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1.
Am J Gastroenterol ; 2020 Feb 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32079861

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Beta-blockers are the mainstay agents for portal pressure reduction and to modestly reduce hepatic venous pressure gradient (HVPG). We studied whether addition of simvastatin to carvedilol in cirrhotic patients for primary prophylaxis improves the hemodynamic response. METHODS: Cirrhotic patients with esophageal varices and with baseline HVPG > 12 mm Hg were prospectively randomized for primary prophylaxis to receive either carvedilol (group A, n = 110) or carvedilol plus simvastatin (group B, n = 110). Primary objective was to compare hemodynamic response (HVPG reduction of ≥20% or <12 mm Hg) at 3 months, and secondary objectives were to compare first bleed episodes, death, and adverse events. RESULTS: The groups were comparable at baseline. The proportion of patients achieving HVPG response at 3 months was comparable between groups (group A-36/62 [58.1%], group B-36/59 [61%], P = 0.85). The degree of mean HVPG reduction (17.3% and 17.8%, respectively, P = 0.98) and hemodynamic response (odds ratio [OR]: 0.88; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.43-1.83, P = 0.74) was also not different between the groups. Patients who achieved target heart rate with no hypotensive episodes in either group showed better hemodynamic response (77.8% vs 59.2%, P = 0.04). Failure to achieve target heart rate (OR: 0.48; 95% CI: 0.22-1.06) and Child C cirrhosis (OR: 4.49; 95% CI: 1.20-16.8) predicted nonresponse. Three (3.7%) patients on simvastatin developed transient transaminitis and elevated creatine phosphokinase and improved with drug withdrawal. Two patients in each group bled (P = 0.99). Three patients and 1 patient, respectively, in group A and B died (P = 0.32), with sepsis being the cause of death. DISCUSSION: Addition of simvastatin to carvedilol for 3 months for primary prophylaxis of variceal bleeding does not improve hemodynamic response over carvedilol monotherapy. Simvastatin usage should be closely monitored for adverse effects in Child C cirrhotic patients.

2.
Hepatology ; 71(2): 600-610, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30076614

RESUMO

Hepatorenal syndrome (HRS) carries a high short-term mortality in patients with cirrhosis and acute on chronic liver failure (ACLF). Terlipressin and noradrenaline are routinely used in cirrhosis with HRS and have been found to be equally effective. There are no data comparing the efficacy of terlipressin with noradrenaline in ACLF patients with HRS. In an open-label, randomized controlled trial (RCT), consecutive patients with ACLF diagnosed with HRS acute kidney injury (AKI) were randomized to albumin with infusion of terlipressin (2-12 mg/day; n = 60) or noradrenaline (0.5-3.0 mg/h; n = 60). Response to treatment, course of AKI, and outcome were studied. Baseline characteristics, including AKI stage and sepsis-related HRS-AKI, were comparable between groups. Compared to noradrenaline, terlipressin achieved greater day 4 (26.1% vs. 11.7%; P = 0.03) and day 7 (41.7% vs. 20%; P = 0.01) response. Reversal of HRS was also better with terlipressin (40% vs. 16.7%; P = 0.004), with a significant reduction in the requirement of renal replacement therapy (RRT; 56.6% vs. 80%; P = 0.006) and improved 28-day survival (48.3% vs. 20%; P = 0.001). Adverse events limiting use of drugs were higher with terlipressin than noradrenaline (23.3% vs. 8.3%; P = 0.02), but were reversible. On multivariate analysis, high Model for End-Stage Liver Disease (MELD; odds ratio [OR], 1.10; confidence interval [CI] = 1.009-1.20; P = 0.03) and noradrenaline compared to terlipressin (OR, 3.05; CI = 1.27-7.33; P = 0.01) predicted nonresponse to therapy. Use of noradrenaline compared to terlipressin was also predictive of higher mortality (hazard ratio [HR], 2.08; CI = 1.32-3.30; P = 0.002). Conclusion: AKI in ACLF carries a high mortality. Infusion of terlipressin gives earlier and higher response than noradrenaline, with improved survival in ACLF patients with HRS-AKI.

3.
Diagn Cytopathol ; 48(1): 66-70, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31432610

RESUMO

Juvenile xanthogranuloma (JXG) is a rare type of non-Langerhan cell histiocytic disorder, which is mostly confined to skin of head and neck. It is a self-limiting benign condition, which does not require surgery. We present a case of 8-month-old girl child with multiple yellowish brown colored papules over scalp, face, and neck. A clinical diagnosis of cutaneous mastocytosis was made. Fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) smears showed foamy macrophages along with mixed inflammatory infiltrate and few touton giant cells. A diagnosis of JXG was rendered which was confirmed on histopathology and immunohistochemistry.Juvenile xanthogranuloma can be diagnosed on FNAC based on its characteristic cytologic features; however, it requires a high index of suspicion by cytopathologist. Cytological diagnosis of JXG can save the patient from unnecessary surgical biopsy or excision.

4.
Hepatology ; 2019 Dec 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31849085

RESUMO

Paracentesis-induced circulatory dysfunction (PICD) is a serious complication of large-volume (>5 L) paracentesis in cirrhosis and is reduced with albumin infusion. There is a lack of data on PICD in acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF). Because ACLF patients have greater hemodynamic derangements than patients with decompensated cirrhosis, we investigated whether PICD could develop with modest-volume paracentesis (MVP) and the role of albumin infusion. A total of 80 ACLF patients undergoing <5 L paracentesis were randomized to receive albumin (8-10 g/L of ascitic fluid; n = 40) or no albumin (n = 40) and were serially followed to detect PICD. Baseline characteristics were comparable between groups, including volume of ascitic tap (4.16 ± 0.23 vs. 4.14 ± 0.27 L; P = 0.72) and plasma renin activity (PRA) (20.5 ± 7.03 vs. 23.2 ± 8.24 ng/mL/hour; P = 0.12). PICD was more frequent in the no-albumin group than the albumin group (70% vs. 30%; P = 0.001), with higher incidence of hepatic encephalopathy (50% vs. 27.5%; P = 0.04), hyponatremia (67.5% vs. 22.5%; P < 0.001), acute kidney injury (62.5% vs. 30%; P = 0.001), and in-house mortality (62.5% vs. 27.5%; P = 0.003). PRA of 25.15 ng/mL at day 3 had sensitivity and specificity of 71% and 68% for development of PICD at day 6. Albumin infusion decreased the incidence of PICD at day six (odds ratio, 0.068; 95% confidence interval, 0.011-0.43; P = 0.005). Conclusion: PICD is common and develops even with MVP in ACLF patients. Albumin infusion decreases the incidence of PICD and mortality in ACLF patients.

6.
Skin Appendage Disord ; 5(3): 158-161, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31049338

RESUMO

Lichen nitidus (LN) is a chronic inflammatory condition characterised by multiple asymptomatic shiny, flat-topped, pale to skin-coloured tiny papules. LN occurs most often in children and young adults with limbs, abdomen, chest, and penile shaft as common sites of predilection. Nail involvement is rare and includes irregular longitudinal grooving and ridging of the nail plate. We report two cases of generalised LN with nail dystrophy in 8- and 12-year-old boys along with the treatment response and review the pertinent literature.

7.
Diagn Cytopathol ; 47(8): 769-775, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31021536

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) plays a pivotal role in evaluating salivary gland (SG) tumors. Several studies have shown diagnostic utility of MILAN system for reporting salivary gland cytopathology (MSRSGC) by examining risk of malignancy but only an occasional study has focused on interobserver variability. Hence, the present study was undertaken to assess the agreement among cytopathologists with varying experience in SG cytopathology using MSRSGC and to re-evaluate discordant cytohistological diagnoses for possible causes of misinterpretation. METHODS: All SG lesions subjected to FNAC over a period of 3½ years were studied. The cases were critically reviewed by 2 pathologists with variable experience in cytopathology using MSRSGC and concordance level among them was calculated. Cytohistological discordant diagnoses were reclassified and possible causes of misinterpretation during routine reporting were evaluated. RESULTS: Of 150 SG aspirates categorized according to MSRSGC, diagnostic disagreement between 2 pathologists was found in 10. Unweighted Cohen's Kappa score between consultant and resident was 0.812 (high). Among 55 cases with histological correlation, cytohistological discordance was seen in 12. True pitfalls constituted 50% of discordant cases while rest 50% were attributed to practical issues (turnaround time and heavy case load) during routine reporting. CONCLUSION: MSRSGC can be used with good reproducibility between observers with variable cytopathology experience. Heterogeneous nature of SG neoplasm is a known pitfall in FNA diagnosis of SG neoplasms. During routine reporting turnaround time, heavy case load and reporting by cytopathologists with variable experience add on to challenges faced in reporting cytopathology of SG neoplasm.


Assuntos
Citodiagnóstico/métodos , Implementação de Plano de Saúde , Relatório de Pesquisa , Glândulas Salivares/patologia , Biópsia por Agulha Fina , Humanos , Variações Dependentes do Observador , Patologistas
9.
J Clin Gastroenterol ; 53(6): e243-e252, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29369844

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Albumin modifications and deranged functions are well documented in serum of severe alcoholic hepatitis (SAH). We investigated whether urinary albumin (u-Alb) can serve as surrogate marker of circulatory albumin phenotype, functionality, and could predict outcome in SAH patients. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Baseline serum and urine samples from 100 SAH, 20 alcoholic cirrhosis, and 20 healthy controls were subjected to u-Alb, ischemia modified albumin (IMA), IMA to albumin ratio (IMAr), advanced oxidation protein products, advanced glycation end-products, albumin-binding capacity determination. In addition, SAH urinary samples were also analyzed at day 4 and day 7 to predict nonresponse to corticosteroid therapy. RESULTS: Urine and serum levels of IMA, advanced oxidation protein products and advanced glycation end-products were higher (P<0.05) in SAH versus alcoholic cirrhosis and healthy controls. IMAr was low in urine but high in serum of SAH (P<0.05). Albumin-binding capacity was lower (P<0.05) in both urinary and serum albumin of SAH. Urinary and serum albumin parameters showed direct correlation, whereas IMAr showed inverse correlation (cc>0.2, P<0.05). Baseline u-Alb level was significantly higher in SAH, and was correlated directly with corticosteroid treatment outcome and 12-month mortality in SAH. Baseline u-Alb showed an area under the receivers operating curve analysis of 0.7 and a hazard ratio of 1.23 for prediction of 12-month mortality in SAH. Baseline u-Alb level >9.0 mg/dL was associated with reduced 12-month survival in SAH (log rank <0.01). CONCLUSIONS: u-Alb modifications are reflective of serum albumin modifications. Further baseline u-Alb levels could be exploited to predict steroid response and mortality in SAH patients.

10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30444203

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) is a devastating disease characterized by continual addition of leukocytes and T cells within the articular cavity causing inflammation and cartilage destruction. Withania somnifera is one of the most precious medicinal herbs, reported to have antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and immunomodulatory properties. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate anti-inflammatory activity of aqueous extract of Withania somnifera roots (WSAq) in Collagen Induced Arthritic (CIA) rats. METHODS: To achieve this, we assessed the level of inflammatory cytokines such as Tumor Necrosis Factor (TNF)-α, IL-1ß, IL-6 and IL-10 in CIA rats. Further, transcription factor, oxidative stress parameters and CD+8 expressions were also analyzed in CIA rats. RESULTS: Arthritic rats showed a greater increase in the levels of pro inflammatory cytokines such as TNF-α, IL-1ß, IL-6, transcription factor NF-κB and a decrease in IL-10 concentration than controls rats. Oral administration of WSAq at a dose of 300mg/kg.wt. (WSAq300) appreciably attenuated the production of these pro inflammatory cytokines. This anti-inflammatory activity of WSAq300 might be partly mediated through an increase in the secretion of IL-10 and inhibition of NF-κB activity. Further, arthritic rats also show increased oxidative stress as compared to control rats. This increased oxidative stress in the arthritic rats appears to be the outcome of both an activated pro-oxidant and a poor antioxidant defense system. Treatment with WSAq300 strongly ameliorates all these ROS parameters significantly to near normal. Additional, metalloproteinase MMP-8 levels were also measured and found to be increased in CIA rats, which after treatment with WSAq300 came down to near normal. CONCLUSION: From the above results, it can be concluded that the use of WSAq300 may be a valuable supplement which can improve human arthritis.


Assuntos
Artrite Experimental/prevenção & controle , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Withania , Animais , Citocinas/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Mediadores da Inflamação/farmacologia , Masculino , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Fitoterapia/métodos , Raízes de Plantas , Distribuição Aleatória , Ratos Wistar
11.
Diagn Cytopathol ; 47(5): 458-468, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30582299

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The diagnosis of cutaneous tuberculosis is challenging due to its diverse clinical manifestations, paucibacillary state and lack of proper diagnostic tests. Clinico-pathological correlation is still frequently used for diagnosis. There is paucity of literature on cytomorphological features. Immunochemistry can help as an ancillary test. METHODS: Clinical diagnosis was made after thorough history and physical examination. Modified Fine Needle Aspiration technique was used to collect cytology samples and 3 mm punch biopsy for histological examination. Findings on histopathology were compared with cytomorphology. Immunochemical staining with anti-TB polyclonal antibody using standard Polymer-based-HRP immunochemistry technique and comparison of cytology and histology findings. RESULTS: The morphological spectrum of biopsy and cytology showed high correlation using nine parameters: necrosis, granulomas, giant cells, AFB, neutrophilic infiltrate, presence of lymphocytes, histiocytes, collagen bundles, and immunochemistry. Diagnostic correlation of FNA compared to biopsy was found to be 90.3%. On comparing cytomorphology of scrofuloderma and lupus vulgaris, all the parameters were found more frequently in scrofuloderma except for granulomas, giant cells and immunochemistry. Immunochemistry showed sensitivity and specificity of 90.3% and 70% on biopsy, respectively, compared to 67.7% and 60% on FNA, respectively. Combined sensitivity of IHC and ICC was 96.8%. CONCLUSIONS: The cytomorphological spectrum of cutaneous tuberculosis is comparable to clinicohistopathology with a high correlation of 90.3%. However, sub classification on FNA is difficult on cytology alone. While FNAC is a better diagnostic tool for finding AFBs hence confirming the diagnosis, biopsy is better for immunochemistry. Thus, biopsy and FNA complement each other.


Assuntos
Tuberculose Cutânea/patologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Biópsia por Agulha Fina/métodos , Biópsia por Agulha Fina/normas , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Imunoensaio/métodos , Imunoensaio/normas , Masculino , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/imunologia , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
12.
Liver Int ; 39(4): 684-693, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30554466

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Parkinsonism like features can be seen in cirrhotics, possibly related to alterations in brain dopamine metabolism, transport and receptor integrity at basal ganglia. Hepatic parkinsonism is often not suspected and only ammonia-reducing therapies are given to such patients. We investigated the efficacy and safety of bromocriptine, a dopaminergic agent, in patients with hepatic parkinsonism. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Cirrhotics were screened for the presence of extrapyramidal symptoms and were diagnosed as hepatic parkinsonism if any two of tremor, bradykinesia and/or rigidity were present, supported by MRI brain showing T1 hyperintensities in basal ganglia and substantia nigra. Patients were randomized to receive placebo (Gr A, n = 22) or bromocriptine (Gr B, n = 24) for 12 weeks. Complete, partial and non-response were defined as 30%, 10%-30% and <10% reduction,respectively, in Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale motor score. RESULTS: Of 1016 cirrhotics, 50 (4.9%) had hepatic parkinsonism. Patients in two treatment groups were comparable for MELD score, arterial NH3 and frequency of portosystemic shunts. Bromocriptine therapy for 12 weeks resulted in improvement in rigidity, tremors, bradykinesia and gait compared to placebo with complete and partial response in seven vs none (29.1%, 0%, P < 0.01) and 12 vs one (50%, 4.5%, P < 0.01) patients. Prolonged and more severe motor symptoms were associated with non-response to bromocriptine therapy. There were no major side effects in either treatment group. CONCLUSIONS: Hepatic parkinsonism is seen in ~5% cirrhotics. Bromocriptine is a safe and effective therapy for these patients and is more effective in mild to moderate hepatic parkinsonism.

13.
J Cancer Res Ther ; 15(6): 1398-1401, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31898680

RESUMO

Extraneural broad ligament ependymoma is a rare entity. Herein, we present a case of unusually large broad ligament ependymoma in a 32-year-old female with pain and lump in the lower abdomen. Contrast-enhanced computed tomography abdomen revealed multiple heterogeneously enhancing pelvic masses with lobulated surface in bilateral adnexa along with multiple peritoneal nodules. Her relevant serum tumor markers were unremarkable. Core biopsy revealed tumor composed of elongated cells arranged predominantly in true and pseudoperivascular rosettes. The histopathological differentials included ependymoma, primitive neuroectodermal tumor, and teratoma with neural differentiation. Results of immunohistochemistry favored the diagnosis of ependymoma. Surgical exploration and optimal cytoreduction were done, and a final diagnosis of primary broad ligament ependymoma with peritoneal metastasis was made. The patient received six cycles of adjuvant chemotherapy and is doing well after 8-month follow-up. The present case highlights the diagnostic workup and management of a rare and an unusually large broad ligament ependymoma with peritoneal metastasis.

14.
Hepatology ; 68(6): 2444, 2018 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30229987
15.
J Med Chem ; 61(16): 7289-7313, 2018 08 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30067361

RESUMO

GSK3532795, formerly known as BMS-955176 (1), is a potent, orally active, second-generation HIV-1 maturation inhibitor (MI) that advanced through phase IIb clinical trials. The careful design, selection, and evaluation of substituents appended to the C-3 and C-17 positions of the natural product betulinic acid (3) was critical in attaining a molecule with the desired virological and pharmacokinetic profile. Herein, we highlight the key insights made in the discovery program and detail the evolution of the structure-activity relationships (SARs) that led to the design of the specific C-17 amine moiety in 1. These modifications ultimately enabled the discovery of 1 as a second-generation MI that combines broad coverage of polymorphic viruses (EC50 <15 nM toward a panel of common polymorphisms representative of 96.5% HIV-1 subtype B virus) with a favorable pharmacokinetic profile in preclinical species.


Assuntos
Fármacos Anti-HIV/química , Fármacos Anti-HIV/farmacologia , Crisenos/química , Morfolinas/química , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , Triterpenos/química , Membro 1 da Subfamília B de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP/genética , Administração Oral , Animais , Fármacos Anti-HIV/farmacocinética , Ácido Benzoico/química , Disponibilidade Biológica , Técnicas de Química Sintética , Crisenos/farmacologia , Cães , Desenho de Drogas , Estabilidade de Medicamentos , HIV-1/efeitos dos fármacos , HIV-1/genética , Humanos , Macaca fascicularis , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos , Camundongos Knockout , Microssomos Hepáticos/efeitos dos fármacos , Morfolinas/farmacologia , Polimorfismo Genético , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Triterpenos/farmacologia
16.
Indian J Pathol Microbiol ; 61(2): 197-200, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29676356

RESUMO

Context: Core-needle biopsy (CNB) is a minimally invasive screening and diagnostic tool which provides intact tissue fragments for histopathological examination. Aims: This study was conducted to review the current practices of handling and reporting CNBs performed for core-needle biopsies from four organ systems which are frequently encountered in our institution. These include breast, prostate, soft tissues, and lymph nodes. Settings and Design: This was a retrospective study conducted at a tertiary care hospital. Materials and Methods: CNB reports of breast, prostate, soft tissue, and lymph nodes were accessed and categorized based on the site of biopsy, number, and average length of the cores. The CNB reports were categorized into diagnostic or nondiagnostic. In case of diagnosis of malignancy, reports were recorded as structured or nonstructured reports. Statistical Analysis Used: Fisher's exact test and Chi-square tests were applied to check the significance of the results obtained on comparing the number of cores and size of cores with the outcome of report. Results: Out of 16,300 surgical pathology specimens received, 400 were CNBs comprising breast (n = 211), prostate (n = 108), soft tissue (n = 50), and lymph node (n = 31). Majority of the CNBs had 2-5 cores and the size of the core was ≥0.5 cm, which accounted for most of the reports which were diagnostic. There was a lack of clinical and radiological detail in many of the cases. Out of the malignant cases diagnosed, structured reports were given in 30% of breast, 79.3% of prostate, 41.7% soft tissue, and 60% of lymph node needle biopsies. Conclusions: The audit helped to identify areas of improvement in CNB services.


Assuntos
Biópsia com Agulha de Grande Calibre/métodos , Biópsia com Agulha de Grande Calibre/estatística & dados numéricos , Neoplasias/diagnóstico , Mama/citologia , Feminino , Humanos , Linfonodos/citologia , Masculino , Próstata/citologia , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Estudos Retrospectivos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Centros de Atenção Terciária/estatística & dados numéricos
18.
Virchows Arch ; 472(4): 667-675, 2018 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29516163

RESUMO

Baseline clinical and biochemical parameters fail to predict non-response to steroids in severe alcoholic hepatitis patients. Liver biopsy features have not been adequately assessed for predicting response to steroid therapy in severe alcoholic hepatitis. We aimed to identify histological parameters, which can predict steroid response in severe alcoholic hepatitis (SAH). We analyzed histological data of 107 SAH patients (71 in a derivative and 36 in a validation cohort) who presented within 4 weeks after inset of jaundice and were prospectively treated with steroids (40 mg/day). Histopathological parameters were semi-quantitatively scored in the pre-therapy biopsies in the derivative cohort, and a histological scoring system of SAH was developed which differentiated between steroid responders (Lille score < 0.45 at day 7) and non-responders. Seventeen of the 71 (24%) patients in the derivation cohort and 9 of 36 (25%) in the validation cohort were non-responders to steroids. In the derivation cohort, in comparison to responders, non-responders had higher severity of ballooning degeneration (BD) (mean 3.87 ± 0.91 versus 2.92 ± 1.33; p = 0.013) and density of Mallory-Denk bodies (MD) (mean 2.27 ± 0.79 versus. 1.69 ± 0.97; p = 0.028) on liver histology. A score derived using BD and MD (range 0-8) had high sensitivity (81%), specificity (64%), and negative predictive value (91%) in identifying patients who did not respond to steroids. The AUROC for a combined MD and BD score of > 5 for predicting steroid non-response was 0.731. Baseline histological parameters in SAH, ballooning degeneration, and Mallory-Denk bodies can reliably identify non-response to corticosteroids and help to stratify patients prior to introduction of therapy.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/uso terapêutico , Resistência a Medicamentos , Hepatite Alcoólica/tratamento farmacológico , Hepatite Alcoólica/patologia , Prednisolona/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Biópsia , Glucocorticoides/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Curva ROC , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
19.
Skin Appendage Disord ; 4(1): 44-46, 2018 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29457015
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