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1.
Eur Neuropsychopharmacol ; 44: 105-120, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33483252

RESUMO

There is a recurring debate on the role of the serotonin transporter gene linked polymorphic region (5-HTTLPR) in the moderation of response to cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) in anxiety disorders. Results, however, are still inconclusive. We here aim to perform a meta-analysis on the role of 5-HTTLPR in the moderation of CBT outcome in anxiety disorders. We investigated both categorical (symptom reduction of at least 50%) and dimensional outcomes from baseline to post-treatment and follow-up. Original data were obtained from ten independent samples (including three unpublished samples) with a total of 2,195 patients with primary anxiety disorder. No significant effects of 5-HTTLPR genotype on categorical or dimensional outcomes at post and follow-up were detected. We conclude that current evidence does not support the hypothesis of 5-HTTLPR as a moderator of treatment outcome for CBT in anxiety disorders. Future research should address whether other factors such as long-term changes or epigenetic processes may explain further variance in these complex gene-environment interactions and molecular-genetic pathways that may confer behavioral change following psychotherapy.

2.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 1125, 2021 Jan 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33441933

RESUMO

Anorexia nervosa (AN) is a severe eating disorder and often associated with altered humoral immune responses. However, distinct B cell maturation stages in peripheral blood in adolescents with AN have not been characterized. Treatment effects and the relationship between clinical and B cell parameters are also not fully understood. Here we investigated the phenotype of circulating B cell subsets and the relationship with body composition in adolescents with AN before (T0, n = 24) and after 6 weeks (T1, n = 20) of treatment. Using multi-parameter flow cytometry, we found increased percentages of antigen-experienced B cells and plasmablasts in patients with AN compared to healthy controls (n = 20). In contrast, percentages of CD1d+CD5+ B cells and transitional B cells with immunoregulatory roles were reduced at T0 and T1. These B cell frequencies correlated positively with fat mass, fat mass index (FMI), free fat mass index, and body mass index standard deviation score. In addition, scavenger-like receptor CD5 expression levels were downregulated on transitional B cells and correlated with fat mass and FMI in AN. Our findings that regulatory B cell subgroups were reduced in AN and their strong relationship with body composition parameters point toward an impact of immunoregulatory B cells in the pathogenesis of AN.

3.
Psychiatry Res ; 295: 113601, 2020 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33296816

RESUMO

There is an urgent need for a better understanding of the multidimensional factors of medication adherence attitudes in patients with psychosis in order to enhance adherence as up to 75% of patients stop or change their medication within a year. 81 patients with psychosis were assessed on symptom expression, self-stigmatization, adherence attitudes, QoL, social support and therapeutic alliance judged by patients and clinicians. Regression analyses were used to test whether better QoL, more social support and a better therapeutic alliance are associated with more positive and less negative adherence attitudes. More positive clinician input, higher state anxiety and lower levels of self-stigmatization predicted more positive adherence attitudes, while less positive collaboration with the clinician and higher levels of self-stigmatization were associated with more negative adherence attitudes. QoL and social support were unrelated to adherence attitudes. The quality of the therapeutic alliance perceived by patients appears crucial regarding their medication adherence attitudes. Thus, clinicians' focus on psychotic symptom expression is not sufficient to achieve goal agreement. Rather, it is imperative to consider the individual subjective needs of patients as a key element for sustained therapeutic alliance.

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33007775

RESUMO

Preclinical evidence indicates that the endocannabinoid system is involved in neural responses to reward. This study aimed to investigate associations between basal serum concentrations of the endocannabinoids anandamide (AEA) and 2-arachidonylglycerol (2-AG) with brain functional reward processing. Additionally, a personality measure of reward dependence was obtained. Brain functional data were obtained of 30 right-handed adults by conducting fMRI at 3 Tesla using a reward paradigm. Reward dependence was obtained using the subscale reward dependence of the Tridimensional Personality Questionnaire (TPQ). Basal concentrations of AEA and 2-AG were determined in serum. Analyzing the fMRI data, for AEA and 2-AG ANCOVAs were calculated using a full factorial model, with condition (reward > control, loss > control) and concentrations for AEA and 2-AG as factors. Regression analyses were conducted for AEA and 2-AG on TPQ-RD scores. A whole-brain analysis showed a significant interaction effect of AEA concentration by condition (positive vs. negative) within the putamen (x = 26, y = 16, z = -8, F13.51, TFCE(1, 54) = 771.68, k = 70, PFWE = 0.044) resulting from a positive association of basal AEA concentrations and putamen activity to rewarding stimuli, while this association was absent in the loss condition. AEA concentrations were significantly negatively correlated with TPQ reward dependence scores (rspearman = -0.56, P = 0.001). These results show that circulating AEA may modulate brain activation during reward feedback and that the personality measure reward dependence is correlated with AEA concentrations in healthy human volunteers. Future research is needed to further characterize the nature of the lipids' influence on reward processing, the impact on reward anticipation and outcome, and on vulnerability for psychiatric disorders.

5.
Brain Behav Immun ; 2020 Sep 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32898636

RESUMO

Recent evidence suggests that comorbidities between neuropsychiatric conditions and metabolic syndrome may precede and even exacerbate long-term side-effects of psychiatric medication, such as a higher risk of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease, which result in increased mortality. In the present study we compare the expression of key metabolic proteins, including the insulin receptor (CD220), glucose transporter 1 (GLUT1) and fatty acid translocase (CD36), on peripheral blood mononuclear cell subtypes from patients across the neuropsychiatric spectrum, including schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, major depression and autism spectrum conditions (n = 25/condition), relative to typical controls (n = 100). This revealed alterations in the expression of these proteins that were specific to schizophrenia. Further characterization of metabolic alterations in an extended cohort of first-onset antipsychotic drug-naïve schizophrenia patients (n = 58) and controls (n = 63) revealed that the relationship between insulin receptor expression in monocytes and physiological insulin sensitivity was disrupted in schizophrenia and that altered expression of the insulin receptor was associated with whole genome polygenic risk scores for schizophrenia. Finally, longitudinal follow-up of the schizophrenia patients over the course of antipsychotic drug treatment revealed that peripheral metabolic markers predicted changes in psychopathology and the principal side effect of weight gain at clinically relevant time points. These findings suggest that peripheral blood cells can provide an accessible surrogate model for metabolic alterations in schizophrenia and have the potential to stratify subgroups of patients with different clinical outcomes or a greater risk of developing metabolic complications following antipsychotic therapy.

6.
J Affect Disord ; 277: 531-539, 2020 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32889377

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: 5-HTTLPR/rs25531 is suspected to be involved in the pathogenesis of both coronary heart disease (CHD)1 and depression. We aimed to investigate the role of 5-HTTLPR/rs25531 in the development of depressive symptoms among CHD patients in a longitudinal design. METHODS: N = 265 participants with CHD diagnosis were included while hospitalized in a department of cardiology and genotyped for the 5-HTTLPR/rs25531. Depressive symptoms were measured using the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9)7 at baseline and after 6 and 12 months. Binary logistic regression models were used to analyze the association of 5-HTTLPR/rs25531 with the prevalence of depressive symptoms at each time point as well as with the incidence and persistence of depressive symptoms at follow-up. RESULTS: "LALA" genotype was associated with a higher prevalence of depressive symptoms 12 months after study inclusion. "LALA" genotype was associated with a higher incidence of depressive symptoms 6 and 12 months after study inclusion. There was no association of 5-HTTLPR/rs25531 with the persistence of depressive symptoms. LIMITATIONS: Inclusion criteria did not demand a particular cardiac event at baseline, which aggravated the interpretation of the time-specific results. The majority of the participants was of male gender which could cause bias. The present study only vaguely differentiated between ethnical groups which might cause bias regarding nationality-dependent allele distributions. CONCLUSION: The present study suggests a time-dependent association of the "LALA" genotype with depressive symptoms in CHD patients. 5-HTTLPR/rs25531 might be an important marker to detect risk groups for later onset depressive symptoms among CHD patients.

7.
Acta Neuropsychiatr ; : 1-9, 2020 Sep 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32967752

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Depression and coronary heart disease (CHD) are highly comorbid conditions. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) plays an important role in cardiovascular processes. Depressed patients typically show decreased BDNF concentrations. We analysed the relationship between BDNF and depression in a sample of patients with CHD and additionally distinguished between cognitive-affective and somatic depression symptoms. We also investigated whether BDNF was associated with somatic comorbidity burden, acute coronary syndrome (ACS) or congestive heart failure (CHF). METHODS: The following variables were assessed for 225 hospitalised patients with CHD: BDNF concentrations, depression [Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9)], somatic comorbidity (Charlson Comorbidity Index), CHF, ACS, platelet count, smoking status and antidepressant treatment. RESULTS: Regression models revealed that BDNF was not associated with severity of depression. Although depressed patients (PHQ-9 score >7) had significantly lower BDNF concentrations compared to non-depressed patients (p = 0.04), this was not statistically significant after controlling for confounders (p = 0.15). Cognitive-affective symptoms and somatic comorbidity burden each closely missed a statistically significant association with BDNF concentrations (p = 0.08, p = 0.06, respectively). BDNF was reduced in patients with CHF (p = 0.02). There was no covariate-adjusted, significant association between BDNF and ACS. CONCLUSION: Serum BDNF concentrations are associated with cardiovascular dysfunction. Somatic comorbidities should be considered when investigating the relationship between depression and BDNF.

8.
Soc Cogn Affect Neurosci ; 15(8): 849-859, 2020 Oct 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32734299

RESUMO

Cigarette smoking increases the likelihood of developing anxiety disorders, among them panic disorder (PD). While brain structures altered by smoking partly overlap with morphological changes identified in PD, the modulating impact of smoking as a potential confounder on structural alterations in PD has not yet been addressed. In total, 143 PD patients (71 smokers) and 178 healthy controls (62 smokers) participated in a multicenter magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) study. T1-weighted images were used to examine brain structural alterations using voxel-based morphometry in a priori defined regions of the defensive system network. PD was associated with gray matter volume reductions in the amygdala and hippocampus. This difference was driven by non-smokers and absent in smoking subjects. Bilateral amygdala volumes were reduced with increasing health burden (neither PD nor smoking > either PD or smoking > both PD and smoking). As smoking can narrow or diminish commonly observed structural abnormalities in PD, the effect of smoking should be considered in MRI studies focusing on patients with pathological forms of fear and anxiety. Future studies are needed to determine if smoking may increase the risk for subsequent psychopathology via brain functional or structural alterations.

9.
J Neural Transm (Vienna) ; 127(12): 1651-1662, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32860562

RESUMO

Depression and coronary heart disease (CHD) are prevalent and often co-occurring disorders. Both have been associated with a dysregulated stress system. As a central element of the stress system, the FKBP5 gene has been shown to be associated with depression. In a prospective design, this study aims to investigate the association of FKBP5 with depressive symptoms in CHD patients. N = 268 hospitalized CHD patients were included. Depressive symptoms were measured using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS-D) at four time points (baseline, and after 1 month, 6 months, and 12 months). The functional FKBP5 single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs1360780 was selected for genotyping. Linear regression models showed that a higher number of FKBP5 C alleles was associated with more depressive symptoms in CHD patients both at baseline (p = 0.015) and at 12-months follow-up (p = 0.025) after adjustment for confounders. Further analyses revealed that this effect was driven by an interaction of FKBP5 genotype with patients' prior CHD course. Specifically, only in patients with a prior myocardial infarction or coronary revascularization, more depressive symptoms were associated with a higher number of C alleles (baseline: p = 0.046; 1-month: p = 0.026; 6-months: p = 0.028). Moreover, a higher number of C alleles was significantly related to a greater risk for dyslipidemia (p = .016). Our results point to a relevance of FKBP5 in the association of the two stress-related diseases depression and CHD.

10.
Transl Psychiatry ; 10(1): 296, 2020 08 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32839428

RESUMO

Circulating monocytes contribute to inflammatory processes. We here validate abnormal expression of inflammation-related genes in monocytes of a large and well-characterised group of MDD patients, and relate the outcomes to pertinent clinical characteristics. Thirty-two genes of a previously established inflammation-related gene signature were assessed in 197 patients with MDD, and 151 controls collected during the EU-MOODINFLAME project. Monocyte gene- expression data were related to age, sex, BMI, depression severity, childhood adversity (CA) and suicide risk (SR). Three distinct gene profiles were identified within the MDD group (downregulated, mixed upregulated and strongly upregulated genes). Patients in the merged upregulated groups had a significantly higher prevalence of CA and high SR. Using hierarchical clustering of the genes, we found a cluster of mainly cytokine (production)-related genes; patients with SR had a significantly higher expression of this cluster than patients without SR (particularly for IL-6, IL1A and IL1B). Such difference did not emerge for patients with and without CA. A downregulated gene profile was found for patients not exposed to CA and without SR (particularly for glucocorticoid-signalling genes NR3C1a and HSPA1/B). No inflammatory changes were observed for healthy controls exposed to CA. Our data show that inflammatory activation in MDD is not uniform, and that immunologically discernible phenotypes of depression can be linked to CA and high SR. The absence of monocyte inflammatory activation in healthy controls exposed to CA suggests an inflammatory involvement in MDD-prone individuals exposed to early stressors, but not healthy controls.

11.
Am J Med Genet B Neuropsychiatr Genet ; 183(6): 309-330, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32681593

RESUMO

It is imperative to understand the specific and shared etiologies of major depression and cardio-metabolic disease, as both traits are frequently comorbid and each represents a major burden to society. This study examined whether there is a genetic association between major depression and cardio-metabolic traits and if this association is stratified by age at onset for major depression. Polygenic risk scores analysis and linkage disequilibrium score regression was performed to examine whether differences in shared genetic etiology exist between depression case control status (N cases = 40,940, N controls = 67,532), earlier (N = 15,844), and later onset depression (N = 15,800) with body mass index, coronary artery disease, stroke, and type 2 diabetes in 11 data sets from the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium, Generation Scotland, and UK Biobank. All cardio-metabolic polygenic risk scores were associated with depression status. Significant genetic correlations were found between depression and body mass index, coronary artery disease, and type 2 diabetes. Higher polygenic risk for body mass index, coronary artery disease, and type 2 diabetes was associated with both early and later onset depression, while higher polygenic risk for stroke was associated with later onset depression only. Significant genetic correlations were found between body mass index and later onset depression, and between coronary artery disease and both early and late onset depression. The phenotypic associations between major depression and cardio-metabolic traits may partly reflect their overlapping genetic etiology irrespective of the age depression first presents.

12.
Neuroimage Clin ; 27: 102268, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32361414

RESUMO

Neuronal nitric oxide synthase (NOS-I) impacts on fear/anxiety-like behavior in animals. In humans, the short (S) allele of a functional promotor polymorphism of NOS1 (NOS1 ex1f-VNTR) has been shown to be associated with higher anxiety and altered fear conditioning in healthy subjects in the amygdala and hippocampus (AMY/HIPP). Here, we explore the role of NOS1 ex1f-VNTR as a pathophysiological correlate of panic disorder and agoraphobia (PD/AG). In a sub-sample of a multicenter cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) randomized controlled trial in patients with PD/AG (n = 48: S/S-genotype n=15, S/L-genotype n=21, L/L-genotype n=12) and healthy control subjects, HS (n = 34: S/S-genotype n=7, S/L-genotype n=17, L/L-genotype=10), a differential fear conditioning and extinction fMRI-paradigm was used to investigate how NOS1 ex1f-VNTR genotypes are associated with differential neural activation in AMY/HIPP. Prior to CBT, L/L-allele carriers showed higher activation than S/S-allele carriers in AMY/HIPP. A genotype × diagnosis interaction revealed that the S-allele in HS was associated with a pronounced deactivation in AMY/HIPP, while patients showed contrary effects. The interaction of genotype × stimulus type (CS+, conditioned stimulus associated with an aversive stimulus vs. CS-, unassociated) showed effects on differential learning in AMY/HIPP. All effects were predominately found during extinction. Genotype associated effects in patients were not altered after CBT. Low statistical power due to small sample size in each subgroup is a major limitation. However, our findings provide first preliminary evidence for dysfunctional neural fear conditioning/extinction associated with NOS1 ex1f-VNTR genotype in the context of PD/AG, shedding new light on the complex interaction between genetic risk, current psychopathology and treatment-related effects.

13.
J Neural Transm (Vienna) ; 127(11): 1527-1537, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32468273

RESUMO

While DNA methylation patterns have been studied for a role in the pathogenesis of anxiety disorders, the role of the enzymes establishing DNA methylation-DNA methyltransferases (DNMTs)-has yet to be investigated. In an effort to investigate DNMT genotype-specific effects on dimensional anxiety traits in addition to the categorical phenotype of panic disorder, 506 panic disorder patients and 3112 healthy participants were assessed for anxiety related cognition [Agoraphobic Cognitions Questionnaire (ACQ)], anxiety sensitivity [Anxiety Sensitivity Index (ASI)] as well as pathological worry [Penn State Worry Questionnaire (PSWQ)] and genotyped for five single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the DNMT3A (rs11683424, rs1465764, rs1465825) and DNMT3B (rs2424932, rs4911259) genes, which have previously been found associated with clinical and trait-related phenotypes. There was no association with the categorical phenotype panic disorder. However, a significant association was discerned between DNMT3A rs1465764 and PSWQ scores in healthy participants, with the minor allele conveying a protective effect. In addition, a marginally significant association between questionnaire scores (PSWQ, ASI) in healthy participants and DNMT3B rs2424932 was detected, again with the minor allele conveying a protective effect. The present results suggest a possible minor role of DNMT3A and DNMT3B gene variation in conveying resilience towards anxiety disorders. As the observed associations indicated a protective effect of two SNPs particularly with pathological worry, future studies are proposed to explore these variants in generalized anxiety disorder rather than panic disorder.

14.
Neuropsychopharmacology ; 45(10): 1758-1765, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32272482

RESUMO

Transgender individuals (TIs) show brain-structural alterations that differ from their biological sex as well as their perceived gender. To substantiate evidence that the brain structure of TIs differs from male and female, we use a combined multivariate and univariate approach. Gray matter segments resulting from voxel-based morphometry preprocessing of N = 1753 cisgender (CG) healthy participants were used to train (N = 1402) and validate (20% holdout N = 351) a support-vector machine classifying the biological sex. As a second validation, we classified N = 1104 patients with depression. A third validation was performed using the matched CG sample of the transgender women (TW) application sample. Subsequently, the classifier was applied to N = 26 TW. Finally, we compared brain volumes of CG-men, women, and TW-pre/post treatment cross-sex hormone treatment (CHT) in a univariate analysis controlling for sexual orientation, age, and total brain volume. The application of our biological sex classifier to the transgender sample resulted in a significantly lower true positive rate (TPR-male = 56.0%). The TPR did not differ between CG-individuals with (TPR-male = 86.9%) and without depression (TPR-male = 88.5%). The univariate analysis of the transgender application-sample revealed that TW-pre/post treatment show brain-structural differences from CG-women and CG-men in the putamen and insula, as well as the whole-brain analysis. Our results support the hypothesis that brain structure in TW differs from brain structure of their biological sex (male) as well as their perceived gender (female). This finding substantiates evidence that TIs show specific brain-structural alterations leading to a different pattern of brain structure than CG-individuals.

16.
Eur Arch Psychiatry Clin Neurosci ; 270(7): 803-818, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32166503

RESUMO

Primary schizophreniform psychoses are thought to be caused by complex gene-environment interactions. Secondary forms are based on a clearly identifiable organic cause, in terms of either an etiological or a relevant pathogenetic factor. The secondary or "symptomatic" forms of psychosis have reentered the focus stimulated by the discovery of autoantibody (Ab)-associated autoimmune encephalitides (AEs), such as anti-NMDA-R encephalitis, which can at least initially mimic variants of primary psychosis. These newly described secondary, immune-mediated schizophreniform psychoses typically present with the acute onset of polymorphic psychotic symptoms. Over the course of the disease, other neurological phenomena, such as epileptic seizures, movement disorders, or reduced levels of consciousness, usually arise. Typical clinical signs for AEs are the acute onset of paranoid hallucinatory symptoms, atypical polymorphic presentation, psychotic episodes in the context of previous AE, and additional neurological and medical symptoms such as catatonia, seizure, dyskinesia, and autonomic instability. Predominant psychotic courses of AEs have also been described casuistically. The term autoimmune psychosis (AP) was recently suggested for these patients. Paraclinical alterations that can be observed in patients with AE/AP are inflammatory cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) pathologies, focal or generalized electroencephalographic slowing or epileptic activity, and/or suspicious "encephalitic" imaging findings. The antibody analyses in these patients include the testing of the most frequently found Abs against cell surface antigens (NMDA-R, CASPR2, LGI1, AMPA-R, GABAB-R), intracellular antigens (Hu, Ri, Yo, CV2/CRMP5, Ma2 [Ta], amphiphysin, GAD65), thyroid antigens (TG, TPO), and antinuclear Abs (ANA). Less frequent antineuronal Abs (e.g., against DPPX, GABAA-R, glycine-R, IgLON5) can be investigated in the second step when first step screening is negative and/or some specific clinical factors prevail. Beyond, tissue-based assays on brain slices of rodents may detect previously unknown antineuronal Abs in some cases. The detection of clinical and/or paraclinical pathologies (e.g., pleocytosis in CSF) in combination with antineuronal Abs and the exclusion of alternative causes may lead to the diagnosis of AE/AP and enable more causal therapeutic immunomodulatory opportunities.

17.
J Psychosom Res ; 131: 109958, 2020 Feb 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32120145

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To analyze the association between heart-focused anxiety, depressive symptoms, health behaviors and healthcare utilization in patients with coronary heart disease (CHD). METHODS: N = 1007 patients with CHD were recruited in hospital and followed for one year in a two-site cohort study. Heart focused anxiety (Cardiac Anxiety Questionnaire [CAQ] with the three subscales fear, attention, and avoidance), depressive symptoms (depression module from the Patient Health Questionnaire [PHQ-9]), health behaviors and healthcare utilization (smoking status, alcohol consumption, physical activity, outpatient physician/psychotherapist visits) were assessed six months after the initial hospitalization. Multiple regression models were used for statistical analysis. RESULTS: About one third of the sample exhibited clinically significant CAQ scores. Higher CAQ-avoidance scores were associated with current smoking (OR = 1.62; 95%CI: 1.33-1.98), reduced alcohol intake (OR = 0.83; 95%CI: 0.71-0.98), non-participation in a coronary exercise group (OR = 1.76; 95%CI: 1.42-2.17), less regular physical activity (OR = 2.69; 95%CI: 2.32-3.12), and more frequent contact to general practitioners (GPs; b = 0.07, SE: 0.03). CAQ-attention was associated with non-smoking (OR = 0.51; 95%CI: 0.37-0.70), exercise group participation (OR = 0.69; 95%CI: 0.51-0.94), more frequent regular physical activity (OR = 0.55; 95%CI: 0.44-0.68), and more frequent contact to specialists for internal medicine (b = 0.09, SE: 0.04). CAQ-fear was not associated with any of the health behavior or healthcare use measures. Depressive symptoms were associated with reduced regular physical activity (OR = 1.05; 95%CI: 1.02-1.08) and increased contact to mental care specialists (b = 0.03, SE: 0.01) and GPs (b = 0.02, SE: 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: Heart-focused anxiety and depressive symptoms may impede secondary prevention in patients with CHD and increase outpatient healthcare utilization.

18.
JAMA Psychiatry ; 77(5): 523-533, 2020 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32049274

RESUMO

Importance: Identifying psychosis subgroups could improve clinical and research precision. Research has focused on symptom subgroups, but there is a need to consider a broader clinical spectrum, disentangle illness trajectories, and investigate genetic associations. Objective: To detect psychosis subgroups using data-driven methods and examine their illness courses over 1.5 years and polygenic scores for schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, major depression disorder, and educational achievement. Design, Setting, and Participants: This ongoing multisite, naturalistic, longitudinal (6-month intervals) cohort study began in January 2012 across 18 sites. Data from a referred sample of 1223 individuals (765 in the discovery sample and 458 in the validation sample) with DSM-IV diagnoses of schizophrenia, bipolar affective disorder (I/II), schizoaffective disorder, schizophreniform disorder, and brief psychotic disorder were collected from secondary and tertiary care sites. Discovery data were extracted in September 2016 and analyzed from November 2016 to January 2018, and prospective validation data were extracted in October 2018 and analyzed from January to May 2019. Main Outcomes and Measures: A clinical battery of 188 variables measuring demographic characteristics, clinical history, symptoms, functioning, and cognition was decomposed using nonnegative matrix factorization clustering. Subtype-specific illness courses were compared with mixed models and polygenic scores with analysis of covariance. Supervised learning was used to replicate results in validation data with the most reliably discriminative 45 variables. Results: Of the 765 individuals in the discovery sample, 341 (44.6%) were women, and the mean (SD) age was 42.7 (12.9) years. Five subgroups were found and labeled as affective psychosis (n = 252), suicidal psychosis (n = 44), depressive psychosis (n = 131), high-functioning psychosis (n = 252), and severe psychosis (n = 86). Illness courses with significant quadratic interaction terms were found for psychosis symptoms (R2 = 0.41; 95% CI, 0.38-0.44), depression symptoms (R2 = 0.28; 95% CI, 0.25-0.32), global functioning (R2 = 0.16; 95% CI, 0.14-0.20), and quality of life (R2 = 0.20; 95% CI, 0.17-0.23). The depressive and severe psychosis subgroups exhibited the lowest functioning and quadratic illness courses with partial recovery followed by reoccurrence of severe illness. Differences were found for educational attainment polygenic scores (mean [SD] partial η2 = 0.014 [0.003]) but not for diagnostic polygenic risk. Results were largely replicated in the validation cohort. Conclusions and Relevance: Psychosis subgroups were detected with distinctive clinical signatures and illness courses and specificity for a nondiagnostic genetic marker. New data-driven clinical approaches are important for future psychosis taxonomies. The findings suggest a need to consider short-term to medium-term service provision to restore functioning in patients stratified into the depressive and severe psychosis subgroups.

19.
Brain Behav Immun ; 87: 603-609, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32061905

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Previous research has demonstrated a strong link between immune system abnormalities and Major Depressive Disorder (MDD). High suicide risk is a major complication of MDD and has recently been linked to strong (neuro-)immune alterations, but little is known on the link between circulating immune cell composition and suicidal risk status. METHODS: Here, we assessed percentages of circulating peripheral blood mononuclear cells with focus on T helper cell subsets (memory T helper cells, Th1, Th2, Th17 and T regulatory cells) in a large and well-matched cohort of 153 patients diagnosed with MDD and 153 age and sex matched controls. We explored the association of these cell populations with suicide risk while accounting for age, sex, BMI, depression severity and childhood trauma. RESULTS: Patients with MDD had reduced percentages of NK cells, and higher percentages of B and T cells in line with current literature. Further exploration of T-cells revealed a robustly elevated number of memory T helper cells, regardless of age group. Patients at high risk for suicide had the highest memory T helper cells and additionally showed a robust increase of Th17 cells compared to other suicide risk groups. CONCLUSIONS: The higher abundance of memory T helper cells points towards premature aging of the immune system in MDD patients, even during young adulthood. Patients at high risk for suicide show the clearest immune abnormalities and may represent a clinically relevant subtype of depression.

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