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2.
JAMA Cardiol ; 2021 Feb 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33566062

RESUMO

Importance: Patient-reported outcomes are increasingly used as end points in clinical trials, assessments in clinical care, and tools for population health, with an increasing role in quality assessment. For patients with coronary artery disease, the Seattle Angina Questionnaire (SAQ) has emerged as the most commonly used measure of disease-specific health status to quantify patients' symptoms of angina and the extent to which their angina affects their functioning and quality of life. This review explains how to interpret the SAQ and describes the construction and face validity of the SAQ, focusing on aligning scores and changes in scores with clinical constructs. Observations: The SAQ asks questions similar to those an experienced clinician would ask of a patient with stable ischemic heart disease. Therefore, SAQ scores can be aligned with clinical constructs (eg, scores on the SAQ angina frequency scale of 0-30 points indicate daily angina, 31-60 points indicate weekly angina, 61-99 points indicate monthly angina, and 100 points indicate no angina), and changes in scores can be described by aligning them with changes in question responses. After clinical thresholds are defined, it is important for clinical trials to not simply report mean differences between treatment arms but to also report the distributions of patients who have had clinically important benefits so that a number needed to treat can be generated. Conclusions and Relevance: The widespread use of the SAQ is a consequence of its well-established validity, reproducibility, prognostic importance, and sensitivity to clinical change. Nevertheless, interpreting the SAQ can be challenging because of lack of familiarity with the clinical importance of its domains, either cross-sectionally or longitudinally. This review provides an overview of the interpretability of the SAQ as a foundation for its use as an end point in clinical trials, a tool to support more patient-centered care, and a means of facilitating population health strategies to provide a better foundation for the integration of patient experiences with clinical care.

3.
ESC Heart Fail ; 2021 Feb 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33570253

RESUMO

AIMS: Heart failure (HF) is increasingly recognized as a major cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D), but the global epidemiology and treatment of HF in T2D are not well defined. This study aimed to examine the global prevalence of HF and the incidence of HF over 3 years of follow-up in patients with T2D [by presence and absence of co-existing coronary artery disease (CAD)]. METHODS AND RESULTS: DISCOVER was a 3 year, prospective, observational study of T2D patients enrolled at initiation of second-line glucose-lowering therapy. Among 14 057 patients with T2D from 36 countries, 289 (2.1%) had a diagnosis of HF at enrolment; median prevalence across countries was 2.0% (inter-quartile range 1.0-3.1%). Patients with HF at baseline were more likely to be older [HF vs. no HF: 67 ± 12 vs. 57 ± 12 years, standardized difference (StDiff) = 84%] and have longer duration of T2D (8.1 ± 7.2 vs. 5.6 ± 5.2 years, StDiff = 40%), CAD (44% vs. 6%, StDiff = 97%), atrial fibrillation (21% vs. 1%, StDiff = 66%), and kidney disease (23% vs. 4%, StDiff = 55%). Patients with HF were less likely to be on metformin (66% vs. 79%, StDiff = 28%) and thiazolidinediones (5.5% vs. 10.6%, StDiff = 19%) but had similar use of other glucose-lowering medications. Among 9313 patients with follow-up data, there were 70 incident cases of HF, which translates to an incidence of 2.6 cases per 1000 person years. Of these incident HF cases, 60% occurred in the absence of pre-existing or concomitant CAD, and 73% were diagnosed in the outpatient setting. CONCLUSIONS: In a large, global cohort of patients with T2D, the majority of incident cases of HF occurred in outpatients and in the absence of known CAD. These findings highlight the need for greater awareness of HF risk in patients with T2D.

4.
Circ Cardiovasc Qual Outcomes ; : CIRCOUTCOMES120007187, 2021 Feb 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33596663

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Health status assessment is essential for documenting the benefit of transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) or transcatheter mitral valve repair on patients' symptoms, function, and quality of life. Health status can also be a powerful marker for subsequent clinical outcomes, but its prognostic importance around the time of both TAVR and transcatheter mitral valve repair has not been fully defined. METHODS: Among 73 699 patients who underwent transfemoral TAVR or transcatheter mitral valve repair between 2011 and 2018 (mean age, 81.9±7.0 years, 53% men, 92% TAVR), we constructed sequential models examining the association of health status (as assessed with the Kansas City Cardiomyopathy Questionnaire-Overall Summary Score; KCCQ-OS) at baseline, 30 days, change from baseline to 30 days, and combinations of these assessments with death and heart failure (HF) hospitalization from 30 days to 1 year. RESULTS: Although higher baseline KCCQ-OS and 30-day KCCQ-OS scores were each associated with lower risk of death and HF hospitalization (in individual models and in a model including both measures), the 30-day KCCQ-OS was most predictive (death: hazard ratio, 0.89 per 5-point increase [95% CI, 0.89-0.90]; HF hospitalization: hazard ratio, 0.91 [95% CI, 0.90-0.91]). The 30-day KCCQ-OS also was most predictive when included in a separate model with change in KCCQ from baseline to 30 days. Similar findings were noted for the outcomes of death and of HF hospitalization, unadjusted and adjusted for patient factors. All interaction terms between procedure type and KCCQ were not significant, suggesting that health status provided similar prognostic information in both procedures. CONCLUSIONS: The patient's assessment of their health status immediately before and 30 days after TAVR and transcatheter mitral valve repair is associated with subsequent risk of death and HF hospitalization, with the 30-day assessment being most strongly associated with outcomes. Our findings support the routine use of KCCQ data as a prognostic tool.

5.
Circ Cardiovasc Qual Outcomes ; : CIRCOUTCOMES120006878, 2020 Dec 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33280434

RESUMO

Background Clinical trials have demonstrated health status benefit of transcatheter mitral valve repair (TMVr) with MitraClip in patients with mitral valve regurgitation. Real-world site-level variability in health status outcomes for TMVr, and factors associated with this variability, are unknown. Methods All patients undergoing TMVr procedure with MitraClip between November 2013 and March 2019 in the Transcatheter Valve Therapy Registry were included. Health status was measured at baseline and 30 days with the Kansas City Cardiomyopathy Questionnaire (KCCQ) Overall Summary (OS) score. Site-level variability in 30-day change in KCCQ-OS was examined by calculating the median odds ratio from a hierarchical logistic regression model, with ≥20-point improvement as the dependent variable. To define the extent to which patient characteristics, procedural characteristics (residual mitral valve regurgitation, periprocedural bleeding), site volume, and patients' baseline health status accounted for variability in outcomes, the proportion of variability (R2) explained by sequentially adding these variables to the model was quantified. Results Across 339 sites, 12 415 patients (mean age 79.0±9.5 years, 46.1%. females, 89.5% White) completed baseline and 30-day health status assessments. Mean KCCQ-OS score was 43.0±24.4 at baseline and 67.0±24.9 at 30-day follow-up. Across sites, the proportion of patients achieving a ≥20-point improvement in KCCQ-OS ranged from 12.5% to 100% and the adjusted median odds ratio was 1.58 (95% CI, 1.46-1.69). The greatest contribution to the variability in health status outcomes was from patients' baseline KCCQ-OS score (R2=25%) with <1% of the variability explained by patient and procedural characteristics, and annual site volume. Conclusions There is moderate variation across sites in their patients' achievement of health status benefits from TMVr, with patient's baseline health status accounting for the largest proportion of this variation. This underscores the importance of patient selection in supporting more consistent health status benefit from TMVr.

6.
JACC Cardiovasc Interv ; 13(23): 2795-2803, 2020 Dec 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33303119

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and outcomes after transcatheter mitral valve repair (TMVr) for severe secondary mitral regurgitation. BACKGROUND: TMVr with the MitraClip improves clinical and health-status outcomes in patients with heart failure and severe (3+ to 4+) secondary mitral regurgitation. Whether these benefits are modified by COPD is unknown. METHODS: COAPT (Cardiovascular Outcomes Assessment of the MitraClip Percutaneous Therapy for Heart Failure Patients With Functional Mitral Regurgitation) was an open-label, multicenter, randomized trial of TMVr plus guideline-directed medical therapy (GDMT) versus GDMT alone. Patients on corticosteroids or continuous oxygen were excluded. Multivariable models were used to examine the associations of COPD with mortality, heart failure hospitalization (HFH), and health status and to test whether COPD modified the benefit of TMVr compared with GDMT. RESULTS: Among 614 patients, 143 (23.2%) had COPD. Among patients treated with TMVr, unadjusted analyses demonstrated increased 2-year mortality in those with COPD (hazard ratio [HR]: 2.08; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.33 to 3.26), but this association was attenuated after risk adjustment (adjusted HR: 1.48; 95% CI: 0.87 to 2.52). Although TMVr led to reduced 2-year mortality among patients without COPD (adjusted HR: 0.47; 95% CI: 0.33 to 0.67), for patients with COPD, 2-year all-cause mortality was similar after TMVr versus GDMT alone (adjusted HR: 0.94; 95% CI: 0.54 to 1.65; pint = 0.04), findings that reflect offsetting effects on cardiovascular and noncardiovascular mortality. In contrast, TMVr reduced HFH (adjusted HR: 0.48 [95% CI: 0.28 to 0.83] vs. 0.46 [95% CI: 0.34 to 0.63]; pint = 0.89) and improved both generic and disease-specific health status to a similar extent compared with GDMT alone in patients with and without COPD (pint >0.30 for all scales). CONCLUSIONS: In the COAPT trial, COPD was associated with attenuation of the survival benefit of TMVr versus GDMT compared with patients without COPD. However, the benefits of TMVr on both HFH and health status were similar regardless of COPD. (Cardiovascular Outcomes Assessment of the MitraClip Percutaneous Therapy for Heart Failure Patients With Functional Mitral Regurgitation [The COAPT Trial] [COAPT]; NCT01626079).

7.
Cardiovasc Diabetol ; 19(1): 212, 2020 12 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33308233

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Heart failure is a common and devastating complication of type 2 diabetes (T2D). Prompt recognition of heart failure may avert hospitalization, facilitate use of guideline-directed therapies, and impact choice of T2D medications. We sought to determine the rate and factors associated with heart failure documentation in T2D patients with evidence of volume overload requiring loop diuretics. METHODS: DCR is an on-going, prospective US registry of outpatient T2D patients from > 5000 cardiology, endocrinology, and primary care clinicians (current analysis used data from 2013-2019). Among T2D patients receiving loop diuretics, we examined the rate of chart documentation of heart failure. We used a 3-level hierarchical logistic regression model (patients nested within physician within practice) to examine factors associated with heart failure diagnosis. RESULTS: Among 1,322,640 adults with T2D, 225,125 (17.0%) were receiving a loop diuretic, of whom 91,969 (40.9%) had documentation of heart failure. Male sex, lower body mass index, atrial fibrillation, chronic kidney disease, and coronary artery disease were associated with greater odds of heart failure diagnosis. After accounting for patient factors, patients seen by cardiologists were the most likely to have HF documented followed by PCPs and then endocrinologists. CONCLUSIONS: Among US outpatients with T2D, 17% of patients had evidence of volume overload-defined by loop diuretic prescription-of whom fewer than half had a clinical diagnosis of heart failure. While there may be non-heart failure indications for loop diuretics, our data suggest that a substantial proportion of T2D patients may have unrecognized heart failure and therefore could be missing opportunities for targeted therapies that could alter the clinical course of heart failure.

8.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 76(20): 2379-2390, 2020 Nov 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33183512

RESUMO

To improve the patient-centeredness of care, patient-reported outcomes have been increasingly used to quantify patients' symptoms, function, and quality of life. In heart failure, the Kansas City Cardiomyopathy Questionnaire (KCCQ) has been qualified by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration as a Clinical Outcome Assessment and recommended as a performance measure for quantifying the quality of care. By systematically asking the same questions reproducibly over time, the KCCQ can validly and sensitively capture the impact of heart failure on patients' lives and is strongly associated with clinical events over time. This review describes how to interpret the KCCQ, how it should be analyzed in clinical trials to maximize the interpretability of results, and how it can be used in clinical practice and population health. By providing a deeper understanding of the KCCQ, it is hoped that its use can further improve the patient-centeredness of heart failure care.

10.
JACC Cardiovasc Interv ; 13(20): 2331-2341, 2020 Oct 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33092707

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to determine the prognostic utility of baseline functional status and its impact on the outcomes of transcatheter mitral valve repair (TMVr) in patients with heart failure (HF) with secondary mitral regurgitation (SMR). BACKGROUND: The COAPT (Cardiovascular Outcomes Assessment of the MitraClip Percutaneous Therapy for Heart Failure Patients With Functional Mitral Regurgitation) trial demonstrated that TMVr with the MitraClip in patients with HF with moderate to severe or severe SMR improved health-related quality of life. The clinical utility of a baseline assessment of functional status for evaluating prognosis and identifying candidates likely to derive a robust benefit from TMVr has not been previously studied in patients with HF with SMR. METHODS: The COAPT study was a multicenter, randomized, controlled, parallel-group, open-label trial of TMVr with the MitraClip plus guideline-directed medical therapy (GDMT) versus GDMT alone in patients with HF, left ventricular ejection fraction 20% to 50%, and moderate to severe or severe SMR. Baseline functional status was assessed by 6-min walk distance (6MWD). RESULTS: Patients with 6MWD less than the median (240 m) were older, were more likely to be female, and had more comorbidities. After multivariate modeling, age (p = 0.005), baseline hemoglobin (p = 0.007), and New York Heart Association functional class III/IV symptoms (p < 0.0001) were independent clinical predictors of 6MWD. Patients with 6MWD <240 m versus ≥240 m had a higher unadjusted and adjusted rate of the 2-year composite of all-cause death or HF hospitalization (64.4% vs. 48.6%; adjusted hazard ratio: 1.53; 95% confidence interval: 1.19 to 1.98; p = 0.001). However, there was no interaction between baseline 6MWD and the relative effectiveness of TMVr plus GDMT versus GDMT alone with respect to the composite endpoint (p = 0.633). CONCLUSIONS: Baseline assessment of functional capacity by 6MWD was a powerful discriminator of prognosis in patients with HF with SMR. TMVr with the MitraClip provided substantial improvements in clinical outcomes for this population irrespective of baseline functional capacity.

11.
JAMA Cardiol ; 2020 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32997095

RESUMO

Importance: In the CoreValve High-Risk Trial, patients with severe symptomatic aortic stenosis had similar clinical outcomes with transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) vs surgical aortic valve replacement (SAVR) over 5 years of follow-up, with mortality rates of more than 50% in both groups. Objective: To describe the long-term health status of surviving patients randomized to self-expanding TAVR vs SAVR. Design, Setting, and Participants: This randomized clinical trial included patients at high surgical risk with severe aortic stenosis who completed a baseline Kansas City Cardiomyopathy Questionnaire (KCCQ) and were randomized to either self-expanding TAVR or SAVR from 45 US clinical sites. Patients were enrolled from February 2011 to September 2012. Analysis began May 2018 and ended June 2020. Main Outcomes and Measures: Change in KCCQ and the 12-Item Short-Form Health Survey over 5 years, as assessed by repeated-measures analysis of covariance. Because there were significant interactions between access site and treatment for 1-month health status outcomes, all analyses were stratified by access site (iliofemoral or noniliofemoral). Results: Of 713 patients, 377 (53%) were men, and the mean (SD) age was 83 (7) years. Prior to treatment, the mean (SD) KCCQ overall summary score (range, 0-100; higher score indicated better health status) was 47 (23), indicating substantial health status impairment. Among surviving patients, the KCCQ overall summary score increased significantly in both groups with greater early benefit with iliofemoral TAVR than SAVR (1-month difference, 16.8 points; 95% CI, 12.4-21.2). However, this early treatment difference between TAVR and SAVR was no longer apparent by 6 months, and there was no significant difference in health status between groups thereafter. At 5 years, 44% (134 of 305) of patients who underwent iliofemoral TAVR and 39% (105 of 266) who underwent SAVR were alive in this high-risk elderly cohort. Among surviving patients for whom health status data were available, 61% (48 of 79) in the TAVR group and 65% (46 of 71) in the SAVR group had KCCQ overall summary score more than 60 (P = .61). In the noniliofemoral cohort, there were no significant health status differences at any time between TAVR and SAVR. Results were similar for individual KCCQ domains and the Short-Form Health Survey. Conclusions and Relevance: In high-risk patients with severe symptomatic aortic stenosis, there was an early health status benefit with self-expanding iliofemoral TAVR vs SAVR but no difference between groups in long-term health status. Although mortality at 5 years was high in this population, the majority of surviving patients continued to report reasonable health status. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01240902.

12.
Diabetes Obes Metab ; 2020 Aug 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32845558

RESUMO

AIM: To investigate global patterns of cardiovascular risk factor control in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D). METHODS: DISCOVER is an international, observational cohort study of patients with T2D beginning second-line glucose-lowering therapy. Risk factor management was examined among eligible patients (ie, those with the risk factor) at study baseline. Inter-country variability was estimated using median odds ratios (MORs). RESULTS: Among 14 343 patients with T2D from 34 countries, the mean age was 57.4 ± 12.0 years and the median (interquartile range) duration of T2D was 4.2 (2.0-8.0) years; 11.8% had documented atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD). Among eligible patients, blood pressure was controlled in 67.5% (9284/13756), statins were prescribed in 43.7% (5775/13208), angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors/angiotensin II receptor blockers were prescribed in 55.6% (5292/9512), aspirin was prescribed in 53.3% of those with established ASCVD (876/1645), and 84.4% (12 102/14343) were non-smoking. Only 21.5% of patients (3088/14343) had optimal risk factor management (defined as control of all eligible measures), with wide inter-country variability (10%-44%), even after adjusting for patient and site differences (MOR 1.47, 95% confidence interval 1.24-1.66). CONCLUSION: Globally, comprehensive control of ASCVD risk factors is not being achieved in most patients, with wide variability among countries unaccounted for by patient and site differences. Better country-specific strategies are needed to implement comprehensive cardiovascular risk factor control consistently in patients with T2D to improve long-term outcomes.

13.
Endocrinol Diabetes Metab ; 3(3): e00126, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32704552

RESUMO

Background: A number of non-low-density lipoprotein cholesterol lipid abnormalities are associated with type 2 diabetes and insulin resistance, which may lead practitioners to use medications targeting these abnormal lipid fractions despite a lack of evidence or guideline recommendations. Methods and Results: Among 382 921 US patients with type 2 diabetes (69% with cardiovascular disease, 76% on a statin), 95 995 (26%) were on some nonstatin lipid-lowering medication-19 265 (5%) on niacin, 32 919 (9%) on a fibrate and 69 513 (18%) on fish oil. Use of all three medications was stable over time and higher in patients with cardiovascular disease and with higher triglyceride levels, although even among patients with triglyceride levels <2.3 mmol/L, 6% were on a fibrate and 17% were on fish oil. Conclusion: As clinical trials demonstrate little to no cardiovascular benefit from taking these medications, greater attention is needed to focus the use of lipid-lowering medications to those with proven benefit.

14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32521123

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: While slow gait speed is known to be associated with poor outcomes in patients at high surgical risk who undergo transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR), the prognostic significance of slow gait speed in intermediate risk TAVR patients is poorly understood. OBJECTIVES: We assessed the association between baseline 6-min walk test (6MWT) performance and both 2-year mortality and health status in intermediate risk patients undergoing TAVR as a part of the PARTNER II/S3i studies. METHODS: The association of baseline 6MWT with mortality over 2-years after TAVR was examined using Cox regression; both unadjusted and adjusted for age, left ventricular ejection fraction, coronary artery disease, pulmonary disease, renal insufficiency, and STS score. Patients were divided into four groups according to baseline 6MWT: unable to walk and in three equal tertiles of slow, medium, and fast walkers. Among surviving patients, improvement in 6MWT and quality of life were compared. RESULTS: Among 2,037 intermediate risk TAVR patients (mean age 81.7 years, STS score 5.6%), 8.2% were unable to walk. Baseline 6MWT was associated with all-cause mortality over 2 years (Hazard ratio (HR) 0.87 per 50 m, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.83 to 0.92, p < .0001). Among surviving patients, the adjusted absolute change in 6MWT at 2 years improved for patients unable to walk (+134.1 m, 95% CI 102.1 to 166 m, p < .0001) and slow walkers (+60.5 m, 95% CI 42.8 to 78.2 m, p < .0001), but was unchanged for medium walkers (-7.3 m, 95% CI -24.3 to 9.6 m, p = .4), and declined for fast walkers (-41.3 m, 95% CI -58.7 to -23.9 m, p < .0001). CONCLUSION: Poor functional capacity is predictive of 2-year mortality in elderly intermediate risk patients undergoing TAVR. However, surviving patients with poor baseline functional capacity had significant improvement in 6MWT performance and quality of life at 2-years following TAVR.

15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32571762

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patients with severe, symptomatic aortic stenosis derive substantial 30-day quality of life (QOL) benefit from transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR). Whether the QOL benefit of TAVR emerges earlier is unknown. We used data from the Multimodality, Multidisciplinary but Minimalist (3M) TAVR study to assess early changes in QOL after transfemoral (TF) TAVR. METHODS: Health status was assessed at baseline, 2-weeks, 30-days, and 1-year after TAVR using the Kansas City Cardiomyopathy Questionnaire (KCCQ) and Medical Outcomes Study Short-Form 12 (SF-12). The KCCQ overall summary (KCCQ-OS) score (range 0-100; higher scores = better health) was the primary health status outcome. Linear mixed effects models were used to describe trajectories of QOL scores over time. A good outcome was defined as being "alive and well", with a KCCQ-OS score ≥ 60 points with no decrease from baseline ≥10 points. RESULTS: A total of 358 patients (87.1%) completed the baseline and at least one follow-up survey. Between baseline and 2-weeks, the KCCQ-OS increased by 21.3 points (95% confidence interval [CI]: 19.3-23.2). This improvement was sustained over time with only slight further improvement between 2-weeks and 1-month (3.4 points; 95% CI: 1.4 to 5.5) and no significant change between 1-month and 1-year (1.9 points; 95% CI: -0.2 to 4.1). Scores for the KCCQ subscales and SF-12 physical and mental component summary scales showed a similar pattern. Most patients (74.4%) were "alive and well" at 2 weeks with similar rates at 1-month and 1-year (79.5% and 77.3%, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: Among patients undergoing TF-TAVR, both disease-specific and generic health status improved substantially within the first 2 weeks, with only minimal further improvement thereafter.

16.
J Diabetes Complications ; 34(8): 107591, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32471789

RESUMO

AIMS: To compare cardiovascular risk factor control in adults with diabetes participating in a national diabetes registry to those in the general population and to ascertain regional differences in diabetes care. METHODS: Adults with diagnosed diabetes in the Diabetes Collaborative Registry (DCR) were compared with those in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) from 2015 to 2016; standardized mean difference (SMD) > 0.2 defined significance. Regional differences were assessed in the DCR cohort; p < .05 defined significance. RESULTS: The DCR cohort was older (61 vs. 57 years, SMD = 0.38), more insured (99.7% vs. 91.0%, SMD = 0.42), and less ethnically diverse (83% non-Hispanic white vs. 76%, SMD = 0.30) compared with NHANES. The proportion of overweight/obesity, A1c < 7% (<53 mmol/mol), and BP < 140/90 were similar, but DCR participants had higher proportion with LDL < 2.59 mmol/L (61% vs. 41%, SMD = 0.39) and fewer tobacco users (17% vs. 32%, SMD = 0.35). Regionally, obesity, lack of glycaemic control, and tobacco use were highest in the Midwest, BP control was the lowest in the South, and LDL control was lowest in the Northeast. CONCLUSIONS: Significant regional differences in diabetes care delivery and outcomes were identified using a national diabetes registry. Serial analyses of the DCR may supplement national evaluations to deepen our understanding of diabetes care in the US.

17.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 9(11): e015157, 2020 06 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32441197

RESUMO

Background Effective management of cardiovascular risk factors is the foundation of secondary prevention in coronary artery disease. The physician under whose sphere these are managed can vary, primary care physicians, cardiologists, or both, and the optimal management strategy for risk factor control is unknown. Methods and Results The APPEAR (Angina Prevalence and Provider Evaluation of Angina Relief) study was a cross-sectional cohort study of outpatients with coronary artery disease (stable angina, percutaneous coronary intervention, coronary artery bypass grafting, or myocardial infarction) from 25 US cardiology practices. After each patient visit, providers noted who managed each risk factor. Blood pressure and lipid levels were recorded from charts. We compared adherence to guideline-directed risk factor control between management strategies (primary care physician alone, cardiologist alone, or comanaged). Among 1259 outpatients with coronary artery disease (mean [SD] age, 71 [11.1] years; 69% men), blood pressure and lipid management strategy varied. Mean blood pressure was 127.9/72.3 mm Hg, with 74% of patients at <140/90 mm Hg and 46% at <130/80 mm Hg. Mean low-density lipoprotein was 83.5 mg/dL, with 75% of patients at <100 mg/dL and 91% on appropriate statin therapy. Patients managed by cardiologists alone tended to have higher rates of risk factor control for both blood pressure and lipids, even after adjusting for covariates. Conclusions Although comanagement has shown benefit in some clinical situations, we found that risk factor control in patients with coronary artery disease tended to be poorer when care was shared between cardiologists and primary care physicians. Further research is needed to better define which conditions are best comanaged and how to more effectively comanage patients in the fractured US healthcare system.

18.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 9(9): e015975, 2020 05 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32326818

RESUMO

Over the past decade, the field of valvular heart disease (VHD) has rapidly transformed, largely as a result of the development and improvement of less invasive transcatheter approaches to valve repair or replacement. This transformation has been supported by numerous well-designed randomized trials, but they have centered almost entirely on devices and procedures. Outside this scope of focus, however, myriad aspects of therapy and management for patients with VHD have either no guidelines or recommendations based only on expert opinion and observational studies. Further, research in VHD has often failed to engage patients to inform study design and identify research questions of greatest importance and relevance from a patient perspective. Accordingly, the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute convened a Working Group on Patient-Centered Research in Valvular Heart Disease, composed of clinician and research experts and patient advocacy experts to identify gaps and barriers to research in VHD and identify research priorities. While recognizing that important research remains to be done to test the safety and efficacy of devices and procedures to treat VHD, we intentionally focused less attention on these areas of research as they are more commonly pursued and supported by industry. Herein, we present the patient-centered research gaps, barriers, and priorities in VHD and organized our report according to the "patient journey," including access to care, screening and diagnosis, preprocedure therapy and management, decision making when a procedure is contemplated (clinician and patient perspectives), and postprocedure therapy and management. It is hoped that this report will foster collaboration among diverse stakeholders and highlight for funding bodies the pressing patient-centered research gaps, opportunities, and priorities in VHD in order to produce impactful patient-centered research that will inform and improve patient-centered policy and care.

20.
Circulation ; 141(19): e779-e806, 2020 May 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32279539

RESUMO

Although cardiologists have long treated patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) and concomitant type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), T2DM has traditionally been considered just a comorbidity that affected the development and progression of the disease. Over the past decade, a number of factors have shifted that have forced the cardiology community to reconsider the role of T2DM in CAD. First, in addition to being associated with increased cardiovascular risk, T2DM has the potential to affect a number of treatment choices for CAD. In this document, we discuss the role that T2DM has in the selection of testing for CAD, in medical management (both secondary prevention strategies and treatment of stable angina), and in the selection of revascularization strategy. Second, although glycemic control has been recommended as a part of comprehensive risk factor management in patients with CAD, there is mounting evidence that the mechanism by which glucose is managed can have a substantial impact on cardiovascular outcomes. In this document, we discuss the role of glycemic management (both in intensity of control and choice of medications) in cardiovascular outcomes. It is becoming clear that the cardiologist needs both to consider T2DM in cardiovascular treatment decisions and potentially to help guide the selection of glucose-lowering medications. Our statement provides a comprehensive summary of effective, patient-centered management of CAD in patients with T2DM, with emphasis on the emerging evidence. Given the increasing prevalence of T2DM and the accumulating evidence of the need to consider T2DM in treatment decisions, this knowledge will become ever more important to optimize our patients' cardiovascular outcomes.

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