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1.
PLoS One ; 16(9): e0257431, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34516580

RESUMO

Clostridioides difficile infection is the most common cause of nosocomial and antibiotic-associated diarrhea. C. difficile treatment is increasingly likely to fail, and the recurrence rate is high. Antimicrobial peptides are considered an alternative treatment for many infectious diseases, including those caused by antibiotic resistant bacteria. In the present study, we identified a CM peptide, a hybrid of cecropin A and melittin, and its derivative which possesses potent antimicrobial activity against C. difficile strain 630. CM peptide exhibited antibacterial activity with minimum inhibitory concentration of 3.906 µg/ml (2.21 µM). A modified derivative of CM, CM-A, exhibited even greater activity with a minimum inhibitory concentration of 1.953 µg/ml (1.06 µM) and a minimum bactericidal concentration of 7.8125 µg/ml (4.24 µM), which indicates that CM-A peptide is more efficient than its parent peptide. A fluorescence-activated cell sorter analysis revealed that the membrane of C. difficile 630 could be an important target for CM-A. This peptide induced high levels of cell depolarization and cell permeability on C. difficile cell membrane. Moreover, electron microscopy imaging showed that CM-A interferes with the C. difficile cell membrane. Hence, the antimicrobial peptide CM-A may represent a promising novel approach for the treatment of C. difficile infections.

2.
Antibiotics (Basel) ; 10(6)2021 Jun 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34199301

RESUMO

Clostridioides difficile has been recognized as a life-threatening pathogen that causes enteric diseases, including antibiotic-associated diarrhea and pseudomembranous colitis. The severity of C. difficile infection (CDI) correlates with toxin production and antibiotic resistance of C. difficile. In Thailand, the data addressing ribotypes, toxigenic, and antimicrobial susceptibility profiles of this pathogen are scarce and some of these data sets are limited. In this study, two groups of C. difficile isolates in Thailand, including 50 isolates collected from 2006 to 2009 (THA group) and 26 isolates collected from 2010 to 2012 (THB group), were compared for toxin genes and ribotyping profiles. The production of toxins A and B were determined on the basis of toxin gene profiles. In addition, minimum inhibitory concentration of eight antibiotics were examined for all 76 C. difficile isolates. The isolates of the THA group were categorized into 27 A-B+CDT- (54%) and 23 A-B-CDT- (46%), while the THB isolates were classified into five toxigenic profiles, including six A+B+CDT+ (23%), two A+B+CDT- (8%), five A-B+CDT+ (19%), seven A-B+CDT- (27%), and six A-B-CDT- (23%). By visually comparing them to the references, only five ribotypes were identified among THA isolates, while 15 ribotypes were identified within THB isolates. Ribotype 017 was the most common in both groups. Interestingly, 18 unknown ribotyping patterns were identified. Among eight tcdA-positive isolates, three isolates showed significantly greater levels of toxin A than the reference strain. The levels of toxin B in 3 of 47 tcdB-positive isolates were significantly higher than that of the reference strain. Based on the antimicrobial susceptibility test, metronidazole showed potent efficiency against most isolates in both groups. However, high MIC values of cefoxitin (MICs 256 µg/mL) and chloramphenicol (MICs ≥ 64 µg/mL) were observed with most of the isolates. The other five antibiotics exhibited diverse MIC values among two groups of isolates. This work provides evidence of temporal changes in both C. difficile strains and patterns of antimicrobial resistance in Thailand.

3.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0236518, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32702033

RESUMO

Thermophilic microorganisms and their enzymes have been utilized in various industrial applications. In this work, we isolated and characterized thermophilic anaerobic bacteria with the cellulose and hemicellulose degrading activities from a tropical dry deciduous forest in northern Thailand. Out of 502 isolated thermophilic anaerobic soil bacteria, 6 isolates, identified as Thermoanaerobacterium sp., displayed an ability to utilize a wide range of oligosaccharides and lignocellulosic substrates. The isolates exhibited significant cellulase and xylanase activities at high temperature (65°C). Among all isolates, Thermoanaerobacterium sp. strain R63 exhibited remarkable hydrolytic properties with the highest cellulase and xylanase activities at 1.15 U/mg and 6.17 U/mg, respectively. Extracellular extract of Thermoanaerobacterium sp. strain R63 was thermostable with an optimal temperature at 65°C and could exhibit enzymatic activities on pH range 5.0-9.0. Our findings suggest promising applications of these thermoanaerobic bacteria and their potent enzymes for industrial purposes.


Assuntos
Celulose/metabolismo , Polissacarídeos/metabolismo , Microbiologia do Solo , Thermoanaerobacterium/metabolismo , Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Biomassa , Celulase/metabolismo , Endo-1,4-beta-Xilanases/metabolismo , Estabilidade Enzimática , Temperatura Alta , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Filogenia , Especificidade por Substrato , Thermoanaerobacterium/classificação , Thermoanaerobacterium/enzimologia , Thermoanaerobacterium/isolamento & purificação
4.
Probiotics Antimicrob Proteins ; 12(2): 641-648, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30888623

RESUMO

Lactic acid bacteria, Enterococcus faecium and Lactococcus lactis, previously isolated from Thai fermented sausages were elucidated their probiotic properties especially in the control of Clostridium difficile 630. Both isolates survived in simulated gastric solution at pH 3 followed in simulated intestinal solution at pH 8. The presence of skimmed milk also helped the bacteria to survive through acidic and alkaline in gastrointestinal conditions. The adhesion properties of both isolates were tested using a human colon adenocarcinoma cell line. The result showed that both isolates exhibited desirable probiotic properties which adhered to Caco-2 cells. The neutralized cell-free supernatant of both isolates demonstrated that no cytotoxicity toward Caco-2 cells vice versa cell-free supernatant of C. difficile 630 toward Caco-2 cell demonstrated high toxicity. The immunomodulation effect in response to bacterial neutralized cell-free supernatant and cell-free supernatant was also studied. The expression level of pro-inflammatory cytokine of Caco-2 cell which are tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-8 was evaluated using quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR. Both isolates were able to diminish the expression level of TNF-α and IL-8 induced by the cell-free supernatant of C. difficile 630. Hence, these isolates would be able to improve the gut health through counteracting the C. difficile-associated intestinal inflammation in human cell lines. These results may contribute to the development of the isolates using as probiotics.


Assuntos
Antibiose , Clostridioides difficile/patogenicidade , Enterococcus faecium/fisiologia , Alimentos e Bebidas Fermentados/microbiologia , Lactococcus lactis/fisiologia , Probióticos , Células CACO-2 , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Humanos , Probióticos/isolamento & purificação , Substâncias Protetoras
5.
Int J Vitam Nutr Res ; 89(5-6): 246-254, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30982444

RESUMO

A lower serum folate level is common in older populations and is associated with increased serum homocysteine concentration. In turn, an elevated homocysteine level is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease and age-related diseases. Contemporary studies of folate and dietary risk factors for cardiovascular disease among the elderly population in Thailand are lacking. This cross-sectional study aimed to investigate the relationships among serum folate, homocysteine level, and nutritional status in the elderly Thai. Three hundred individuals, aged 60 years and over, underwent anthropometric and physiological measurements, and biochemical parameters, and eating habits were also determined. Folate insufficiency was found in approximately 35% of subjects. Folate and homocysteine showed a significant inverse correlation. Serum homocysteine levels rose with increasing age. Folate deficiency and high waist-to-hip ratio were associated with 7-fold and 2.5-fold increased risk for hyperhomocysteinemia, respectively. There were positive correlations between homocysteine and waist-to-hip ratio and systolic blood pressure, but a negative correlation between homocysteine and high-density lipoprotein (r = -0.239, p < 0.01), which are markers for cardiovascular disease risk. Folate negatively correlated with body mass index, waist-to-hip ratio, and diastolic blood pressure, but positively with high-density lipoprotein (r = 0.162, p < 0.01). Investigation of eating habits showed that low consumption of green leafy vegetables and high consumption of sugary foods were associated with high homocysteine levels. Given associations between nutritional status and cardiovascular disease confirmed in this study, nutrition education, holistic health promotion, and appropriate behavioral modification of eating habits represent important measures for preventing premature cardiovascular disease in the elderly Thai population.


Assuntos
Comportamento Alimentar , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Ácido Fólico , Homocisteína , Humanos , Hiper-Homocisteinemia , Lipídeos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Tailândia , Vitamina B 12 , Relação Cintura-Quadril
6.
BMC Complement Altern Med ; 18(1): 344, 2018 Dec 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30591041

RESUMO

BACKGOUND: Chronic fat-rich diets consumption is increased risk associated with cardiovascular diseases (CVD). Prevention or reduction the progression of cardiac tissue deterioration could benefit in CVD. This study aimed to examine the effects of maoberry (Antidesma bunius), a antioxidant-rich tropical fruit, supplementation on oxidative stress and inflammation in cardiac tissues of rats fed a high-fat diet (HFD). METHODS: The male rats orally received HFD with maoberry extract doses of 0.38, 0.76 or 1.52 g/kg or simvastatin (10 mg/kg) for 12 weeks. At the end of the experimental period, the rats were fasted, euthanized and harvested for the hearts. RESULTS: Significantly reduced oxidative stress (malondialdehyde levels) and enhanced antioxidant capacity (ferric-reducing activities) in cardiac tissues of the rats were found. Maoberry extract remarkably ameliorated the expressions of genes involved with pro-inflammatory such as the tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6), vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1), monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS). CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that maoberry extract has remarkable effects on preventing progression of cardiac tissue deterioration at least through lowering oxidative stress and inflammation.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/tratamento farmacológico , Coração/efeitos dos fármacos , Malpighiales/química , Miocárdio/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Animais , Doenças Cardiovasculares/imunologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/metabolismo , Quimiocina CCL2/genética , Quimiocina CCL2/metabolismo , Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Interleucina-6/genética , Interleucina-6/metabolismo , Masculino , Malondialdeído/metabolismo , Miocárdio/imunologia , Óxido Nítrico Sintase Tipo III/genética , Óxido Nítrico Sintase Tipo III/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/química , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/genética , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo , Molécula 1 de Adesão de Célula Vascular/genética , Molécula 1 de Adesão de Célula Vascular/metabolismo
7.
Essays Biochem ; 61(1): 91-101, 2017 02 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28258233

RESUMO

The emergence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria has become a major global health concern. Rapid and accurate diagnostic strategies to determine the antibiotic susceptibility profile prior to antibiotic prescription and treatment are critical to control drug resistance. The standard diagnostic procedures for the detection of antibiotic-resistant bacteria, which rely mostly on phenotypic characterization, are time consuming, insensitive and often require skilled personnel, making them unsuitable for point-of-care (POC) diagnosis. Various molecular techniques have therefore been implemented to help speed up the process and increase sensitivity. Over the past decade, microfluidic technology has gained great momentum in medical diagnosis as a series of fluid handling steps in a laboratory can be simplified and miniaturized on to a small platform, allowing marked reduction of sample amount, high portability and tremendous possibility for integration with other detection technologies. These advantages render the microfluidic system a great candidate to be developed into an easy-to-use sample-to-answer POC diagnosis suitable for application in remote clinical settings. This review provides an overview of the current development of microfluidic technologies for the nucleic acid based and phenotypic-based detections of antibiotic resistance.


Assuntos
Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Resistência Microbiana a Medicamentos , Invenções , Microfluídica/métodos , Humanos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Fenótipo
8.
Appl Environ Microbiol ; 82(11): 3256-3268, 2016 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26994085

RESUMO

UNLABELLED: In this study, we investigated whether a laser scatterometer designated BARDOT (bacterial rapid detection using optical scattering technology) could be used to directly screen colonies of Listeria monocytogenes, a model pathogen, with mutations in several known virulence genes, including the genes encoding Listeria adhesion protein (LAP; lap mutant), internalin A (ΔinlA strain), and an accessory secretory protein (ΔsecA2 strain). Here we show that the scatter patterns of lap mutant, ΔinlA, and ΔsecA2 colonies were markedly different from that of the wild type (WT), with >95% positive predictive values (PPVs), whereas for the complemented mutant strains, scatter patterns were restored to that of the WT. The scatter image library successfully distinguished the lap mutant and ΔinlA mutant strains from the WT in mixed-culture experiments, including a coinfection study using the Caco-2 cell line. Among the biophysical parameters examined, the colony height and optical density did not reveal any discernible differences between the mutant and WT strains. We also found that differential LAP expression in L. monocytogenes serotype 4b strains also affected the scatter patterns of the colonies. The results from this study suggest that BARDOT can be used to screen and enumerate mutant strains separately from the WT based on differential colony scatter patterns. IMPORTANCE: In studies of microbial pathogenesis, virulence-encoding genes are routinely disrupted by deletion or insertion to create mutant strains. Screening of mutant strains is an arduous process involving plating on selective growth media, replica plating, colony hybridization, DNA isolation, and PCR or immunoassays. We applied a noninvasive laser scatterometer to differentiate mutant bacterial colonies from WT colonies based on forward optical scatter patterns. This study demonstrates that BARDOT can be used as a novel, label-free, real-time tool to aid researchers in screening virulence gene-associated mutant colonies during microbial pathogenesis, coinfection, and genetic manipulation studies.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Técnicas Bacteriológicas/métodos , Lasers , Listeria monocytogenes/classificação , Proteínas de Membrana/deficiência , Propriedades de Superfície , Fatores de Virulência/deficiência , Proteínas de Bactérias/análise , Fenômenos Biofísicos , Listeria monocytogenes/química , Proteínas de Membrana/análise , Fatores de Virulência/análise
9.
PLoS One ; 9(8): e105272, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25136836

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Shiga-toxin producing Escherichia coli (STEC) have emerged as important foodborne pathogens, among which seven serogroups (O26, O45, O103, O111, O121, O145, O157) are most frequently implicated in human infection. The aim was to determine if a light scattering sensor can be used to rapidly identify the colonies of STEC serogroups on selective agar plates. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Initially, a total of 37 STEC strains representing seven serovars were grown on four different selective agar media, including sorbitol MacConkey (SMAC), Rainbow Agar O157, BBL CHROMagarO157, and R&F E. coli O157:H7, as well as nonselective Brain Heart Infusion agar. The colonies were scanned by an automated light scattering sensor, known as BARDOT (BActerial Rapid Detection using Optical scattering Technology), to acquire scatter patterns of STEC serogroups, and the scatter patterns were analyzed using an image classifier. Among all of the selective media tested, both SMAC and Rainbow provided the best differentiation results allowing multi-class classification of all serovars with an average accuracy of more than 90% after 10-12 h of growth, even though the colony appearance was indistinguishable at that early stage of growth. SMAC was chosen for exhaustive scatter image library development, and 36 additional strains of O157:H7 and 11 non-O157 serovars were examined, with each serogroup producing unique differential scatter patterns. Colony scatter images were also tested with samples derived from pure and mixed cultures, as well as experimentally inoculated food samples. BARDOT accurately detected O157 and O26 serovars from a mixed culture and also from inoculated lettuce and ground beef (10-h broth enrichment +12-h on-plate incubation) in the presence of natural background microbiota in less than 24 h. CONCLUSIONS: BARDOT could potentially be used as a screening tool during isolation of the most important STEC serovars on selective agar plates from food samples in less than 24 h.


Assuntos
Técnicas de Tipagem Bacteriana/instrumentação , Escherichia coli O157/metabolismo , Escherichia coli O157/genética , Escherichia coli O157/ultraestrutura , Genes Bacterianos , Luz , Espalhamento de Radiação , Sorogrupo
10.
Biomed Res Int ; 2013: 875437, 2013.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23586062

RESUMO

Clostridium difficile poses as the most common etiologic agent of nosocomial diarrhea. Although there are many diagnostic methods to detect C. difficile directly from stool samples, the nucleic acid-based approach has been largely performed in several laboratories due to its high sensitivity and specificity as well as rapid turnaround time. In this study, a multiplex PCR was newly designed with recent accumulated nucleotide sequences. The PCR testing with various C. difficile ribotypes, other Clostridium spp., and non-Clostridium strains revealed 100% specificity with the ability to detect as low as ~22 genomic copy number per PCR reaction. Different combinations of sample processing were evaluated prior to multiplex PCR for the detection of C. difficile in fecal samples from hospitalized patients. The most optimal condition was the non-selective enrichment at 37 °C for 1 h in brain heart infusion broth supplemented with taurocholate, followed by the multiplex PCR. The detection limit after sample processing was shown as being 5 spores per gram of fecal sample. Two hundred and thirty-eight fecal samples collected from the University affiliated hospital were analyzed by the enrichment multiplex PCR procedure. The results suggested that the combination of sample processing with the high-performance detection method would be applicable for routine diagnostic use in clinical setting.


Assuntos
Clostridioides difficile/isolamento & purificação , Infecção Hospitalar/diagnóstico , Diarreia/diagnóstico , Enterocolite Pseudomembranosa/diagnóstico , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Multiplex , Clostridioides difficile/patogenicidade , Infecção Hospitalar/microbiologia , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Diarreia/microbiologia , Enterocolite Pseudomembranosa/microbiologia , Fezes/microbiologia , Humanos , Esporos Bacterianos/isolamento & purificação
11.
Microb Biotechnol ; 5(5): 607-20, 2012 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22613192

RESUMO

The three most common pathogenic species of Vibrio, Vibrio cholerae, Vibrio parahaemolyticus and Vibrio vulnificus, are of major concerns due to increased incidence of water- and seafood-related outbreaks and illness worldwide. Current methods are lengthy and require biochemical and molecular confirmation. A novel label-free forward light-scattering sensor was developed to detect and identify colonies of these three pathogens in real time in the presence of other vibrios in food or water samples. Vibrio colonies grown on agar plates were illuminated by a 635 nm laser beam and scatter-image signatures were acquired using a CCD (charge-coupled device) camera in an automated BARDOT (BActerial Rapid Detection using Optical light-scattering Technology) system. Although a limited number of Vibrio species was tested, each produced a unique light-scattering signature that is consistent from colony to colony. Subsequently a pattern recognition system analysing the collected light-scatter information provided classification in 1-2 min with an accuracy of 99%. The light-scattering signatures were unaffected by subjecting the bacteria to physiological stressors: osmotic imbalance, acid, heat and recovery from a viable but non-culturable state. Furthermore, employing a standard sample enrichment in alkaline peptone water for 6 h followed by plating on selective thiosulphate citrate bile salts sucrose agar at 30°C for ∼ 12 h, the light-scattering sensor successfully detected V. cholerae, V. parahaemolyticus and V. vulnificus present in oyster or water samples in 18 h even in the presence of other vibrios or other bacteria, indicating the suitability of the sensor as a powerful screening tool for pathogens on agar plates.


Assuntos
Técnicas Bacteriológicas/métodos , Vibrio cholerae/isolamento & purificação , Vibrio parahaemolyticus/isolamento & purificação , Vibrio vulnificus/isolamento & purificação , Ágar , Meios de Cultura/química , DNA Bacteriano/química , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Luz , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Fatores de Tempo , Microbiologia da Água
12.
Gene ; 489(2): 76-85, 2011 Dec 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21939744

RESUMO

The translocation of proteins across the bacterial cell wall is carried out by the general secretory (Sec) system. Most bacteria have a single copy of the secA gene, with the exception of a few Gram-positive bacteria, which have an additional copy of secA, designated secA2. secA2 is present in Listeria monocytogenes and is responsible for secretion and translocation of several proteins including virulence factors; however, little is known about the secA2 gene and its genetic organization in nonpathogenic members of the genus Listeria. The goal of this study was to determine the presence of secA2 locus and analyze the genetic relatedness among pathogenic and nonpathogenic Listeria species. Cloning experiments revealed that secA2 is present in all analyzed pathogenic (L. monocytogenes and L. ivanovii) and nonpathogenic (L. welshimeri, L. innocua, L. seeligeri, L. grayi and L. marthii) Listeria species except L. rocourtiae. Likewise, SecA2 transcripts were also detected in all species. Sequence analysis further revealed that 2331 nucleotides (776 amino acids) are conserved in L. monocytogenes, L. welshimeri, L. innocua and L. marthii. Three nucleotides are deleted in L. ivanovii and L. seeligeri and six in L. grayi, resulting in amino acid counts of 775, 775 and 774, respectively. secA2 is flanked upstream by iap (encoding p60) and downstream by a putative membrane protein (lmo0583, lmo f2365_0613) in all analyzed Listeria species, demonstrating conserved genetic organization of the secA2 locus in pathogenic and nonpathogenic species. Deletion of secA2 in L. innocua impaired accumulation of SecA2 substrate, N-acetyl muramidase (NamA) in the cell wall, providing evidence for the presence of functional SecA2 in nonpathogenic Listeria.


Assuntos
Adenosina Trifosfatases/genética , Adenosina Trifosfatases/metabolismo , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Listeria/genética , Proteínas de Membrana Transportadoras/genética , Proteínas de Membrana Transportadoras/metabolismo , Adenosina Trifosfatases/química , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Proteínas de Bactérias/química , Sequência de Bases , Parede Celular/metabolismo , Primers do DNA , Variação Genética , Listeria/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Listeria/patogenicidade , Proteínas de Membrana Transportadoras/química , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Muramidase/metabolismo , Canais de Translocação SEC , Proteínas SecA , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Deleção de Sequência
13.
Biotechnol Bioeng ; 108(3): 637-44, 2011 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21246511

RESUMO

Label-free microcolony identification via elastic light scattering was investigated for three different genera: Salmonella enterica serovar Montevideo, Listeria monocytogenes F4244, and Escherichia coli DH5α. Microcolonies were defined as bacterial colonies in their late-lag phase to early-exponential phase with the diameter range of 100-200 µm. To link biophysical characteristics with corresponding scattering patterns, a phase contrast microscope and a confocal displacement meter were used to measure the colony diameter and its 3D height profile. The results indicated that the growth characteristics of microcolonies were encoded in their morphologies which correlated to the characteristic diffraction patterns. Proposed methodology was able to classify three genera based on comprehensive phenotypic map which incorporated growth speed, ring count, and colony diameter. While the proposed method illustrated the possibility of discriminating microcolonies in their early growth stage, more thorough biophysical understanding is needed to expand the technology to other species.


Assuntos
Técnicas Bacteriológicas/métodos , Escherichia coli/classificação , Listeria monocytogenes/classificação , Microscopia de Contraste de Fase/métodos , Salmonella enterica/classificação , Escherichia coli/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Luz , Listeria monocytogenes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Salmonella enterica/crescimento & desenvolvimento
14.
J Biophotonics ; 4(4): 236-43, 2011 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20549773

RESUMO

Morphology of colonies is important for taxonomy and diagnostics in microbiology where the response to environmental factors is sensitive enough to support discrimination. In this research, we analyzed the forward scattering patterns of individual Escherichia coli K12 colonies when agar hardness and nutrition levels were varied from the control sample. As the agar concentration increased from 1.2% to 1.8%, the diameter of the forward scattering patterns also increased for the same experimental condition which reflects that the colony thickness at the apex is greater for increased agar concentrations. Regarding nutrition, increasing dextrose resulted in smaller mean colony diameters while the mean diameters of the colonies were proportional to the yeast extract concentration up to 0.5%. The result reveals that ±0.3% agar concentration from the control sample is sufficient to create variations in the scattering patterns. For nutrition -0.25% of yeast extract showed significant variations while +0.25% from control sample showed minimal variations.


Assuntos
Contagem de Colônia Microbiana/métodos , Meios de Cultura/química , Escherichia coli K12/citologia , Espalhamento de Radiação , Ágar/química , Escherichia coli K12/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Escherichia coli K12/metabolismo , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
15.
J Biomed Opt ; 15(4): 045001, 2010.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20799796

RESUMO

Bacterial colonies play an important role in the isolation and identification of bacterial species, and plating on a petri dish is still regarded as the gold standard for confirming the cause of an outbreak situation. A bacterial colony consists of millions of densely packed individual bacteria along with matrices such as extracellular materials. When a laser is directed through a colony, complicated structures encode their characteristic signatures, which results in unique forward scattering patterns. We investigate the connection between the morphological parameters of a bacterial colony and corresponding forward scattering patterns to understand bacterial growth morphology. A colony elevation is modeled with a Gaussian profile, which is defined with two critical parameters: center thickness and diameter. Then, applying the scalar diffraction theory, we compute an amplitude modulation via light attenuation from multiple layers of bacteria while a phase modulation is computed from the colony profile. Computational results indicate that center thickness plays a critical role in the total number of diffraction rings while the magnitude of the slope of a colony determines the maximum diffraction angle. Experimental validation is performed by capturing the scattering patterns, monitoring colony diameters via phase contrast microscope, and acquiring the colony profiles via confocal displacement meter.


Assuntos
Carga Bacteriana/instrumentação , Fenômenos Fisiológicos Bacterianos , Modelos Biológicos , Nefelometria e Turbidimetria/instrumentação , Refratometria/instrumentação , Simulação por Computador , Desenho de Equipamento , Análise de Falha de Equipamento , Luz , Espalhamento de Radiação
16.
Microbiology (Reading) ; 156(Pt 9): 2782-2795, 2010 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20507888

RESUMO

Listeria adhesion protein (LAP), an alcohol acetaldehyde dehydrogenase (lmo1634), interacts with host-cell receptor Hsp60 to promote bacterial adhesion during the intestinal phase of Listeria monocytogenes infection. The LAP homologue is present in pathogens (L. monocytogenes, L. ivanovii) and non-pathogens (L. innocua, L. welshimeri, L. seeligeri); however, its role in non-pathogens is unknown. Sequence analysis revealed 98 % amino acid similarity in LAP from all Listeria species. The N-terminus contains acetaldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) and the C-terminus an alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH). Recombinant LAP from L. monocytogenes, L. ivanovii, L. innocua and L. welshimeri exhibited ALDH and ADH activities, and displayed strong binding affinity (K(D) 2-31 nM) towards Hsp60. Flow cytometry, ELISA and immunoelectron microscopy revealed more surface-associated LAP in pathogens than non-pathogens. Pathogens exhibited significantly higher adhesion (P<0.05) to Caco-2 cells than non-pathogens; however, pretreatment of bacteria with Hsp60 caused 47-92 % reduction in adhesion only in pathogens. These data suggest that biochemical properties of LAP from pathogenic Listeria are similar to those of the protein from non-pathogens in many respects, such as substrate specificity, immunogenicity, and binding affinity to Hsp60. However, protein fractionation analysis of extracts from pathogenic and non-pathogenic Listeria species revealed that LAP was greatly reduced in intracellular and cell-surface protein fractions, and undetectable in the extracellular milieu of non-pathogens even though the lap transcript levels were similar for both. Furthermore, a LAP preparation from L. monocytogenes restored adhesion in a lap mutant (KB208) of L. monocytogenes but not in L. innocua, indicating possible lack of surface reassociation of LAP molecules in this bacterium. Taken together, these data suggest that LAP expression level, cell-surface localization, secretion and reassociation are responsible for LAP-mediated pathogenicity and possibly evolved to adapt to a parasitic life cycle in the host.


Assuntos
Adesinas Bacterianas/metabolismo , Álcool Desidrogenase/metabolismo , Aldeído Oxirredutases/metabolismo , Aderência Bacteriana , Enterócitos/microbiologia , Listeria monocytogenes/enzimologia , Listeria monocytogenes/patogenicidade , Listeriose/microbiologia , Adesinas Bacterianas/genética , Álcool Desidrogenase/genética , Células CACO-2 , Humanos , Listeria/enzimologia , Listeria/genética , Listeria/patogenicidade , Listeria/fisiologia , Listeria monocytogenes/genética , Listeria monocytogenes/fisiologia
17.
Biosens Bioelectron ; 24(6): 1685-92, 2009 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18945607

RESUMO

Technologies for rapid detection and classification of bacterial pathogens are crucial for securing the food supply. This report describes a light-scattering sensor capable of real-time detection and identification of colonies of multiple pathogens without the need for a labeling reagent or biochemical processing. Bacterial colonies consisting of the progeny of a single parent cell scatter light at 635 nm to produce unique forward-scatter signatures. Zernike moment invariants and Haralick descriptors aid in feature extraction and construction of the scatter-signature image library. The method is able to distinguish bacterial cultures at the genus and species level for Listeria, Staphylococcus, Salmonella, Vibrio, and Escherichia with an accuracy of 90-99% for samples derived from food or experimentally infected animal. Varied amounts of exopolysaccharide produced by the bacteria causes changes in phase modulation distributions, resulting in strikingly different scatter signatures. With the aid of a robust database the method can potentially detect and identify any bacteria colony essentially instantaneously. Unlike other methods, it does not destroy the sample, but leaves it intact for other confirmatory testing, if needed, for forensic or outbreak investigations.


Assuntos
Técnicas Biossensoriais/instrumentação , Contagem de Colônia Microbiana/instrumentação , Refratometria/instrumentação , Desenho de Equipamento , Análise de Falha de Equipamento , Luz , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Espalhamento de Radiação , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Coloração e Rotulagem
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