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3.
Exp Gerontol ; : 110859, 2020 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32017952

RESUMO

Frailty is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD). Biomarkers have the potential to detect the early stages of frailty, such as pre-frailty. Myokines may act as biomarkers of frailty-related disease progression, as a decline in muscle health is a hallmark of the frailty phenotype. This study is a secondary analysis of 104 females 55 years of age or older with no previous history of CVD. Differences in systemic myokine concentrations based on frailty status and CVD risk profile were examined using a case-control design. Propensity matching identified two sets of 26 pairs with pre-frailty as the exposure variable in low or elevated CVD risk groups for a total 104 female participants. Frailty was assessed using the Fried Criteria (FC) and CVD risk was assessed using the Framingham Risk Score (FRS). Factorial ANOVA compared the main effects of frailty, CVD risk, and their interaction on the concentrations of 15 myokines. Differences were found when comparing elevated CVD risk status with low for the concentrations of EPO (384.76 ±â€¯1046.07 vs. 206.63 ±â€¯284.61 pg/mL, p = .001), FABP3 (2772.61 ±â€¯3297.86 vs. 1693.31 ±â€¯1019.34 pg/mL, p = .017), FGF21 (193.17 ±â€¯521.09 vs. 70.18 ±â€¯139.51 pg/mL, p = .010), IL-6 (1.73 ±â€¯4.97 vs. 0.52 ±â€¯0.89 pg/mL, p = .023), and IL-15 (2.62 ±â€¯10.56 vs. 0.92 ±â€¯1.25 pg/mL, p = .022). Pre-frail females had lower concentrations of fractalkine compared to robust (27.04 ±â€¯20.60 vs. 103.62 ±â€¯315.45 pg/mL, p = .004). Interaction effects between frailty status and CVD risk for FGF21 and OSM were identified. In elevated CVD risk, pre-frail females, concentrations of FGF21 and OSM were lower than that of elevated CVD risk, robust females (69.10 ±â€¯62.86 vs. 317.24 ±â€¯719.69, p = .011; 1.73 ±â€¯2.32 vs. 24.43 ±â€¯69.21, p = .018, respectively). These data identified specific biomarkers of CVD risk and biomarkers of frailty that are exacerbated with CVD risk.

5.
Ann Thorac Surg ; 109(2): 589-595, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31404547

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Thoracic Surgery Social Media Network (TSSMN) represents a collaborative effort of leading journals in cardiothoracic surgery to highlight publications via social media, specifically Twitter. We conducted a prospective randomized trial to determine the effect of scheduled tweeting on nontraditional bibliometrics of dissemination. METHODS: A total of 112 representative original articles (2017-2018) were selected and randomized 1:1 to an intervention group to be tweeted via TSSMN or a control (non-tweeted) group. Four articles per day were tweeted by TSSMN delegates for 14 days. Primary endpoints included change in article-level metrics (Altmetric) score pre-tweet and post-tweet compared with the control group. Secondary endpoints included change in Twitter analytics day 1 post-tweet and day 7 post-tweet for each article compared with baseline. RESULTS: Tweeting via TSSMN significantly improved article Altmetric scores (pre-tweet 1 vs post-tweet 8; P < .001), Mendeley reads (pre-tweet 1 vs post-tweet 3; P < .001), and Twitter impressions (day 1 post-tweet 1599 vs day 7 post-tweet 2296; P < .001). Subgroup analysis demonstrates that incorporating photos into the tweets trended toward increased link clicks to the full-text article (P = .08) whereas tweeting at 1 pm Eastern Standard Time and 9 pm Eastern Standard Time generated the highest and lowest audience reach (P = .022), respectively. Articles published in adult cardiac surgery achieved the highest change in Altmetric score (P = .028) and Mendeley reads (P = .028), and were more likely to be retweeted (P = .042) than were those published on education, general thoracic surgery, and congenital surgery. CONCLUSIONS: Social media highlights of scholarly literature via TSSMN Twitter activity improves article Altmetric scores, Mendeley reads, and Twitter analytics, with dissemination to a greater audience.

6.
Eur J Anaesthesiol ; 37(2): 121-131, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31860605

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Delirium is common in the ICU, with incidence rates reported to be upwards of 70%. Due to the significant morbidity and mortality associated with delirium, it is hypothesised that a delirium-free sedative agent will improve outcomes in older adults admitted to the ICU. OBJECTIVES: To assess if dexmedetomidine sedation is associated with a reduction in ICU delirium among older adults, and to evaluate its risks and benefits compared with propofol sedation. DESIGN: Systematic review of randomised controlled trials and cohort studies with meta-analyses. DATA SOURCES: Articles published from database inception to 8 April 2019 were retrieved from Medline, EMBASE, Evidence-based Medicine Reviews, International Pharmaceutical Abstracts, Scopus, ClinicalTrials.gov and WHO Trials. ELIGIBILITY: Studies were included if they compared dexmedetomidine sedation with propofol in the ICU, reported the incidence of delirium as an outcome and had a mean/median sample age of at least 60. Studies that examined dexmedetomidine and propofol use intra-operatively or as part of general anaesthesia were excluded. RESULTS: Dexmedetomidine sedation was associated with a lower incidence of delirium when compared with propofol: seven studies, n=1249; risk ratio 0.70; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.52 to 0.95; P = 0.02. There was no statistically significant difference in the incidence of bradycardia: three studies, n=278; risk ratio 1.52; 95% CI 0.85 to 2.72; P = 0.16, and hypotension: six studies, n=867 patients; risk ratio 1.12; 95% CI 0.86 to 1.45; P = 0.42. Dexmedetomidine sedation did not reduce hospital length of stay, ICU length of stay or duration of mechanical ventilation compared with propofol. CONCLUSION: Compared with propofol, dexmedetomidine sedation in the ICU is associated with lower delirium incidence among older adults with no significant increase in adverse events. In older adult ICU patients at risk of developing delirium, sedation with dexmedetomidine should be considered. Further research is warranted to elucidate and explain the mechanisms underlying this process, and to confirm our findings with large, multicentre trials. TRIAL REGISTRATION: The study protocol has been registered in PROSPERO (CRD42018099339).

8.
Arch Gerontol Geriatr ; 87: 103972, 2019 Nov 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31739110

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the sex-difference in relation to the association between moderate-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and sedentary time (ST) patterns with frailty. METHOD: Accelerometry from ≥50 year olds from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2003-04/2005-06 cycles) were included. Bouted and sporadic MVPA were defined as MVPA in ≥10 min or <10 min durations, respectively. MVPA was analyzed based on meeting 0 %, 1-49 %, 50-99 %, and ≥100 % of the physical activity guidelines of 150 min/week. A duration of ≥30 minutes defined prolonged ST. The frequency (≥1 min interruption in ST), intensity and duration of breaks from ST were calculated. A 46-item frailty index (FI) quantified frailty. Multivariable linear regression models adjusted for demographics, total sedentary time, and accelerometer wear time. RESULTS: There were 1143 females and 1174 males available for analysis. Bouted MVPA was associated with lower frailty levels; the association peaked at meeting 50-99 % of the guidelines in females and ≥1.0 % in males (p = NS for sex-interaction). Meeting a higher proportion of the guidelines through sporadic MVPA was significantly associated with a lower FI in males only (p = NS for sex-interaction). Prolonged ST bouts were associated with worse frailty in females but not males (p < 0.05 sex-interaction). Average break intensity was associated with a lower FI in both sexes, whereas, total sedentary breaks were not (p = NS for sex-interaction). Average break duration was associated with frailty in males (p = NS for sex-interaction). CONCLUSION: Prolonged ST was more detrimentally associated with frailty in females than males, which could influence tailored movement prescriptions and guidelines.

9.
Clin Geriatr Med ; 35(4): 571-585, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31543187

RESUMO

The wait before elective cardiac intervention or surgery presents an opportunity to prevent further physiologic decline preoperatively in older patients. Implementation of prehabilitation programs decreases length of hospital stay postoperatively, decreases time spent in the intensive care unit, decreases postoperative complications, and improves self-reported quality of life postsurgery. Prehabilitation programs should adopt multimodal approaches including nutrition, exercise, and worry reduction to improve patient resilience in the preoperative period. High-quality research in larger cohorts is needed, and interventions focusing on underrepresented frailer populations and women. Creative ways to improve accessibility, adherence, and benefits received from prehabilitation should be explored.

11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31486571

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The aims of this single-center retrospective study were to characterize and determine predictors of 30-day survival in a cohort of patients requiring venoarterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (VA-ECMO) supported cardiopulmonary resuscitation (E-CPR) in the cardiac catheterization laboratory (CCL) for cardiac arrest (CA) or refractory cardiogenic shock (CS). BACKGROUND: While safety in the CCL has improved, periprocedural mortality from CA remains high. The application of VA-ECMO is an emerging form of resuscitation with a paucity of data evaluating its use in the CCL for CA or CS. METHODS: All consecutive patients aged 18 years or older presenting to a single CCL from October 2010 to May 2018 who required E-CPR for CA or refractory CS were included. The primary outcome of our study was overall survival 30 days from VA-ECMO initiation. Secondary outcomes included 1-year survival, hospital length of stay, and ECMO related complications. RESULTS: Sixty-two patients with a mean age of 60 ± 9 years, 63% male, were included. VA-ECMO was initiated for CA in 39 patients (63%) and for CS in 23 patients (37%). The median ECMO duration was 48 hr. Overall 30-day survival was 47% (CA group 44% vs. CS group 52%; p = .414). One-year survival was 44%. Initial serum creatinine (OR 1.18 per 10 µmol/L increase; p = .016; AUC = 0.65) was the only multivariate predictor of 30-day mortality. CONCLUSIONS: The use of VA-ECMO in the CCL is feasible, demonstrating 47% 30-day survival, largely persistent to 1 year, in a cohort that otherwise has extremely high mortality.

12.
Ann Thorac Surg ; 2019 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31421102

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Intensive care unit (ICU) structure and intensive care physician staffing (IPS) models are thought to influence outcomes after cardiac surgery. Given limited information on staffing in the cardiothoracic ICU, The Society of Thoracic Surgeons Workforce on Critical Care undertook a survey to describe current IPS models. We hypothesized that variability would exist throughout the United States. METHODS: A survey was sent to The Society of Thoracic Surgeons centers in the United States. Center case volume, ICU census, procedure profiles, and the primary specialties of consultants were queried. Definitions of IPS models were open (managed by cardiac surgeons), closed (all decisions made by dedicated intensivists 7 days a week), or semiopen (intensivist attends 5-7 days a week with surgeons cosharing management). Experience level of bedside providers and after-hours provider coverage were also assessed. RESULTS: Of the 965 centers contacted, 148 (15.3%) completed surveys. Approximately 41% of reporting centers used a dedicated cardiothoracic ICU for immediate postoperative management. The most common IPS model was open (47%), followed by semiopen (41%) and closed (12%). The primary specialties of intensivists varied, with pulmonary medicine/critical care being predominant (67%). Physician assistants were the most common after-hours provider (44%). More than one-third of responding centers described having no house staff, other than bedside nurses, for nighttime coverage. CONCLUSIONS: Cardiothoracic ICU models vary widely in the United States, with almost half being open, often with no in-house coverage. In-house nighttime coverage was (1) not driven by case complexity and (2) most commonly provided by a physician assistant. Clinical outcomes associated with different ISPS models require further evaluation.

14.
Can J Anaesth ; 66(7): 781-794, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31168769

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Disruptive intraoperative behaviour ranges from incivility to abuse. This behaviour can have deleterious effects on clinicians, students, institutions, and patients. Previous investigations of this behaviour used underdeveloped tools or small sampling frames. We therefore examined the prevalence and predictors of perceived exposure to disruptive behaviour in a multinational sample of operating room clinicians. METHODS: A total of 134 perioperative associations in seven countries were asked to distribute a survey examining five types of exposure to disruptive behaviour: personal, directed toward patients, directed toward colleagues, directed toward others, or undirected. To compare the average amount of exposure with each type, we used a Friedman's test with select post hoc Wilcoxon tests. A negative binomial regression model identified socio-demographic predictors of personal exposure. RESULTS: Of the 134 organizations approached, 23 (17%) complied. The total response rate was estimated to be 7.6% (7465/101,624). Almost all (97.0%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 96.6 to 97.4) of the respondents reported exposure to disruptive behaviour in the past year, with the average respondent experiencing 61 incidents per year (95% CI, 57 to 65). Groups reporting higher personal exposure included clinicians who were young, inexperienced, female, non-heterosexual, working as nurses, or working in clinics with private funding (all P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: Perceived exposure to disruptive behaviour was prevalent and frequent, with the most common behaviours involving speaking ill of clinicians and patients. These perceptions, whether accurate or not, can result in detrimental consequences. Greater efforts are required to eliminate disruptive intraoperative behaviour, with recognition that specific groups are more likely to report experiencing such behaviours.

19.
JAMA Surg ; 2019 May 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31054241

RESUMO

Enhanced Recovery After Surgery (ERAS) evidence-based protocols for perioperative care can lead to improvements in clinical outcomes and cost savings. This article aims to present consensus recommendations for the optimal perioperative management of patients undergoing cardiac surgery. A review of meta-analyses, randomized clinical trials, large nonrandomized studies, and reviews was conducted for each protocol element. The quality of the evidence was graded and used to form consensus recommendations for each topic. Development of these recommendations was endorsed by the Enhanced Recovery After Surgery Society.

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