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1.
J Pediatr Ophthalmol Strabismus ; : 1-5, 2021 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34592869

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To study the refractive outcome in preterm infants with and without retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) in a tertiary care hospital in North India. METHODS: This prospective study was conducted on 300 consecutive premature infants with a birth weight of 2 kg or less and a gestational age of 34 weeks or less at birth. The infants were divided into three groups (no ROP, spontaneously regressed ROP, and laser-treated ROP) and were followed up at 1 year of age to assess the presence and type of refractive error in each group. RESULTS: The refractive error data were available for 277 neonates (554 eyes). On cycloplegic retinoscopy at 1 year of follow-up, the incidence of myopia was 12.29%, 29.55%, and 48.83% in all three groups, respectively, being most common in the laser-treated group, and the values were statistically significant (P < .05). Moreover, high myopia was most prevalent in the laser-treated group (23.25%). A correlation between birth weight and gestational age with spherical equivalent showed that a low birth weight and a low gestational age are more commonly found in infants with a more negative spherical equivalent. CONCLUSIONS: Infants with laser-treated ROP have a higher incidence of myopia than those with spontaneously regressed ROP or no ROP. [J Pediatr Ophthalmol Strabismus. 20XX;X(X):XX-XX.].

2.
BMJ Open Qual ; 10(Suppl 1)2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34344746

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Unintended pregnancies have a negative impact on the health and economy of a nation, which can be prevented by effective family planning (FP) services. Postpartum intrauterine device (PPIUCD) is a safe and effective FP method which allows women to obtain long-acting contraception before discharge from the point of delivery. We observed poor coverage of deliveries with PPIUCD at our facility. This was the trigger to initiate a quality improvement (QI) initiative to increase the PPIUCD coverage from current rate of 4.5%-10% in 3-month period. METHOD: A fishbone analysis of the problem was done and the following causes were identified: lack of focused counselling for FP, lack of sensitisation and training of resident doctors and inconsistent supply of intrauterine contraceptive devices (IUCDs). A QI team was constituted with representatives from faculty members, residents, interns, nursing officers and FP counsellors. The point of care quality improvement methodology was used. INTERVENTIONS: Daily counselling of antenatal women was started by the counsellors and interns in antenatal wards. A WhatsApp group of residents was made initially to sensitise them; and later for parking of problems and trouble shooting. The residents were provided hands-on training at skills lab. Uninterrupted supply of IUCDs was ensured by provision of buffer stock of IUCDs with respective store keepers. RESULT: The PPIUCD insertion rates improved from 4.5% to 19.2% at 3 months and have been sustained to a current 30%-35% after 1 ½ years of initiation of the project tiding through the turbulence during the COVID-19 pandemic using QI techniques. CONCLUSION: Sensitisation and training of residents as well as creation of awareness among antenatal women through targeted counselling helped improve PPIUCD coverage at the facility. QI initiatives have the potential to facilitate effective implementation of the FP programmes by strategic utilisation of the resources.


Assuntos
Anticoncepção , Serviços de Planejamento Familiar , Dispositivos Intrauterinos , Período Pós-Parto , Melhoria de Qualidade , Adulto , COVID-19 , Anticoncepção/estatística & dados numéricos , Aconselhamento , Feminino , Pessoal de Saúde , Humanos , Índia , Pandemias , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde , Alta do Paciente , Gravidez
3.
PLoS One ; 16(4): e0248579, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33798227

RESUMO

Based on the discovery that the estrogen synthase aromatase (CYP19A1) is abundantly expressed in high- grade gliomas, the aromatase inhibitor, letrozole is being investigated in pre-clinical models as a novel agent against this malignancy. Here, we investigated the systemic and brain pharmacokinetics of letrozole following single and steady state dosing in both male and female Sprague-Dawley rats. Furthermore, we employed physiologically-based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) modeling to gain quantitative insights into the blood-brain barrier penetration of this drug. Letrozole (4 mg/kg) was administered intraperitoneally daily for 5 days (for males) and 11 days (for females) and intracerebral microdialysis was performed for brain extracellular fluid (ECF) collection simultaneously with venous blood sampling. Drug levels were measured using HPLC and non-compartmental analysis was conducted employing WinNonlin®. Simcyp animal simulator was used for conducting bottom-up PBPK approach incorporating the specified multi-compartment brain model. Overall, marked gender-specific differences in the systemic and brain pharmacokinetics of letrozole were observed. Letrozole clearance was much slower in female rats resulting in markedly higher plasma and brain drug concentrations. At steady state, the plasma AUC 0-24 was 103.0 and 24.8 µg*h/ml and brain ECF AUC 0-12 was 24.0 and 4.8 µg*h/ml in female and male rats, respectively. The PBPK model simulated brain concentration profiles were in close agreement with the observed profiles. While gender-specific differences in letrozole PK are not observed in the clinical setting, these findings will guide the dose optimization during pre-clinical investigations of this compound. The PBPK model will serve as an important clinical translational tool.


Assuntos
Inibidores da Aromatase/farmacocinética , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Letrozol/farmacocinética , Animais , Antineoplásicos/sangue , Antineoplásicos/farmacocinética , Inibidores da Aromatase/sangue , Feminino , Letrozol/sangue , Masculino , Modelos Biológicos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Caracteres Sexuais , Fatores Sexuais
4.
Hepatology ; 74(4): 1737-1749, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33704806

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: In patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB) infection, activation of toll-like receptor 8 may induce antiviral immunity and drive functional cure. Selgantolimod, a toll-like receptor 8 agonist, was evaluated in patients with CHB who were virally suppressed on oral antiviral treatment or viremic and not on oral antiviral treatment. APPROACH AND RESULTS: In this phase 1b study, patients were randomized 4:1 to receive either selgantolimod or placebo once weekly. Virally suppressed patients received either 1.5 mg (for 2 weeks) or 3 mg (for 2 weeks or 4 weeks). Viremic patients received 3 mg for 2 weeks. The primary endpoint was safety, as assessed by adverse events (AEs), laboratory abnormalities, and vital sign examination. Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic parameters were assessed by plasma analysis. A total of 38 patients (28 virally suppressed, 10 viremic) were enrolled from six sites in Australia, New Zealand, and South Korea. Twenty patients (53%) experienced an AE and 32 (84%) had laboratory abnormalities, all of which were mild or moderate in severity. The most common AEs were headache (32%), nausea (24%), and dizziness (13%). With a half-life of 5 hours, no accumulation of selgantolimod was observed with multiple dosing. Selgantolimod induced transient dose-dependent increases in serum cytokines, including IL-12p40 and IL-1RA, which are important for the expansion and activity of multiple T- cell subsets and innate immunity. CONCLUSION: Selgantolimod was safe and well-tolerated in virally suppressed and viremic patients with CHB and elicited cytokine responses consistent with target engagement. Further studies with longer durations of selgantolimod treatment are required to evaluate efficacy.

5.
Sci Adv ; 7(7)2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33568479

RESUMO

The lipogenic enzyme stearoyl CoA desaturase (SCD) plays a key role in tumor lipid metabolism and membrane architecture. SCD is often up-regulated and a therapeutic target in cancer. Here, we report the unexpected finding that median expression of SCD is low in glioblastoma relative to normal brain due to hypermethylation and unintentional monoallelic co-deletion with phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) in a subset of patients. Cell lines from this subset expressed undetectable SCD, yet retained residual SCD enzymatic activity. Unexpectedly, these lines evolved to survive independent of SCD through unknown mechanisms. Cell lines that escaped such genetic and epigenetic alterations expressed higher levels of SCD and were highly dependent on SCD for survival. Last, we identify that SCD-dependent lines acquire resistance through a previously unknown FBJ murine osteosarcoma viral oncogene homolog B (FOSB)-mediated mechanism. Accordingly, FOSB inhibition blunted acquired resistance and extended survival of tumor-bearing mice treated with SCD inhibitor.

6.
Int Orthop ; 44(4): 693-698, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31451848

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Sternoclavicular joint tuberculosis is rare and has been presented in literature with few sporadic case reports or small case series. Rarity of the condition, nonspecific symptoms, difficulty to visualise the area on X-rays, and minimal clinical signs make diagnosis of sternoclavicular tuberculosis extremely difficult. Delay in diagnosis is therefore the common feature of all presented reports in literature. We here present our experience of treating 19 cases of sternoclavicular tuberculosis at our centre. MATERIALS AND METHOD: This is an observational study from 2010 to 2017 in a tertiary care referral hospital. All patients with clinical tenderness of sternoclavicular joint and shoulder joint pain of over three week duration were subjected to MRI. Patients who showed radiological lesions (radiography/MRI) were subjected to core biopsy under image guidance. A total of 26 patients had biopsy confirmed sternoclavicular tuberculosis (TB) during this period. RESULTS: All patients had improvement in shoulder function after treatment completion. Mean CSS pre-treatment was 29 which improved to mean of 8 after 18 months of ATT. Eight patients had excellent results, seven good, three fair, and one patient poor result. High initial ESR, late commencement of ATT from initial symptoms, and surgery of the involved joint were considered poor prognostic factors. DISCUSSION: Sternoclavicular tuberculosis is a rare disease with controversial etiology. Both haematogenous spread through suprascapular artery and contiguous spread through latent disease in apical lungs has been postulated. Delay in diagnosis is common to most reports in literature. Early MRI is useful in diagnosis of the lesion. The treatment for sternoclavicular joint in literature is controversial with proponents of both surgery and conservative management. CONCLUSION: Primary sternoclavicular tuberculosis is rare condition and requires a high index of suspicion for an early diagnosis. A focused sternoclavicular MRI and early biopsy may help in timely diagnosis. Early commencement of ATT has overall good clinical and functional results.


Assuntos
Mycobacterium tuberculosis/genética , Articulação do Ombro/diagnóstico por imagem , Dor de Ombro/diagnóstico , Articulação Esternoclavicular/diagnóstico por imagem , Tuberculose Osteoarticular/diagnóstico , Adulto , Antituberculosos/uso terapêutico , Biópsia , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/isolamento & purificação , Estudos Prospectivos , Radiografia , Doenças Raras/diagnóstico , Doenças Raras/patologia , Resultado do Tratamento , Tuberculose Osteoarticular/tratamento farmacológico , Tuberculose Osteoarticular/patologia
7.
J Pregnancy ; 2019: 3849596, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30941218

RESUMO

In 1990, Institute of Medicine (IOM) recommended gestational weight gain (GWG) ranges for women in the United States primarily to improve infant birth weight. Changes in key aspects of reproductive health of women of child bearing age, a rising prevalence of obesity, and noncommunicable diseases prompted the revision of IOM guidelines in 2009. However, there is no such recommendation available for Asian women. This systematic review assesses the utility of IOM-2009 guidelines among Indian and other Asian pregnant women in terms of maternal and fetal outcomes. 624 citations were identified using PubMed and Google Scholar, out of which 13 were included. Prospective/retrospective studies of healthy Asian women with a singleton pregnancy which specifically examined fetal-maternal outcomes relative to IOM-2009 guidelines were included. Results. Majority of pregnant Indian women achieved less GWG than the recommendations whereas a mixed trend was noticed among the other Asian pregnant women. The most common fetal-maternal complications among the excessive GWG women were found to be macrosomia, large for gestational age and caesarean section followed by gestational diabetes and hypertension, whereas low birth weight, small for gestational age and preterm birth, was found to be associated with low GWG women. The findings highlight the need for appropriate GWG limits across the different body mass index levels specifically for Indians and other Asian population. However, there are not enough publications regarding the utility of IOM-2009 guidelines among the Indian and other Asian women. Thus, higher-quality researches are warranted in future to further validate the findings of the present review.


Assuntos
Ganho de Peso na Gestação , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Adolescente , Adulto , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático , Índice de Massa Corporal , Cesárea , Bases de Dados Bibliográficas , Diabetes Gestacional/etiologia , Diabetes Gestacional/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Macrossomia Fetal/etiologia , Macrossomia Fetal/prevenção & controle , Idade Gestacional , Humanos , Hipertensão Induzida pela Gravidez/etiologia , Hipertensão Induzida pela Gravidez/prevenção & controle , Recém-Nascido de Baixo Peso , Gravidez , Nascimento Prematuro/etiologia , Nascimento Prematuro/prevenção & controle , Adulto Jovem
8.
Cancer Chemother Pharmacol ; 83(1): 81-89, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30357450

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The aromatase inhibitor, letrozole, is being investigated in experimental animal models as a novel treatment for high-grade gliomas (HGGs). To facilitate optimal dosing for such studies, we evaluated the plasma and brain pharmacokinetics (PK) of letrozole in NOD-scid gamma (NSG) mice, which are frequently employed for assessing efficacy against patient-derived tumor cells. Furthermore, we evaluated the potential PK interactions between letrozole and temozolomide (TMZ) in Sprague-Dawley rats. METHODS: NSG mice were administered letrozole (8 mg/kg; i.p) as a single or multiple dose (b.i.d, 10 days). Brain tissue and blood samples were collected over 24 h. Letrozole and TMZ interaction study employed jugular vein-cannulated rats (three groups; TMZ alone, letrozole alone and TMZ + letrozole). Intracerebral microdialysis was performed for brain extracellular fluid (ECF) collection simultaneously with venous blood sampling. Drug levels were measured employing HPLC and PK analysis was conducted using Phoenix WinNonlin®. RESULTS: In NSG mice, peak plasma and brain tissue letrozole concentrations (Cmax) were 3-4 and 0.8-0.9 µg/ml, respectively. The elimination half-life was 2.6 h with minimal accumulation following multiple dosing. In the drug interaction study, no PK changes were evident when TMZ and letrozole were given in combination. For instance, peak plasma and brain ECF TMZ levels when given alone were 14.7 ± 1.1 and 4.6 ± 0.6 µg/ml, respectively, and 12.6 ± 2.4 and 3.4 ± 0.8 µg/ml, respectively, when given with letrozole. CONCLUSIONS: These results will guide the optimization of dosing regimen for further development of letrozole for HGG treatment.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Encefálicas/metabolismo , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Interações Medicamentosas , Glioma/metabolismo , Letrozol/farmacocinética , Temozolomida/farmacocinética , Animais , Antineoplásicos/farmacocinética , Antineoplásicos Alquilantes/farmacocinética , Neoplasias Encefálicas/sangue , Neoplasias Encefálicas/patologia , Feminino , Glioma/sangue , Glioma/patologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos NOD , Camundongos SCID , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Distribuição Tecidual
10.
J Pediatr Ophthalmol Strabismus ; 55(2): 122-127, 2018 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29131915

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To evaluate the visual and refractive outcomes in children 8 years of age or younger with corneal laceration and cataract following penetrating ocular injuries who underwent primary corneal tear repair followed within 1 to 8 weeks by early secondary cataract extraction. METHODS: This retrospective, non-comparative case series reviewed the admission and operative charts of children 8 years of age or younger (range: 3 to 8 years) who underwent corneal wound repair as the primary surgical procedure followed within 1 to 8 weeks by cataract extraction with intraocular lens implantation, with a minimum follow-up period of 6 months. The main outcome measures were best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) and refractive error as the spherical equivalent at the final follow-up visit. RESULTS: A total of 47 children (33 boys, 14 girls) were included. The mean age at the time of injury was 5.9 ± 2.2 years (range: 3 to 8 years). Follow-up periods ranged from 6 months to 3 years (median: 18 months). The mean time gap between the wound repair and cataract extraction was 5 weeks (range: 1 to 8 weeks). Approximately 36 (77%) eyes obtained BCVA better than 6/18. All but one eye achieved BCVA better than 6/60. The deviation from emmetropia was less than 1.00 diopter (D) in 23 (54%) eyes, 1.00 to 3.00 D in 15 (35%) eyes, and more than 3.00 D in 5 (12%) eyes. CONCLUSIONS: Early removal of cataract with intraocular lens implantation 1 to 8 weeks after the primary wound repair in young children with penetrating corneal injuries can result in excellent visual and refractive outcomes with early intervention and aggressive amblyopia treatment. [J Pediatr Ophthalmol Strabismus. 2018;55(2):122-127.].


Assuntos
Extração de Catarata/métodos , Catarata/etiologia , Lesões da Córnea/cirurgia , Ferimentos Oculares Penetrantes/cirurgia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/cirurgia , Refração Ocular/fisiologia , Acuidade Visual , Catarata/diagnóstico , Catarata/fisiopatologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Lesões da Córnea/complicações , Lesões da Córnea/diagnóstico , Ferimentos Oculares Penetrantes/complicações , Ferimentos Oculares Penetrantes/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Implante de Lente Intraocular/métodos , Cristalino/lesões , Cristalino/cirurgia , Masculino , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/diagnóstico , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/fisiopatologia , Reoperação , Estudos Retrospectivos , Ruptura , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
11.
Langmuir ; 33(51): 14709-14717, 2017 12 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29211482

RESUMO

Here, we present a controlled synthesis of Mn-doped ZnO nanoparticles (NPs) with predominantly nail-like shapes, whose formation occurs via tip-to-base-oriented attachment of initially formed nanopyramids, followed by leveling of sharp edges that lead to smooth single-crystalline "nails". This shape is prevalent in noncoordinating solvents such as octadecene and octadecane. Yet, the double bond in the former promotes oriented attachment. By contrast, Mn-doped ZnO NP synthesis in a weakly coordinating solvent, benzyl ether, results in dendritic structures because of random attachment of initial NPs. Mn-doped ZnO NPs possess a hexagonal wurtzite structure, and in the majority of cases, the NP surface is enriched with Mn, indicating a migration of Mn2+ ions to the NP surface during the NP formation. When the NP formation is carried out without the addition of octadecyl alcohol, which serves as a surfactant and a reaction initiator, large, concave pyramid dimers are formed whose attachment takes place via basal planes. UV-vis and photoluminescence spectra of these NPs confirm the utility of controlling the NP shape to tune electro-optical properties.

12.
Orig Life Evol Biosph ; 45(4): 411-26, 2015 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25952510

RESUMO

Earth is the only known planet bestowed with life. Several attempts have been made to explore the pathways of the origin of life on planet Earth. The search for the chemistry which gave rise to life has given answers related to the formation of biomonomers, and their adsorption on solid surfaces has gained much attention for the catalysis and stabilization processes related to the abiotic chemical evolution of the complex molecules of life. In this communication, surface interactions of L-leucine (Leu) on smectite (SMT) group of clay (viz. bentonite and montmorillonite) and their divalent metal ion (Mg(2+), Ca(2+) and Cu(2+)) incorporated on SMT has been studied to find the optimal conditions of time, pH, and concentration at ambient temperature (298 K). The progress of adsorption was followed spectrophotometrically and further characterized by FTIR, SEM/EDS and XRD. Leu, a neutral/non polar amino acid, was found to have more affinity in its zwitterionic form towards Cu(2+)- exchanged SMT and minimal affinity for Mg(2+)- exchanged SMT. The vibrational frequency shifts of -NH3 (+) and -COO(-) favor Van der Waal's forces during the course of surface interaction. Quantum calculations using density functional theory (DFT) have been applied to investigate the absolute value of metal ion affinities of Leu (Leu-M(2+) complex, M = Mg(2+), Ca(2+), Cu(2+)) with the help of their physico-chemical parameters. The hydration effect on the relative stability and geometry of the individual species of Leu-M(2+) × (H2O)n, (n =2 and 4) has also been evaluated within the supermolecule approach. Evidence gathered from investigations of surface interactions, divalent metal ions affinities and hydration effects with biomolecules may be important for better understanding of chemical evolution, the stabilization of biomolecules on solid surfaces and biomolecular-metal interactions. These results may have implications for understanding the origin of life and the preservation of biomarkers.


Assuntos
Evolução Química , Leucina/química , Metais/química , Modelos Teóricos , Silicatos/química , Adsorção , Cátions Bivalentes/química , Exobiologia
13.
BMC Plant Biol ; 15: 9, 2015 Jan 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25604693

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Brassica juncea var. Varuna is an economically important oilseed crop of family Brassicaceae which is vulnerable to abiotic stresses at specific stages in its life cycle. Till date no attempts have been made to elucidate genome-wide changes in its transcriptome against high temperature or drought stress. To gain global insights into genes, transcription factors and kinases regulated by these stresses and to explore information on coding transcripts that are associated with traits of agronomic importance, we utilized a combinatorial approach of next generation sequencing and de-novo assembly to discover B. juncea transcriptome associated with high temperature and drought stresses. RESULTS: We constructed and sequenced three transcriptome libraries namely Brassica control (BC), Brassica high temperature stress (BHS) and Brassica drought stress (BDS). More than 180 million purity filtered reads were generated which were processed through quality parameters and high quality reads were assembled de-novo using SOAPdenovo assembler. A total of 77750 unique transcripts were identified out of which 69,245 (89%) were annotated with high confidence. We established a subset of 19110 transcripts, which were differentially regulated by either high temperature and/or drought stress. Furthermore, 886 and 2834 transcripts that code for transcription factors and kinases, respectively, were also identified. Many of these were responsive to high temperature, drought or both stresses. Maximum number of up-regulated transcription factors in high temperature and drought stress belonged to heat shock factors (HSFs) and dehydration responsive element-binding (DREB) families, respectively. We also identified 239 metabolic pathways, which were perturbed during high temperature and drought treatments. Analysis of gene ontologies associated with differentially regulated genes forecasted their involvement in diverse biological processes. CONCLUSIONS: Our study provides first comprehensive discovery of B. juncea transcriptome under high temperature and drought stress conditions. Transcriptome resource generated in this study will enhance our understanding on the molecular mechanisms involved in defining the response of B. juncea against two important abiotic stresses. Furthermore this information would benefit designing of efficient crop improvement strategies for tolerance against conditions of high temperature regimes and water scarcity.


Assuntos
Produtos Agrícolas/economia , Produtos Agrícolas/genética , Secas , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Genes de Plantas , Mostardeira/genética , Estresse Fisiológico/genética , Temperatura , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Ontologia Genética , Anotação de Sequência Molecular , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Controle de Qualidade , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Análise de Sequência de RNA , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Transdução de Sinais/genética , Transcriptoma
14.
Br J Ophthalmol ; 98(10): 1424-8, 2014 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24879807

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cataracts are a major cause of childhood blindness globally. Although surgically treatable, it is unclear whether children would benefit from such interventions beyond the first few years of life, which are believed to constitute 'critical' periods for visual development. AIMS: To study visual acuity outcomes after late treatment of early-onset cataracts and also to determine whether there are longitudinal changes in postoperative acuity. METHODS: We identified 53 children with dense cataracts with an onset within the first half-year after birth through a survey of over 20,000 rural children in India. All had accompanying nystagmus and were older than 8 years of age at the time of treatment. They underwent bilateral cataract surgery and intraocular lens implantation. We then assessed their best-corrected visual acuity 6 weeks and 6 months after surgery. RESULTS: 48 children from the pool of 53 showed improvement in their visual acuity after surgery. Our longitudinal assessments demonstrated further improvements in visual acuity for the majority of these children proceeding from the 6-week to 6-month assessment. Interestingly, older children in our subject pool did not differ significantly from the younger ones in the extent of improvement they exhibit. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: Our results demonstrate that not only can significant vision be acquired until late in childhood, but that neural processes underlying even basic aspects of vision like resolution acuity remain malleable until at least adolescence. These data argue for the provision of cataract treatment to all children, irrespective of their age.


Assuntos
Extração de Catarata , Catarata/congênito , Implante de Lente Intraocular , Acuidade Visual/fisiologia , Adolescente , Idade de Início , Cegueira/reabilitação , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Tempo
15.
Photochem Photobiol Sci ; 13(6): 929-38, 2014 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24727943

RESUMO

In the present work we report the spectral and photophysical properties of 3-hydroxyisoquinoline in various protic/aprotic solvents. Our steady state and time resolved fluorescence data indicates that in the monomer form of 3HIQ phototautomerization can take place in the excited state through excited state intramolecular proton, while as per earlier suggestions phototautomerization in 3HIQ occurs in dimer or complex (in the presence of acetic acid) form. Moreover, we find rather slow tautomerization (occurring on the nanosecond scale). It is found that proton transfer occurs both in the ground as well as excited states and is controlled by the polarity of the solvent.

19.
Oman J Ophthalmol ; 6(3): 170-4, 2013 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24379551

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To evaluate the impact of low vision rehabilitation on functional vision of children with visual impairment. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The LV Prasad-Functional Vision Questionnaire, designed specifically to measure functional performance of visually impaired children of developing countries, was used to assess the level of difficulty in performing various tasks pre and post visual rehabilitation in children with documented visual impairment. Chi-square test was used to assess the impact of rehabilitation intervention on functional vision performance; a P < 0.05 was considered significant. RESULTS: LogMAR visual acuity prior to the introduction of low vision devices (LVDs) was 0.90 ± 0.05 for distance and for near it was 0.61 ± 0.05. After the intervention, the acuities improved significantly for distance (0.2 ± 0.27; P < 0.0001) and near (0.42 ± 0.17; P = 0.001). The most common reported difficulties were related to their academic activities like copying from the blackboard (80%), reading textbook at arm's length (77.2%), and writing along a straight line (77.2%). Absolute raw score of disability pre-LVD was 15.05 which improved to 7.58 post-LVD. An improvement in functional vision post visual rehabilitation was especially found in those activities related to their studying lifestyle like copying from the blackboard (P < 0.0001), reading textbook at arm's length (P < 0.0001), and writing along a straight line (P = 0.003). CONCLUSIONS: In our study group, there was a significant improvement in functional vision post visual rehabilitation, especially with those activities which are related to their academic output. It is important for these children to have an early visual rehabilitation to decrease the impairment associated with these decreased visual output and to enhance their learning abilities.

20.
Med J Armed Forces India ; 69(2): 151-5, 2013 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24600089

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Use of conjunctival autograft following excision of primary pterygium has reduced the recurrence rate. This study evaluates the efficiency of fibrin glue as compared to sutures in attaching the conjunctival autograft with reference to surgical time, post operative comfort and recurrence during follow up. METHODS: 60 patients with primary pterygium were included and divided into two groups. In the first group autograft was secured in place with help of 10-0 polyamide monofilament suture while in second group fibrin glue was used. Both the groups were compared in terms of operative time, post op comfort and recurrence. RESULTS: The average surgical time taken was 50.93 ± 4.96 min with suture group and 34.43 ± 4.94 min with fibrin glue group. Pain and foreign body sensation was markedly less with fibrin glue group. At the end of final follow up at 6 months, 3 cases (10%) from suture group and 1 case (3.33%) from fibrin group had recurrence. CONCLUSION: Fibrin glue is effective and safe for attaching conjunctival autograft during pterygium surgery. Although more number of recurrences were observed in suture group as compared to fibrin glue group the difference was not statistically significant (p 0.612).

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