pharm ; 76(7): 415-423, 2019 Mar 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31361818

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The prevalence of pharmacogenetically actionable medications in advanced cancer patients whose therapy may be optimized with genotype data was determined. METHODS: Patients enrolled in our institutional molecular tumor board observational cohort were included in this study. Collected data included demographics, type(s) of cancer, and outpatient medications. Medications were classified as "pharmacogenetically actionable" if there are Clinical Pharmacogenetics Implementation Consortium (CPIC) therapeutic recommendations for that medication based on the presence of germline variations. The prevalence of pharmacogenetically actionable medications in the study population was determined, and the frequency of opportunities for pharmacogenetic prescribing and adverse event (AE) mitigation were estimated. RESULTS: In a cohort of 193 patients with advanced cancer, 65% of patients were taking a pharmacogenetically actionable medication. Approximately 10% of the outpatient medications taken by the study population had a pharmacogenetic association. The most common pharmacogenetically actionable medications being used were ondansetron (47%), capecitabine (10%), and sertraline (7%). Using published genetic variation frequencies and AE risk, we conservatively estimated that 7.1% of cancer patients would be eligible for genetic-based medication adjustment, and 101 AEs would be prevented in 10,000 patients genotyped. CONCLUSION: Medications with pharmacogenetic associations are used commonly in the advanced cancer patient population. This widespread exposure supports the implementation of prospective genotyping in the treatment of these high-risk patients.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Testes Farmacogenômicos , Medicina de Precisão/estatística & dados numéricos , Idoso , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Biomarcadores Tumorais/antagonistas & inibidores , Capecitabina/farmacologia , Capecitabina/uso terapêutico , Prescrições de Medicamentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias/genética , Neoplasias/patologia , Ondansetron/farmacologia , Ondansetron/uso terapêutico , Variantes Farmacogenômicos , Estudos Prospectivos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Sertralina/farmacologia , Sertralina/uso terapêutico
10.
Am J Otolaryngol ; 40(5): 673-677, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31201038

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Optimal treatment strategies for the management of oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OPSCC) remain unclear. The objective of this study is to examine the role of transoral robotic surgery (TORS) on functional and treatment outcomes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective review of patients with OPSCC (tonsil/base of tongue) who underwent TORS with neck dissection± adjuvant therapy between January 2011 to December 2016 were compared to a stage matched cohort of patients treated with primary chemoradiation. Demographic, treatment, and outcome data were collected. RESULTS: 54 patients received primary chemoradiation and 65 patients (surgical group) received TORS ± adjuvant therapy for clinically staged disease meeting study criteria. 25% (N = 17) were treated with surgery alone. The remainder of the surgical group received postoperative radiation (N = 48), half of which received adjuvant chemotherapy (N = 24) in addition to radiation. 63% (N = 41) of the patients did not have risk factors for chemotherapy. No differences in overall or disease free survival were observed with TORS compared to chemoradiation (p = 0.9), although Charlson Comorbidity Index (CCI) was higher in the surgical group (p = 0.01). The strongest predictor of prolonged gastrostomy tube use was not treatment, but rather co-morbidity (p = 0.03), with no significant differences beyond 12 months. CONCLUSION: Although no significant survival differences were observed across treatment groups, this was maintained despite increased comorbidity index in the surgical patients. Given the ability to de-escalate and/or eliminate adjuvant therapy, particularly in a less healthy population, TORS would appear to be the viable treatment option it has become.

11.
JCO Clin Cancer Inform ; 3: 1-15, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31058542

RESUMO

PURPOSE: SEER registries do not report results of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) mutation tests. To facilitate population-based research in molecularly defined subgroups of non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC), we assessed the validity of natural language processing (NLP) for the ascertainment of EGFR and ALK testing from electronic pathology (e-path) reports of NSCLC cases included in two SEER registries: the Cancer Surveillance System (CSS) and the Kentucky Cancer Registry (KCR). METHODS: We obtained 4,278 e-path reports from 1,634 patients who were diagnosed with stage IV nonsquamous NSCLC from September 1, 2011, to December 31, 2013, included in CSS. We used 855 CSS reports to train NLP systems for the ascertainment of EGFR and ALK test status (reported v not reported) and test results (positive v negative). We assessed sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values in an internal validation sample of 3,423 CSS e-path reports and repeated the analysis in an external sample of 1,041 e-path reports from 565 KCR patients. Two oncologists manually reviewed all e-path reports to generate gold-standard data sets. RESULTS: NLP systems yielded internal validity metrics that ranged from 0.95 to 1.00 for EGFR and ALK test status and results in CSS e-path reports. NLP showed high internal accuracy for the ascertainment of EGFR and ALK in CSS patients-F scores of 0.95 and 0.96, respectively. In the external validation analysis, NLP yielded metrics that ranged from 0.02 to 0.96 in KCR reports and F scores of 0.70 and 0.72, respectively, in KCR patients. CONCLUSION: NLP is an internally valid method for the ascertainment of EGFR and ALK test information from e-path reports available in SEER registries, but future work is necessary to increase NLP external validity.

12.
J Thorac Oncol ; 14(8): 1360-1369, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31009812

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Inherited susceptibility to lung cancer risk in never-smokers is poorly understood. The major reason for this gap in knowledge is that this disease is relatively uncommon (except in Asians), making it difficult to assemble an adequate study sample. In this study we conducted a genome-wide association study on the largest, to date, set of European-descent never-smokers with lung cancer. METHODS: We conducted a two-phase (discovery and replication) genome-wide association study in never-smokers of European descent. We further augmented the sample by performing a meta-analysis with never-smokers from the recent OncoArray study, which resulted in a total of 3636 cases and 6295 controls. We also compare our findings with those in smokers with lung cancer. RESULTS: We detected three genome-wide statistically significant single nucleotide polymorphisms rs31490 (odds ratio [OR]: 0.769, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.722-0.820; p value 5.31 × 10-16), rs380286 (OR: 0.770, 95% CI: 0.723-0.820; p value 4.32 × 10-16), and rs4975616 (OR: 0.778, 95% CI: 0.730-0.829; p value 1.04 × 10-14). All three mapped to Chromosome 5 CLPTM1L-TERT region, previously shown to be associated with lung cancer risk in smokers and in never-smoker Asian women, and risk of other cancers including breast, ovarian, colorectal, and prostate. CONCLUSIONS: We found that genetic susceptibility to lung cancer in never-smokers is associated to genetic variants with pan-cancer risk effects. The comparison with smokers shows that top variants previously shown to be associated with lung cancer risk only confer risk in the presence of tobacco exposure, underscoring the importance of gene-environment interactions in the etiology of this disease.

13.
Cancer Control ; 26(1): 1073274819845873, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31014079

RESUMO

Recent metabolic and genetic research has demonstrated that risk for specific histological types of lung cancer varies in relation to cigarette smoking and obesity. This study investigated the spatial and temporal distribution of lung cancer histological types in Kentucky, a largely rural state with high rates of smoking and obesity, to discern population-level trends that might reflect variation in these and other risk factors. The Kentucky Cancer Registry provided residential geographic coordinates for lung cancer cases diagnosed from 1995 through 2014. We used multinomial and discrete Poisson spatiotemporal scan statistics, adjusted for age, gender, and race, to characterize risk for specific histological types-small cell, adenocarcinoma, squamous cell, and other types-throughout Kentucky and compared to maps of risk factors. Toward the end of the study period, adenocarcinoma was more common among all population subgroups in north-central Kentucky, where smoking and obesity are less prevalent. During the same time frame, squamous cell, small cell, and other types were more common in rural Appalachia, where smoking and obesity are more prevalent, and in some high poverty urban areas. Spatial and temporal patterns in the distribution of histological types of lung cancer are likely related to regional variation in multiple risk factors. High smoking and obesity rates in the Appalachian region, and likely in high poverty urban areas, appeared to coincide with high rates of squamous cell and small cell lung cancer. In north-central Kentucky, environmental exposures might have resulted in higher risk for adenocarcinoma specifically.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma de Pulmão/epidemiologia , Fumar Cigarros/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/epidemiologia , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Carcinoma de Pequenas Células do Pulmão/epidemiologia , Adenocarcinoma de Pulmão/patologia , Idoso , Análise por Conglomerados , Feminino , Humanos , Kentucky/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , Carcinoma de Pequenas Células do Pulmão/patologia , Análise Espaço-Temporal
14.
Oncotarget ; 10(19): 1760-1774, 2019 Mar 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30956756

RESUMO

The development of cancer is driven by the accumulation of many oncogenesis-related genetic alterations and tumorigenesis is triggered by complex networks of involved genes rather than independent actions. To explore the epistasis existing among oncogenesis-related genes in lung cancer development, we conducted pairwise genetic interaction analyses among 35,031 SNPs from 2027 oncogenesis-related genes. The genotypes from three independent genome-wide association studies including a total of 24,037 lung cancer patients and 20,401 healthy controls with Caucasian ancestry were analyzed in the study. Using a two-stage study design including discovery and replication studies, and stringent Bonferroni correction for multiple statistical analysis, we identified significant genetic interactions between SNPs in RGL1:RAD51B (OR=0.44, p value=3.27x10-11 in overall lung cancer and OR=0.41, p value=9.71x10-11 in non-small cell lung cancer), SYNE1:RNF43 (OR=0.73, p value=1.01x10-12 in adenocarcinoma) and FHIT:TSPAN8 (OR=1.82, p value=7.62x10-11 in squamous cell carcinoma) in our analysis. None of these genes have been identified from previous main effect association studies in lung cancer. Further eQTL gene expression analysis in lung tissues provided information supporting the functional role of the identified epistasis in lung tumorigenesis. Gene set enrichment analysis revealed potential pathways and gene networks underlying molecular mechanisms in overall lung cancer as well as histology subtypes development. Our results provide evidence that genetic interactions between oncogenesis-related genes play an important role in lung tumorigenesis and epistasis analysis, combined with functional annotation, provides a valuable tool for uncovering functional novel susceptibility genes that contribute to lung cancer development by interacting with other modifier genes.

15.
Invest New Drugs ; 37(6): 1218-1230, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30820810

RESUMO

Background AR-67 is a novel camptothecin analogue at early stages of drug development. The phase 1 clinical trial in cancer patients with solid tumors was completed and a population pharmacokinetic model (POP PK) was developed to facilitate further development of this investigational agent. Methods Pharmacokinetic data collected in the phase 1 clinical trial were utilized for the development of a population POP PK by implementing the non-linear mixed effects approach. Patient characteristics at study entry were evaluated as covariates in the model. Subjects (N = 26) were treated at nine dosage levels (1.2-12.4 mg/m2/day) on a daily × 5 schedule. Hematological toxicity data were modeled against exposure metrics. Results A two-compartment POP PK model best described the disposition of AR-67 by fitting a total of 328 PK observations from 25 subjects. Following covariate model selection, age remained as a significant covariate on central volume. The final model provided a good fit for the concentration versus time data and PK parameters were estimated with good precision. Clearance, inter-compartmental clearance, central volume and peripheral volume were estimated to be 32.2 L/h, 28.6 L/h, 6.83 L and 25.0 L, respectively. Finally, exposure-pharmacodynamic analysis using Emax models showed that plasma drug concentration versus time profiles are better predictors of AR-67-related hematologic toxicity were better predictors of leukopenia and thrombocytopenia, as compared to total dose. Conclusions A POP PK model was developed to characterize AR-67 pharmacokinetics and identified age as a significant covariate. Exposure PK metrics Cmax and AUC were shown to predict hematological toxicity. Further efforts to identify clinically relevant determinants of AR-67 disposition and effects in a larger patient population are warranted.

16.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 28(5): 935-942, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30700444

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Platelets are a critical element in coagulation and inflammation, and activated platelets are linked to cancer risk through diverse mechanisms. However, a causal relationship between platelets and risk of lung cancer remains unclear. METHODS: We performed single and combined multiple instrumental variable Mendelian randomization analysis by an inverse-weighted method, in addition to a series of sensitivity analyses. Summary data for associations between SNPs and platelet count are from a recent publication that included 48,666 Caucasian Europeans, and the International Lung Cancer Consortium and Transdisciplinary Research in Cancer of the Lung data consisting of 29,266 cases and 56,450 controls to analyze associations between candidate SNPs and lung cancer risk. RESULTS: Multiple instrumental variable analysis incorporating six SNPs showed a 62% increased risk of overall non-small cell lung cancer [NSCLC; OR, 1.62; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.15-2.27; P = 0.005] and a 200% increased risk for small-cell lung cancer (OR, 3.00; 95% CI, 1.27-7.06; P = 0.01). Results showed only a trending association with NSCLC histologic subtypes, which may be due to insufficient sample size and/or weak effect size. A series of sensitivity analysis retained these findings. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest a causal relationship between elevated platelet count and increased risk of lung cancer and provide evidence of possible antiplatelet interventions for lung cancer prevention. IMPACT: These findings provide a better understanding of lung cancer etiology and potential evidence for antiplatelet interventions for lung cancer prevention.

17.
PLoS One ; 14(2): e0212340, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30811496

RESUMO

Appalachian Kentucky (App KY) leads the nation in lung cancer incidence and mortality. Trace elements, such as As, have been associated with lung cancers in other regions of the country and we hypothesized that a population-based study would reveal higher trace element concentrations in App KY individuals with cancer compared to controls. Using toenail and drinking water trace element concentrations, this study investigated a possible association between lung cancer incidence and trace-element exposure in residents of this region. This population-based case-control study had 520 subjects, and 367 subjects provided toenail samples. Additionally, we explored the relationship between toenail and fingernail trace-element concentrations to determine if fingernails could be used as a surrogate for toenails when patients are unable to provide toenail samples. We found that, contrary to our initial hypothesis, trace element concentrations (Al, As, Cr, Mn, Co, Fe, Ni, Cu, Se, and Pb) were not higher in cancer cases than controls with the exception of Zn where concentrations were slightly higher in cases. In fact, univariate logistic regression models showed that individuals with lower concentrations of several elements (Al, Mn, Cr, and Se) were more likely to have lung cancer, although only Mn was significant in multivariate models which controlled for confounding factors. While drinking water concentrations of Al, Cr and Co were positively related to cancer incidence in univariate models, only Co remained significant in multivariate models. However, since the drinking water concentrations were extremely low and not reflected in the toenail concentrations, the significance of this finding is unclear. We also found that fingernail concentrations were not consistently predictive of toenail concentrations, indicating that fingernails should not be used as surrogates for toenails in future studies.


Assuntos
Água Potável/análise , Cabelo/química , Neoplasias Pulmonares/epidemiologia , Unhas/química , Oligoelementos/análise , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Região dos Apalaches/epidemiologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Kentucky/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/metabolismo , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
18.
Nat Struct Mol Biol ; 26(1): 78-83, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30598554

RESUMO

Cytochrome c oxidase (complex IV, CIV) is known in mammals to exist independently or in association with other respiratory proteins to form supercomplexes (SCs). In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, CIV is found solely in an SC with cytochrome bc1 (complex III, CIII). Here, we present the cryogenic electron microscopy (cryo-EM) structure of S. cerevisiae CIV in a III2IV2 SC at 3.3 Å resolution. While overall similarity to mammalian homologs is high, we found notable differences in the supernumerary subunits Cox26 and Cox13; the latter exhibits a unique arrangement that precludes CIV dimerization as seen in bovine. A conformational shift in the matrix domain of Cox5A-involved in allosteric inhibition by ATP-may arise from its association with CIII. The CIII-CIV arrangement highlights a conserved interaction interface of CIII, albeit one occupied by complex I in mammalian respirasomes. We discuss our findings in the context of the potential impact of SC formation on CIV regulation.


Assuntos
Complexo III da Cadeia de Transporte de Elétrons/metabolismo , Proteínas de Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolismo , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolismo , Complexo III da Cadeia de Transporte de Elétrons/genética , Complexo IV da Cadeia de Transporte de Elétrons/genética , Complexo IV da Cadeia de Transporte de Elétrons/metabolismo , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Proteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Microscopia Eletrônica , Membranas Mitocondriais , Proteínas Mitocondriais/genética , Proteínas Mitocondriais/metabolismo , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/genética , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/ultraestrutura , Proteínas de Saccharomyces cerevisiae/genética
19.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 431, 2019 01 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30683880

RESUMO

Quantifying the genetic correlation between cancers can provide important insights into the mechanisms driving cancer etiology. Using genome-wide association study summary statistics across six cancer types based on a total of 296,215 cases and 301,319 controls of European ancestry, here we estimate the pair-wise genetic correlations between breast, colorectal, head/neck, lung, ovary and prostate cancer, and between cancers and 38 other diseases. We observed statistically significant genetic correlations between lung and head/neck cancer (rg = 0.57, p = 4.6 × 10-8), breast and ovarian cancer (rg = 0.24, p = 7 × 10-5), breast and lung cancer (rg = 0.18, p =1.5 × 10-6) and breast and colorectal cancer (rg = 0.15, p = 1.1 × 10-4). We also found that multiple cancers are genetically correlated with non-cancer traits including smoking, psychiatric diseases and metabolic characteristics. Functional enrichment analysis revealed a significant excess contribution of conserved and regulatory regions to cancer heritability. Our comprehensive analysis of cross-cancer heritability suggests that solid tumors arising across tissues share in part a common germline genetic basis.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/genética , Padrões de Herança , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Neoplasias Ovarianas/genética , Neoplasias da Próstata/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico , Neoplasias da Mama/etnologia , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Neoplasias Colorretais/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Colorretais/etnologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/diagnóstico , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/etnologia , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/patologia , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Pulmonares/etnologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Masculino , Transtornos Mentais/etnologia , Transtornos Mentais/genética , Transtornos Mentais/fisiopatologia , Proteínas de Neoplasias/genética , Neoplasias Ovarianas/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Ovarianas/etnologia , Neoplasias Ovarianas/patologia , Fenótipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Neoplasias da Próstata/diagnóstico , Neoplasias da Próstata/etnologia , Neoplasias da Próstata/patologia , Fumar/etnologia , Fumar/genética , Fumar/fisiopatologia
20.
Asian Pac J Cancer Prev ; 20(1): 113-116, 2019 Jan 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30678389

RESUMO

Background: Neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) are rare tumors that can originate from any part of the body. Often, imaging or exploratory surgery can assist in the identification of the tumor primary site, which is critical to the management of the disease. Neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) of unknown primary constitute approximately 10-15% of all NETs. Determining the original site of the tumor is critical to providing appropriate and effective treatment. Methods: We performed a retrospective review of neuroendocrine tumors at our institution between 2012 and 2016 using a 92-gene cancer ID analysis. Results: 56 patients with NETs of unknown primary were identified. Samples for 38 of the 56 underwent the 92-gene cancer ID analysis. The primary site of the tumor was identified with >95% certainty in 35 of the 38 patients. Conclusion: The 92-gene cancer ID analysis identified a primary site in 92% of our NETs study cohort that previously had been unknown. The results have direct implications on management of patients with regard to FDA-approved treatment options.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Neoplasias Primárias Desconhecidas/genética , Neoplasias Primárias Desconhecidas/patologia , Tumores Neuroendócrinos/genética , Tumores Neuroendócrinos/secundário , Gerenciamento Clínico , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias Primárias Desconhecidas/classificação , Tumores Neuroendócrinos/classificação , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos
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