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1.
PLoS One ; 12(11): e0188315, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29145509

RESUMO

Many solutes have been reported to remain at higher plasma levels relative to normal than the standard index solute urea in hemodialysis patients. Untargeted mass spectrometry was employed to compare solute levels in plasma and plasma ultrafiltrate of hemodialysis patients and normal subjects. Quantitative assays were employed to check the accuracy of untargeted results for selected solutes and additional measurements were made in dialysate and urine to estimate solute clearances and production. Comparison of peak areas indicated that many solutes accumulated to high levels in hemodialysis patients, with average peak areas in plasma ultrafiltrate of dialysis patients being more than 100 times greater than those in normals for 123 features. Most of these mass spectrometric features were identified only by their mass values. Untargeted analysis correctly ranked the accumulation of 5 solutes which were quantitatively assayed but tended to overestimate its extent. Mathematical modeling showed that the elevation of plasma levels for these solutes could be accounted for by a low dialytic to native kidney clearance ratio and a high dialytic clearance relative to the volume of the accessible compartment. Numerous solutes accumulate to high levels in hemodialysis patients because dialysis does not replicate the clearance provided by the native kidney. Many of these solutes remain to be chemically identified and their pathogenic potential elucidated.


Assuntos
Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Diálise Renal , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
2.
Kidney Int ; 84(3): 585-90, 2013 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23636170

RESUMO

The kidney clears numerous solutes from the plasma; however, retention of these solutes causes uremic illness when the kidneys fail. We know remarkably little about which retained solutes are toxic and this limits our ability to improve dialysis therapies. To explore this, we employed untargeted mass spectrometry to identify solutes that are efficiently cleared by the kidney. High-resolution mass spectrometry detected 1808 features in the urine and plasma ultrafiltrate of 5 individuals with normal renal function. The estimated clearance rates of 1082 peaks were greater than the creatinine clearance indicating tubular secretion. Further analysis identified 90 features representing solutes with estimated clearance rates greater than the renal plasma flow. Quantitative mass spectrometry with stable isotope dilution confirmed that efficient clearance of these solutes is made possible by the combination of binding to plasma proteins and tubular secretion. Tandem mass spectrometry established the chemical identity of 13 solutes including hippuric acid, indoxyl sulfate, and p-cresol sulfate. These 13 efficiently cleared solutes were found to accumulate in the plasma of hemodialysis patients, with free levels rising to more than 20-fold normal for all but two of them. Thus, further analysis of solutes efficiently cleared by secretion in the native kidney may provide a potential route to the identification of uremic toxins.


Assuntos
Cromatografia Líquida/métodos , Cresóis/metabolismo , Hipuratos/metabolismo , Indicã/metabolismo , Rim/metabolismo , Ésteres do Ácido Sulfúrico/metabolismo , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/métodos , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Nefropatias/metabolismo , Nefropatias/terapia , Masculino , Taxa de Depuração Metabólica , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ligação Proteica , Diálise Renal
3.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun ; 419(4): 796-800, 2012 Mar 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22387545

RESUMO

The EPXH2 gene encodes for the soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH), which has two distinct enzyme activities: epoxide hydrolase (Cterm-EH) and phosphatase (Nterm-phos). The Cterm-EH is involved in the metabolism of epoxides from arachidonic acid and other unsaturated fatty acids, endogenous chemical mediators that play important roles in blood pressure regulation, cell growth, inflammation and pain. While recent findings suggested complementary biological roles for Nterm-phos, its mode of action is not well understood. Herein, we demonstrate that lysophosphatidic acids are excellent substrates for Nterm-phos. We also showed that sEH phosphatase activity represents a significant (20-60%) part of LPA cellular hydrolysis, especially in the cytosol. This possible role of sEH on LPA hydrolysis could explain some of the biology previously associated with the Nterm-phos. These findings also underline possible cellular mechanisms by which both activities of sEH (EH and phosphatase) may have complementary or opposite roles.


Assuntos
Epóxido Hidrolases/metabolismo , Lisofosfolipídeos/metabolismo , Epóxido Hidrolases/química , Epóxido Hidrolases/genética , Humanos , Organofosfatos/química , Organofosfatos/isolamento & purificação , Organofosfatos/metabolismo , Bibliotecas de Moléculas Pequenas , Solubilidade , Especificidade por Substrato
4.
J Autism Dev Disord ; 42(5): 827-36, 2012 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21713591

RESUMO

The goal of this investigation was to examine plasma amino acid (AA) levels in children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD, N = 27) and neuro-typically developing controls (N = 20). We observed reduced plasma levels of most polar neutral AA and leucine in children with ASD. This AA profile conferred significant post hoc power for discriminating children with ASD from healthy children. Furthermore, statistical correlations suggested the lack of a typical decrease of glutamate and aspartate with age, and a non-typical increase of isoleucine and lysine with age in the ASD group. Findings from this limited prospective study warrant further examination of plasma AA levels in larger cross-sectional and longitudinal cohorts to adequately assess for relationships with developmental and clinical features of ASD.


Assuntos
Aminoácidos Neutros/sangue , Transtornos Globais do Desenvolvimento Infantil/sangue , Ácido Glutâmico/sangue , Leucina/sangue , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
5.
Anal Bioanal Chem ; 401(4): 1285-93, 2011 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21717113

RESUMO

Pyrethroid insecticides widely used in forestry, agricultural, industrial, and residential applications have potential for human exposure. Short sample preparation time and sensitive, economical high-throughput assays are needed for biomonitoring studies that analyze a large number of samples. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used for determining 3-phenoxybenzoic acid (3-PBA), a general urinary biomarker of exposure to some pyrethroid insecticides. A mixed-mode solid-phase extraction reduced interferences from acid hydrolyzed urine and gave 110 ± 6% recoveries from spiked samples. The method limit of quantification was 2 µg/L. Urine samples were collected from forestry workers that harvest pine cone seeds where pyrethroid insecticides were applied at ten different orchards. At least four samples for each worker were collected in a 1-week period. The 3-PBA in workers classified as high, low, or no exposure based on job analysis over all sampling days was 6.40 ± 9.60 (n = 200), 5.27 ± 5.39 (n = 52), and 3.56 ± 2.64 ng/mL (n = 34), respectively. Pair-wise comparison of the differences in least squares means of 3-PBA concentrations among groups only showed a significant difference between high and no exposure. Although this difference was not significant when 3-PBA excretion was normalized by creatinine excretion, the general trend was still apparent. No significant differences were observed among days or orchards. This ELISA method using a 96-well plate was performed as a high-throughput tool for analyzing around 300 urine samples measured in triplicate to provide data for workers exposure assessment.


Assuntos
Benzoatos/urina , Biomarcadores/urina , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Agricultura Florestal , Inseticidas/urina , Exposição Ocupacional/análise , Agricultura , Monitoramento Ambiental , Humanos
6.
J Am Soc Nephrol ; 22(9): 1769-76, 2011 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21784895

RESUMO

Microbes in the colon produce compounds, normally excreted by the kidneys, which are potential uremic toxins. Although p-cresol sulfate and indoxyl sulfate are well studied examples, few other compounds are known. Here, we compared plasma from hemodialysis patients with and without colons to identify and further characterize colon-derived uremic solutes. HPLC confirmed the colonic origin of p-cresol sulfate and indoxyl sulfate, but levels of hippurate, methylamine, and dimethylamine were not significantly lower in patients without colons. High-resolution mass spectrometry detected more than 1000 features in predialysis plasma samples. Hierarchical clustering based on these features clearly separated dialysis patients with and without colons. Compared with patients with colons, we identified more than 30 individual features in patients without colons that were either absent or present in lower concentration. Almost all of these features were more prominent in plasma from dialysis patients than normal subjects, suggesting that they represented uremic solutes. We used a panel of indole and phenyl standards to identify five colon-derived uremic solutes: α-phenylacetyl-l-glutamine, 5-hydroxyindole, indoxyl glucuronide, p-cresol sulfate, and indoxyl sulfate. However, compounds with accurate mass values matching most of the colon-derived solutes could not be found in standard metabolomic databases. These results suggest that colonic microbes may produce an important portion of uremic solutes, most of which remain unidentified.


Assuntos
Colo/química , Falência Renal Crônica/sangue , Uremia/sangue , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Colo/microbiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Falência Renal Crônica/terapia , Masculino , Espectrometria de Massas , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Diálise Renal
7.
Neurotoxicol Teratol ; 33(3): 393-404, 2011.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21334437

RESUMO

Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are widely used flame retardants that have become pervasive environmental contaminants and may contribute to adverse health outcomes. We evaluated in mice the developmental neurotoxicity of 2,2',4,4'-tetrabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-47), one of the most abundant PBDE congeners detected in animal and human tissues. Female C57BL/6J mice were exposed to daily doses of 0, 0.03, 0.1 or 1mg/kg beginning 4 weeks prior to conception, continuing through gestation and lactation, and ending at weaning on postnatal day (PND) 21. Levels of BDE-47 in blood, brain, liver and adipose tissues of dams were markedly increased after 4 weeks of exposure, around the time of mating, and continued to increase through the time of parturition. Blood levels of BDE-47 in the dosed dams were within the range reported in humans. BDE-47 tissue levels in the dams decreased between parturition and weaning, possibly reflecting mobilization during lactation. Brain BDE-47 levels in the offspring at PND 1 approached those of the dams at parturition. Perinatal exposure to BDE-47 resulted in significant dose dependent growth retardation, slower motor performance in several behavioral tests, and mice exposed to 1mg/kg/day BDE-47 showed altered performance in the Morris water maze. There were no differences between groups in the numbers of pyramidal neurons in hippocampus CA1. These results document accumulation of BDE-47 in several organ systems following exposure to low-levels of BDE-47, and provide evidence that such exposure is associated with early behavioral deficits in exposed neonates.


Assuntos
Comportamento Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Poluentes Ambientais/toxicidade , Exposição Materna/efeitos adversos , Bifenil Polibromatos/toxicidade , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/psicologia , Animais , Região CA1 Hipocampal/efeitos dos fármacos , Região CA1 Hipocampal/embriologia , Região CA1 Hipocampal/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Contagem de Células , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Poluentes Ambientais/farmacocinética , Feminino , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Idade Gestacional , Éteres Difenil Halogenados , Masculino , Aprendizagem em Labirinto/efeitos dos fármacos , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Atividade Motora/efeitos dos fármacos , Bifenil Polibromatos/farmacocinética , Gravidez , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/induzido quimicamente , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/metabolismo , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/patologia , Células Piramidais/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Piramidais/metabolismo , Células Piramidais/patologia , Distribuição Tecidual , Desmame
8.
J Nutr ; 140(3): 542-50, 2010 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20053937

RESUMO

Cutaneous cholecalciferol synthesis has not been considered in making recommendations for vitamin D intake. Our objective was to model the effects of sun exposure, vitamin D intake, and skin reflectance (pigmentation) on serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D) in young adults with a wide range of skin reflectance and sun exposure. Four cohorts of participants (n = 72 total) were studied for 7-8 wk in the fall, winter, spring, and summer in Davis, CA [38.5 degrees N, 121.7 degrees W, Elev. 49 ft (15 m)]. Skin reflectance was measured using a spectrophotometer, vitamin D intake using food records, and sun exposure using polysulfone dosimeter badges. A multiple regression model (R(2) = 0.55; P < 0.0001) was developed and used to predict the serum 25(OH)D concentration for participants with low [median for African ancestry (AA)] and high [median for European ancestry (EA)] skin reflectance and with low [20th percentile, approximately 20 min/d, approximately 18% body surface area (BSA) exposed] and high (80th percentile, approximately 90 min/d, approximately 35% BSA exposed) sun exposure, assuming an intake of 200 iu/d (5 ug/d). Predicted serum 25(OH)D concentrations for AA individuals with low and high sun exposure in the winter were 24 and 42 nmol/L and in the summer were 40 and 60 nmol/L. Corresponding values for EA individuals were 35 and 60 nmol/L in the winter and in the summer were 58 and 85 nmol/L. To achieve 25(OH)D > or =75 nmol/L, we estimate that EA individuals with high sun exposure need 1300 iu/d vitamin D intake in the winter and AA individuals with low sun exposure need 2100-3100 iu/d year-round.


Assuntos
Pigmentação da Pele/fisiologia , Vitamina D/análogos & derivados , Vitamina D/administração & dosagem , Vitamina D/farmacologia , Adulto , Afro-Americanos , California , Registros de Dieta , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Necessidades Nutricionais , Estações do Ano , Luz Solar , Vitamina D/sangue , Adulto Jovem
9.
DNA Cell Biol ; 27(9): 467-77, 2008 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18554159

RESUMO

The mammalian soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) is a multidomain enzyme composed of C- and N-terminal regions that contain active sites for epoxide hydrolase (EH) and phosphatase activities, respectively. We report the cloning of two 60 kDa multidomain enzymes from the purple sea urchin Strongylocentrotus purpuratus displaying significant sequence similarity to both the N- and C-terminal domains of the mammalian sEH. While one urchin enzyme did not exhibit EH activity, the second enzyme hydrolyzed several lipid messenger molecules metabolized by the mammalian sEH, including the epoxyeicosatrienoic acids. Neither of the urchin enzymes displayed phosphatase activity. The urchin EH was inhibited by small molecule inhibitors of the mammalian sEH and is the likely ancestor of the enzyme. Sequence comparisons suggest that the urchin sEH homologs are the result of a gene fusion event between a gene encoding for an EH and a gene for an enzyme of undetermined function. This fusion event was followed by a duplication event to produce the urchin enzymes.


Assuntos
Epóxido Hidrolases/genética , Strongylocentrotus purpuratus/enzimologia , Strongylocentrotus purpuratus/genética , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Sequência de Bases , Clonagem Molecular , Inibidores Enzimáticos/química , Inibidores Enzimáticos/farmacologia , Epóxido Hidrolases/antagonistas & inibidores , Epóxido Hidrolases/química , Evolução Molecular , Duplicação Gênica , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Alinhamento de Sequência
10.
Anal Bioanal Chem ; 391(5): 1917-30, 2008 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18437365

RESUMO

Biologically active forms of vitamin D are important analytical targets in both research and clinical practice. The current technology is such that each of the vitamin D metabolites is usually analyzed by individual assay. However, current LC-MS technologies allow the simultaneous metabolic profiling of entire biochemical pathways. The impediment to the metabolic profiling of vitamin D metabolites is the low level of 1alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3) in human serum (15-60 pg/mL). Here, we demonstrate that liquid-liquid or solid-phase extraction of vitamin D metabolites in combination with Diels-Alder derivatization with the commercially available reagent 4-phenyl-1,2,4-triazoline-3,5-dione (PTAD) followed by ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC)-electrospray/tandem mass spectrometry analysis provides rapid and simultaneous quantification of 1alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3), 1alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(2), 24R,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3), 25-hydroxyvitamin D(3) and 25-hydroxyvitamin D(2) in 0.5 mL human serum at a lower limit of quantification of 25 pg/mL. Precision ranged from 1.6-4.8 % and 5-16 % for 25-hydroxyvitamin D(3) and 1alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3), respectively, using solid-phase extraction.


Assuntos
Cromatografia Líquida/métodos , Extração em Fase Sólida/métodos , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/métodos , Vitamina D/sangue , Calibragem , Humanos , Isomerismo , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Fatores de Tempo , Vitamina D/análogos & derivados
11.
Arch Biochem Biophys ; 472(2): 139-49, 2008 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18267101

RESUMO

We have identified two genes in the genomic database for Caenorhabditis elegans that code for proteins with significant sequence similarity to the mammalian soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH). The respective transcripts were cloned from a mixed stage cDNA library from C. elegans. The corresponding proteins obtained after recombinant expression in insect cells hydrolyzed standard epoxide hydrolase substrates, including epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs) and leukotoxins (EpOMEs). The enzyme activity was inhibited by urea-based compounds originally designed to inhibit the mammalian sEH. In vivo inhibition of the enzymes using the most potent of these compounds resulted in elevated levels of the EpOMEs in the nematode. These results suggest that the hydrolases are involved in the metabolism of possible lipid signaling molecules in C. elegans.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Caenorhabditis elegans/metabolismo , Caenorhabditis elegans/enzimologia , Epóxido Hidrolases/metabolismo , Ácidos Linoleicos/metabolismo , Ácidos Oleicos/metabolismo , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Sequência de Bases , Proteínas de Caenorhabditis elegans/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteínas de Caenorhabditis elegans/química , Linhagem Celular , Clonagem Molecular , Epóxido Hidrolases/antagonistas & inibidores , Epóxido Hidrolases/química , Exotoxinas/química , Corantes Fluorescentes/química , Biblioteca Gênica , Ácidos Linoleicos/química , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Ácidos Oleicos/química , Proteínas Recombinantes/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteínas Recombinantes/química , Especificidade por Substrato
12.
Cell Metab ; 7(2): 148-58, 2008 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18249174

RESUMO

Ceramides and sphingoid long-chain bases (LCBs) are precursors to more complex sphingolipids and play distinct signaling roles crucial for cell growth and survival. Conserved reactions within the sphingolipid biosynthetic pathway are responsible for the formation of these intermediates. Components of target of rapamycin complex 2 (TORC2) have been implicated in the biosynthesis of sphingolipids in S. cerevisiae; however, the precise step regulated by this complex remains unknown. Here we demonstrate that yeast cells deficient in TORC2 activity are impaired for de novo ceramide biosynthesis both in vivo and in vitro. We find that TORC2 regulates this step in part by activating the AGC kinase Ypk2 and that this step is antagonized by the Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent phosphatase calcineurin. Because Ypk2 is activated independently by LCBs, the direct precursors to ceramides, our data suggest a model wherein TORC2 signaling is coupled with LCB levels to control Ypk2 activity and, ultimately, regulate ceramide formation.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Ciclo Celular/fisiologia , Ceramidas/biossíntese , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/fisiologia , Proteínas Quinases/metabolismo , Proteínas de Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolismo , Proteínas de Saccharomyces cerevisiae/fisiologia , Proteínas Fúngicas/metabolismo , Oxirredutases/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Leveduras
13.
Mass Spectrom Rev ; 26(1): 51-78, 2007.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16921475

RESUMO

This review presents an overview of the dynamically developing field of mass spectrometry-based metabolomics. Metabolomics aims at the comprehensive and quantitative analysis of wide arrays of metabolites in biological samples. These numerous analytes have very diverse physico-chemical properties and occur at different abundance levels. Consequently, comprehensive metabolomics investigations are primarily a challenge for analytical chemistry and specifically mass spectrometry has vast potential as a tool for this type of investigation. Metabolomics require special approaches for sample preparation, separation, and mass spectrometric analysis. Current examples of those approaches are described in this review. It primarily focuses on metabolic fingerprinting, a technique that analyzes all detectable analytes in a given sample with subsequent classification of samples and identification of differentially expressed metabolites, which define the sample classes. To perform this complex task, data analysis tools, metabolite libraries, and databases are required. Therefore, recent advances in metabolomics bioinformatics are also discussed.


Assuntos
Bases de Dados de Proteínas , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Armazenamento e Recuperação da Informação/métodos , Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Mapeamento de Peptídeos/métodos , Proteoma/análise , Proteoma/metabolismo
14.
Biochemistry ; 44(36): 12179-87, 2005 Sep 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16142916

RESUMO

The EPXH2 gene encodes for the soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH), a homodimeric enzyme with each monomer containing two domains with distinct activities. The C-terminal domain, containing the epoxide hydrolase activity (Cterm-EH), is involved in the metabolism of arachidonic acid epoxides, endogenous chemical mediators that play important roles in blood pressure regulation, cell growth, and inflammation. We recently demonstrated that the N-terminal domain contains a Mg2+-dependent lipid phosphate phosphatase activity (Nterm-phos). However, the biological role of this activity is unknown. The inability of known phosphatase inhibitors to inhibit the Nterm-phos constitutes a significant barrier to the elucidation of its function. We describe herein sulfate, sulfonate, and phosphonate lipids as novel potent inhibitors of Nterm-phos. These compounds are allosteric competitive inhibitors with K(I) in the hundred nanomolar range. These inhibitors may provide a valuable tool to investigate the biological role of the Nterm-phos. We found that polyisoprenyl phosphates are substrates of Nterm-phos, suggesting a possible role in sterol synthesis or inflammation. Furthermore, some of these compounds inhibit the C-terminal sEH activity through a noncompetitive inhibition mechanism involving a new binding site on the C-terminal domain. This novel site may play a role in the natural in vivo regulation of epoxide hydrolysis by sEH.


Assuntos
Inibidores Enzimáticos/farmacologia , Epóxido Hidrolases/antagonistas & inibidores , Lipídeos/farmacologia , Monoéster Fosfórico Hidrolases/antagonistas & inibidores , Sulfatos/química , Sulfatos/farmacologia , Ácidos Sulfônicos/farmacologia , Regulação Alostérica/efeitos dos fármacos , Sítio Alostérico , Epóxido Hidrolases/metabolismo , Ésteres/química , Humanos , Hidroxilação , Cinética , Lipídeos/química , Estrutura Molecular , Fosfatos/metabolismo , Monoéster Fosfórico Hidrolases/metabolismo , Solubilidade , Especificidade por Substrato
15.
J Agric Food Chem ; 53(9): 3306-12, 2005 May 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-15853364

RESUMO

The invasion and subsequent spread of the mosquito-borne West Nile virus in the United States has resulted in increased use of methoprene. With the increased need for sensitive detection and monitoring of methoprene in the environment, an analytical LC/ESI-MS/MS method has been developed for the analysis of methoprene and two analogues, kinoprene and hydroprene, in water. To improve the ionization efficiency of the nonpolar analytes, a derivatization step with the Cookson-type reagent 4-phenyl-1,2,4-triazoline-3,5-dione (PTAD) was used. Derivatization improved the limit of detection 100-fold. For tandem MS analyses, limits of detection in environmental water samples (S/N = 3) are about 6 pg/mL for methoprene and 20 pg/mL for kinoprene and hydroprene, resulting in limits of quantification (S/N = 10) of 20 pg/mL for methoprene and 60 pg/mL for hydroprene and kinoprene extracted from 10 mL of water. This method was applied to measure methoprene concentrations in water samples from a treated site.


Assuntos
Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Ácidos Graxos Insaturados/análise , Metoprene/análise , Resíduos de Praguicidas/análise , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização por Electrospray/métodos , Indicadores e Reagentes , Inseticidas/análise , Hormônios Juvenis
16.
Chem Res Toxicol ; 16(12): 1624-31, 2003 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-14680377

RESUMO

Sodium arsenite is much more potent than sodium arsenate in producing adverse effects in animals and in cultured cells. Although arsenate may exhibit toxicity as a phosphate analogue, its potency in vivo appears to be enhanced by reduction to arsenite. To understand the relative importance of this reduction, which is critical in evaluating the responsiveness of cell culture models to the different oxidation states and thus to elucidating the mechanism of arsenic action, present work has correlated the extent of reduction with biological activity in human keratinocytes. The results show that at biologically relevant concentrations, arsenate reduction to appreciable levels required several days, helping rationalize a previous empirical observation that it was approximately one-third as potent as arsenite. The relatively low conversion rate also emphasizes a limitation of culture; arsenate was nearly as efficacious as arsenite, but the time required for it to reach maximal effect exceeded ordinary medium change intervals. In keratinocytes, an important role for purine nucleoside phosphorylase in the reduction could not be demonstrated, indicating that another pathway is dominant in this cell type. Methylation of inorganic arsenic, uptake of methylated forms, and their reduction were all very slow. These findings suggest that the reduced methylated forms have only a small contribution to skin carcinogenesis unless they are supplied through the circulation. In parallel experiments, trivalent antimony was similar to arsenite in potency and efficacy, whereas pentavalent antimony was virtually without biological effect. Conversion of antimony in the pentavalent to the trivalent oxidation state was not detectable in keratinocytes. These findings emphasize the importance of intracellular reduction of the metalloids for biological effects.


Assuntos
Antimônio/química , Antimônio/toxicidade , Arsênico/química , Arsênico/toxicidade , Guanina/análogos & derivados , Queratinócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Antimônio/farmacocinética , Arsênico/farmacocinética , Biotransformação , Bovinos , Linhagem Celular , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Indução Enzimática/efeitos dos fármacos , Inibidores Enzimáticos/farmacologia , Fibroblastos/metabolismo , Guanina/farmacologia , Heme Oxigenase (Desciclizante)/metabolismo , Heme Oxigenase-1 , Humanos , Queratinócitos/enzimologia , Queratinócitos/metabolismo , Proteínas de Membrana , Oxirredução , Precursores de Proteínas/antagonistas & inibidores , Precursores de Proteínas/biossíntese , Nucleosídeos de Purina , Purina-Núcleosídeo Fosforilase/antagonistas & inibidores , Purina-Núcleosídeo Fosforilase/metabolismo , Pirimidinonas/farmacologia , Pirróis/farmacologia , Baço/enzimologia
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