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1.
J Prosthet Dent ; 125(3): 535-542, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32204928

RESUMO

STATEMENT OF PROBLEM: Information regarding the shrinkage kinetics and monomer conversion of dual-polymerized conventional and self-adhesive resin luting agents (RLA) in situ is lacking. PURPOSE: The purpose of this in vitro study was to evaluate the shrinkage strain and ratio of 1 conventional and 1 self-adhesive RLA by using fiber optic sensors based on Bragg gratings and Vickers hardness in the root canal. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The root canals of 34 single-rooted premolars were endodontically treated and assigned to 2 groups according to the RLA: RelyX ARC (ARC) and RelyX U200 (U200). Two Bragg grating sensors were attached to fiber posts (n=10), and both post and RLA were placed inside the root canal so that shrinkage strain and ratio values could be measured at the cervical and apical root thirds. For hardness analysis (n=7), two 1-mm-thick slices of each root-third (cervical and apical) were obtained, and 4 indentations were made on the RLA layer. The shrinkage strain and rate, as well as hardness data, were evaluated by using 2-way repeated-measures ANOVA followed by the Bonferroni post hoc test when a significant interaction between factors was detected (α=.05). RESULTS: The shrinkage strain and rate values of both RLAs were higher at the cervical third than those at the apical third. ARC showed higher shrinkage strain than U200 at the cervical third. The highest hardness values were observed at the cervical third, while ARC showed the lowest hardness values at the apical third. CONCLUSIONS: The shrinkage kinetics profile and hardness of self-adhesive RLA may differ from those of conventional RLA depending on the root third.


Assuntos
Colagem Dentária , Técnica para Retentor Intrarradicular , Cimentos Dentários , Cavidade Pulpar , Dentina , Cinética , Teste de Materiais , Polimerização , Cimentos de Resina
2.
J Prosthet Dent ; 123(1): 173-180, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31027950

RESUMO

STATEMENT OF PROBLEM: No information is available on roughness and stainability of acrylic resins polymerized by experimental microwave cycles after immersion in stainable liquids and simulated brushing. PURPOSE: The purpose of this in vitro study was to evaluate the effect of stainable drinks and brushing on roughness and stainability of acrylic resins (Vipi Cril [CA] and Vipi Wave [MA]) polymerized with different cycles. MATERIAL AND METHODS: CA and MA specimens (n=5; diameter, 20 mm; thickness, 3 mm) were made using 4 methods recommended by the manufacturer (water bath polymerization and microwave polymerization cycles) and experimental at 550 W or 650 W for 3 or 5 minutes (M550/3 and M650/5), respectively. After storage in distilled water at 37°C for 48 hours (T0), the specimens were stored in water, coffee, or red wine (37°C) for 36 days with simulated brushing (54 000 cycles, T1). Roughness (Ra) and stainability (ΔE/National Bureau of Standards) were measured at T0 and T1. Roughness and stainability data were analyzed by 3-way repeated measures and 2-way ANOVA, respectively, followed by the Bonferroni test (α=.05). RESULTS: After storing in coffee and brushing, CA showed the highest (M550/3=2.33 ±0.72 µm) and the lowest roughness (water bath polymerization=1.22 ±0.58 µm), whereas roughness of MA specimens processed by M650/5 increased (1.57 ±0.59 µm). Storing in wine and brushing increased roughness (1.75 ±0.32 µm) in the M550/3 group. No staining was observed on MA after brushing regardless of the polymerization cycle. All values were acceptable (ΔE≤3.3), except for MA (microwave polymerization), which showed National Bureau of Standards=4.49 (appreciable change) after storing in wine and brushing. CONCLUSIONS: A slight increase in material roughness was observed after staining and brushing. Only MA polymerized following manufacturer cycles showed relevant stainability after immersion in wine and brushing.


Assuntos
Resinas Acrílicas , Escovação Dentária , Teste de Materiais , Micro-Ondas , Polimerização , Propriedades de Superfície
3.
J Adhes Dent ; 18(6): 493-499, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27834412

RESUMO

PURPOSE: This study evaluated the push-out bond strength (BS) of fiber posts in root canals and the nanoleakage (NL) pattern at the bonding interface when universal adhesives were applied in etch-and-rinse mode to root dentin using an oscillating sonic device. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Fifty-four roots of human premolars were endodontically prepared and divided into 6 experimental groups according to the main factors: adhesive system/resin cement (Ambar Universal/AllCem, Scotchbond Universal/RelyX ARC, Prime&Bond Elect/Enforce) and application mode (vigorous manual or sonic). Fiber posts were cemented and roots were transversally sectioned into six 1-mm-thick serial slices, which were subjected to BS testing (n = 7 per group) at a crosshead speed of 0.5 mm/min, and the rest (n = 2 per group) were subjected to NL analysis using scanning electron microscopy after slice immersion in silver nitrate. Data were analyzed using two-way ANOVA and Bonferroni's post-hoc test (α = 5%). RESULTS: Sonic application significantly increased BS only on the coronal third when Ambar Universal was used. When Scotchbond Universal was used, higher BS was observed when the adhesive was manually applied than when the sonic device was used. For Prime&Bond Elect, no significant difference in BS was noted when the application methods were compared. Manual application also produced lower NL values than did sonic application when Ambar Universal was used, while no significant difference in NL was noted using the other adhesive systems. CONCLUSION: Sonic application did not improve the bond strength of posts in root canals in comparison to vigorous, manual application.


Assuntos
Bis-Fenol A-Glicidil Metacrilato , Cavidade Pulpar , Polietilenoglicóis , Ácidos Polimetacrílicos , Cimentos de Resina , Humanos , Teste de Materiais , Som
4.
J Prosthet Dent ; 115(5): 611-6, 2016 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26794705

RESUMO

STATEMENT OF PROBLEM: Incorporating antifungals into interim denture resilient liners has been proposed to prolong their clinical longevity and to treat denture stomatitis. However, information is lacking on the effect of this addition on water sorption and solubility. PURPOSE: The purpose of this in vitro study was to evaluate the addition of minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of antifungals for Candida albicans biofilm on the water sorption (WS) and solubility of interim denture resilient liners. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Disk-shaped specimens (n=10; 50×0.5 mm) of tissue conditioner (Softone) and resilient liner (Trusoft) were created either without (control) or with the incorporation of 1 of the 3 following drugs at MICs (g of drug per g of resilient material powder): nystatin (Ny, 0.032g/g), chlorhexidine diacetate (Chx, 0.064g/g), and ketoconazole (Ke, 0.128g/g). Specimens were dried; immersed in water for 24 hours and 7 or 14 days; weighed, dried, and weighed again. Data (µg/mm(3)) were analyzed by 3-way ANOVA followed by the Tukey-Kramer honest significant differences test (α=.05). RESULTS: At the 14-day interval, only the addition of Chx (483.0 ±61.0 µg/mm(3)) increased the WS of the tissue conditioner compared with the control group (244.0 ±42.0 µg/mm(3); P<.001). For all periods, the solubility of both materials increased with the addition of Chx (27.7 ±6.1 µg/mm(3)) and Ke (30.9 ±5.3 µg/mm(3)) compared with the control group (22.5 ±6.0 µg/mm(3); P<.001). CONCLUSIONS: After 14 days, the addition of Ny and Ke at MICs in both Softone and Trusoft and addition of Chx in Trusoft did not affect WS. The solubility of the 2 interim materials was not altered by the addition of Ny for up to 14 days.


Assuntos
Antifúngicos/uso terapêutico , Bases de Dentadura , Reembasamento de Dentadura/métodos , Antifúngicos/administração & dosagem , Biofilmes/efeitos dos fármacos , Candidíase Bucal/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Técnicas In Vitro , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Água/metabolismo
5.
J Adhes Dent ; 17(2): 181-8, 2015 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25893225

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To evaluate the effect of different radiant exposure values delivered to two simplified etch-and-rinse adhesive systems on push-out bond strength (PBS) of fiber posts to root canal, as well as nanoleakage (NL) and in situ degree of conversion (DC) within the hybrid layer. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The roots of human premolars were endodontically prepared and divided into 6 groups according to the combination of the main factors adhesive/resin cement (2 commercial brands) and radiant exposure (4, 16, 48, and 288 J/cm2). The posts were cemented and the PBS tested at 0.5 mm/min (n = 7). The NL (n = 3) was evaluated using SEM after immersion of specimens in 50% silver nitrate. Micro-Raman spectroscopy was performed to determine the in situ DC (n = 2). Data were analyzed by three-way repeated measures ANOVA and Tukey's post-hoc test (5%). RESULTS: PBS (MPa) showed a significant difference only for the middle third when an increase in radiant exposure from 4 to 16 J/cm2 or higher was used (p < 0.05). The NL (%) decreased significantly with increasing radiant exposure from 48 to 288 J/cm2 in the middle and apical thirds when compared to lower radiant exposure (p < 0.05). The radiant exposure of 288 J/cm2 significantly increased the DC (%) in the middle and apical thirds, compared the other radiant exposure values (p < 0.05). CONCLUSION: The increase in radiant exposure delivered to the cervical third of root canals during post cementation improved the adhesive performance of simplified etch-and-rinse adhesive systems in the apical and middle thirds.


Assuntos
Cavidade Pulpar/ultraestrutura , Cura Luminosa de Adesivos Dentários/métodos , Técnica para Retentor Intrarradicular/instrumentação , Doses de Radiação , Cimentos de Resina/efeitos da radiação , Dente Pré-Molar/ultraestrutura , Bis-Fenol A-Glicidil Metacrilato/química , Cimentação/métodos , Infiltração Dentária/classificação , Humanos , Teste de Materiais , Metacrilatos/química , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Polietilenoglicóis/química , Polimerização , Ácidos Polimetacrílicos/química , Poliuretanos/química , Cimentos de Resina/química , Coloração pela Prata , Análise Espectral Raman , Estresse Mecânico , Propriedades de Superfície , Ápice Dentário/ultraestrutura
6.
J Prosthet Dent ; 113(2): 128-34, 2015 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25432362

RESUMO

STATEMENT OF PROBLEM: Understanding the effect of the degree of conversion on the mechanical properties of auto- and dual-polymerizing self-adhesive resin cements leads to a better estimation of their performance in different clinical scenarios. PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of photopolymerization on the degree of conversion (DC) and polymerization kinetic of 4 dual-polymerized resin cements, 20 minutes after mixing, and its effects on the mechanical properties (biaxial flexural strength [FS] and modulus [FM]) after short-term aging. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Conventional (RelyX ARC and Clearfil Esthetic Cement) and self-adhesive resin cements (RelyX Unicem and Clearfil SA Cement) were applied to a Fourier infrared spectrometer to assess the DC (n=5) under the following 3 polymerization conditions: direct light exposure (dual-polymerizing mode), exposure through the prepolymerized disk, or autopolymerizing. The polymerization kinetic was recorded for 20 minutes. Then, disk-shaped specimens (n=11) were prepared to evaluate the effect of polymerization on the FS and FM in both extreme polymerization conditions (dual-polymerizing or autopolymerizing). Data were statistically analyzed by 2-way repeated measure ANOVA (DC) and by 2-way ANOVA (FS and FM), followed by the Tukey-Kramer post hoc test (α=.05). RESULTS: Autopolymerizing groups exhibited reduced DC means, whereas intermediate values were observed when resin cements were polymerized through the disk. All groups exhibited higher DC at the end of 20 minutes. The polymerization kinetic revealed a rising curve, and materials, when directly photopolymerized, reached a plateau immediately after light exposure. Regarding the flexural biaxial testing, most of the resin cements were affected by polymerization mode and differences among groups were product dependent. CONCLUSIONS: The resin cements achieved immediate higher DC and mechanical properties when photopolymerized. The total absence of photoactivation may still impair their mechanical properties even after short-term aging.


Assuntos
Cimentos de Resina/efeitos da radiação , Bis-Fenol A-Glicidil Metacrilato/química , Resinas Compostas/química , Luzes de Cura Dentária/classificação , Escuridão , Módulo de Elasticidade , Vidro/química , Humanos , Luz , Teste de Materiais , Maleabilidade , Polietilenoglicóis/química , Polimerização , Ácidos Polimetacrílicos/química , Doses de Radiação , Cimentos de Resina/química , Autocura de Resinas Dentárias/instrumentação , Autocura de Resinas Dentárias/métodos , Estresse Mecânico , Propriedades de Superfície , Temperatura , Fatores de Tempo
7.
J Prosthet Dent ; 111(5): 404-10, 2014 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24355507

RESUMO

STATEMENT OF PROBLEM: The lack of long-term bond stability between resin cements and dentin may compromise the success of indirect restorations. PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of long-term storage in artificial saliva and mechanical load cycling on the microtensile bond strength of conventional and self-adhesive resin cements to dentin. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The occlusal dentin surfaces of 128 human molars were exposed and flattened. The teeth were assigned to 16 groups (n=8) according to resin cement and in vitro aging strategy. Two self-adhesive resin cements (RelyX Unicem and Clearfil SA Cement) and 2 conventional cementing systems (RelyX ARC and Clearfil Esthetic Cement) were used. Resin cements were applied to prepolymerized indirect resin disks, which were bonded to the dentin surfaces and light polymerized. The control groups were represented by immediate microtensile bond strength (24 hours) and aging methods were performed with mechanical load cycling or storage in artificial saliva (1 year and 2 years). Bonded beams were tested in tension until failure. Data (MPa) were analyzed by Proc Mixed for repeated measures and the Tukey-Kramer test (α=.05). RESULTS: The self-adhesive resin cements exhibited higher microtensile bond strength than conventional cementing systems for all conditions studied. The microtensile bond strength of RelyX ARC and self-adhesive resin cements did not decrease after storage in artificial saliva and mechanical load cycling. The Clearfil Esthetic Cement showed the lowest microtensile bond strength and a significant reduction after 2 years of storage in artificial saliva. CONCLUSIONS: The storage times and mechanical load cycling did not affect the microtensile bond strength of self-adhesives and RelyX ARC resin cements. The highest microtensile bond strength was obtained for self-adhesive resin cements, with no significant difference between them.


Assuntos
Colagem Dentária , Dentina/ultraestrutura , Cimentos de Resina/química , Bis-Fenol A-Glicidil Metacrilato/química , Resinas Compostas/química , Análise do Estresse Dentário/instrumentação , Humanos , Cura Luminosa de Adesivos Dentários , Teste de Materiais , Polietilenoglicóis/química , Polimerização , Ácidos Polimetacrílicos/química , Saliva Artificial/química , Estresse Mecânico , Resistência à Tração , Fatores de Tempo
8.
J Adhes Dent ; 14(3): 251-63, 2012 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22282747

RESUMO

PURPOSE: This study evaluated the effects of peripheral enamel margins on the long-term bond strength (µTBS) and nanoleakage in resin/dentin interfaces produced by self-adhesive and conventional resin cements. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Five self-adhesive [RelyX-Unicem (UN), RelyX-U100 (UC), GCem (GC), Maxcem (MC), Set (SET)] and 2 conventional resin cements [RelyX-ARC(RX), Panavia F(PF)] were used. An additional group included the use of a two-step self-etching adhesive (SE Bond) with Panavia F (PS). One hundred ninety-two molars were assigned to 8 groups according to luting material. Five-mm-thick composite disks were cemented and assigned to 3 subgroups according to water-exposure condition (n = 6): 24-h peripheral exposure (24h-PE-enamel margins), or 1 year of peripheral (1 yr-PE) or direct exposure (1 yr-DE-dentin margin). Restored teeth were sectioned into beams and tested in tension at 1 mm/min. Data were analyzed by two-way ANOVA and Tukey's test. Two additional specimens in each group were prepared for nanoleakage evaluation. Nanoleakage patterns were observed under SEM/TEM. RESULTS: Except for RX, no significant reduction in µTBS was observed between 24h-PE and 1 yr-PE. 1 yr-DE reduced µTBS for RX, PF, GC, MC, and SET. No significant reduction in µTBS was observed for PS, UC, and UN after 1 year. After 1 yr-DE, RX and PS presented the highest µTBS, and SET and MC the lowest. Nanoleakage was reduced when there was a peripheral enamel margin. SET and MC presented more silver deposition than other groups. CONCLUSION: The presence of a peripheral enamel margin reduced the degradation rate in resin/dentin interfaces for most materials. The µTBS values produced by the multi-step luting agents RX and PS were significantly higher than those observed for self-adhesive cement.


Assuntos
Colagem Dentária , Infiltração Dentária , Cimentos de Resina/química , Análise de Variância , Resinas Compostas , Colagem Dentária/métodos , Esmalte Dentário , Análise do Estresse Dentário , Dentina , Humanos , Teste de Materiais , Microscopia Eletrônica , Dente Molar , Estatísticas não Paramétricas , Resistência à Tração , Água
9.
Am J Dent ; 24(1): 57-9, 2011 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21469408

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To evaluate the effect of 10% and 16% carbamide peroxide bleaching agents on microhardness of dental ceramics after different periods of bleaching treatment. METHODS: 15 specimens with 5 x 3 x 1 mm3 were created with four dental ceramics following manufacturers' instructions: IPS Classic (Ivoclar-Vivadent); IPS d.Sign (Ivoclar-Vivadent); EX3 (Noritake); VMK-95 (Vita). A microhardness tester with a Knoop diamond with a 100 g load was used to evaluate the baseline microhardness values of all ceramics. Afterwards, the specimens were submitted to 6-hour daily bleaching treatments with 10% or 16% carbamide peroxide (Whiteness Perfect-FGM) for 21 days, while control groups from each ceramic system were maintained in artificial saliva. The microhardness of all groups was evaluated at 18, 42, 84, and 126 hours of bleaching treatment. The mean value of five indentations performed at each specimen in each time was obtained and all data were submitted to two-way repeated measures ANOVA and Tukey's post-hoc test (alpha = 0.05). RESULTS: No significant differences in ceramic microhardness were observed among either bleaching intervals or bleaching treatments. Ceramic restorations are not affected by carbamide peroxide 10% or 16% gel during bleaching treatment.


Assuntos
Porcelana Dentária , Peróxidos/química , Clareadores Dentários/química , Ureia/análogos & derivados , Peróxido de Carbamida , Dureza , Teste de Materiais , Peróxidos/administração & dosagem , Clareadores Dentários/administração & dosagem , Ureia/administração & dosagem , Ureia/química
10.
Oper Dent ; 35(3): 295-9, 2010.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20533629

RESUMO

This study evaluated the effect of curing mode (auto- and dual-polymerizing mode) and time interval (5, 10 and 15 minutes) on the degree of conversion of resin cements. One conventional dual-cured resin cement (Panavia F 2.0 [Kuraray Medical Inc]) and two self-adhesive cements (RelyX Unicem [3M ESPE] and BisCem [BISCO, Inc]) were evaluated. The products (n = 5) were manipulated according to the manufacturer's instructions and applied to the surface of a horizontal attenuated reflectance unit attached to an infrared spectrometer. The materials were either light-cured for 40 seconds (dual-polymerizing mode) or allowed to auto-polymerize. The degree of conversion was calculated according to changes in the aliphatic-to-aromatic peak ratios prior to and 5, 10 and 15 minutes after light-activation or after mixing when the specimens were allowed to auto-polymerize. Data (%) were analyzed by two-way repeated measure ANOVA (curing mode and time interval) and Tukey's post-hoc test (alpha = 0.05%). The light-activating mode led to a higher degree of conversion values than the self-curing mode in self-adhesive cements (RelyX Unicem and BisCem), while there was no difference in the degree of conversion between the self- and light-cured groups of Panavia F 2.0 resin cement. All products showed a higher degree of conversion at 15 minutes postcuring than any other evaluation interval. The self-adhesive cements provide a higher degree of conversion values when light-activated. After 15 minutes of polymerization initiation, the degree of conversion was higher in all resin cements, regardless of the curing mode.


Assuntos
Cimentos de Resina/química , Carbono/química , Carbono/efeitos da radiação , Resinas Compostas/química , Resinas Compostas/efeitos da radiação , Luzes de Cura Dentária , Humanos , Teste de Materiais , Transição de Fase , Processos Fotoquímicos , Polímeros/química , Polímeros/efeitos da radiação , Cimentos de Resina/efeitos da radiação , Espectrofotometria Infravermelho , Fatores de Tempo
11.
J Adhes Dent ; 11(1): 15-26, 2009 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19343923

RESUMO

PURPOSE: This study evaluated the differential composition of resin/dentin interfaces of indirect restorations created by the application of 4th and 5th generation dual-curing luting systems (bonding agents/resin cements), when each material was either light cured or allowed to self-cure. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Occlusal flat dentin surfaces of 60 human third molars were assigned into 12 groups (n = 5) according to curing mode and dual-curing cementing system: 4th generation All Bond2 (AB2)/Duolink (Bisco) and 5th generation (B1) Bond1/Lute-it (Pentron). Fluorescein-labeled dextran (FDx) was mixed with the bonding agents, while rhodamine-labeled dextran (RhDx) was incorporated into resin cements and Pre-Bond resin from AB2. Resin cements were applied to 2-mm-thick, precured resin composite disks (Z250, 3M ESPE), which were fixed to dentin surfaces containing adhesive resin in either cured (light cured; LC) or uncured (self-cured; SC) states. The restored teeth were light activated (XL3000, 3M ESPE) according to the manufacturers' instructions (LRC) or allowed to self-cure (SRC), were stored for 24 h, and then vertically, serially sectioned into l-mm-thick slabs, which were analyzed using confocal laser scanning microscopy. Fluorescent additives indicated where individual components of the bonding/cement systems were located. Additional specimens were prepared and analyzed using a conventional scanning electron microscope. RESULTS: AB2/LC and B1/LC exhibited nonuniform primer/adhesive layer thickness. AB2/SC showed adhesive resin penetration within the primed dentin, and resin cement penetration at the entrance of the dentin tubules. B1/SC/LRC demonstrated resin cement penetration within the hybrid layer and into the dentin tubules. More resin cement penetration was observed in B1/SC/SRC groups than in its LRC equivalent. CONCLUSION: The morphological features and component interactions among materials at resin/dentin interfaces are related to the activation modes of the primer/adhesive layer and of the resin cement used.


Assuntos
Adesivos Dentinários/química , Dentina/ultraestrutura , Microscopia Confocal , Cimentos de Resina/química , Resinas Compostas/química , Luzes de Cura Dentária , Colagem Dentária , Dextranos , Fluoresceína , Corantes Fluorescentes , Humanos , Teste de Materiais , Metacrilatos/química , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Rodaminas , Propriedades de Superfície , Fatores de Tempo
12.
J Prosthet Dent ; 101(2): 128-36, 2009 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19167537

RESUMO

STATEMENT OF PROBLEM: Lack of knowledge regarding the kinetics of the setting reaction of dual- and autopolymerizing resin luting agents (RLA) leads the clinician to underestimate the care required during occlusal adjustments of indirect restorations. PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the degree of conversion (DC), maximum rate of polymerization (R(p)(max)), and potential of cure (ratio of conversions in autopolymerized relative to dual-polymerized modes; PC(A/D)) of 5 dual-polymerizable RLAs at 5 and 10 minutes, after mixing RLA components using infrared (IR) spectroscopy. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The RLAs evaluated included Calibra, Duo-Link, Lute-It, Nexus 2, and RelyX ARC. The RLAs were manipulated and applied to the horizontal diamond element in the optical bench of an IR spectrometer. The materials were either light activated for 40 seconds (dual-polymerizing mode) or were allowed to autopolymerize (autopolymerizing mode). The DC, R(p)(max), and PC(A/D) were calculated using standard techniques of observing changes in aliphatic-to-aromatic peak ratios before and after polymerization. Data (n=5) were analyzed by 2-way repeated measures ANOVA and Tukey's post hoc test (alpha=.05). RESULTS: All autopolymerizing groups exhibited lower DC and R(p)(max) values than the dual-polymerizing groups (P<.001), and higher DC values at 10 minutes than at 5 minutes, only in the autopolymerizing mode. Duo-Link exhibited the highest R(p)(max) values among dual-polymerizing groups, while Lute-It and Calibra showed the lowest R(p)(max) values and the highest PC(A/D) values. Within autopolymerizing groups, Nexus 2 and Lute-It exhibited the highest R(p)(max) values, while RelyX ARC demonstrated the lowest R(p)(max) as well as the lowest PC(A/D) values. CONCLUSIONS: The DC values of all autopolymerized groups of RLAs were lower than those of the dual-polymerized RLAs, but the differences in R(p)(max) and PC(A/D) were product dependent. The DC of all products was higher at the 10-minute interval than at the 5-minute interval, only in the autopolymerizing mode.


Assuntos
Cura Luminosa de Adesivos Dentários , Cimentos de Resina/química , Autocura de Resinas Dentárias , Análise de Variância , Dureza , Cinética , Metacrilatos/química , Transição de Fase , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier
13.
J Dent ; 37(3): 219-27, 2009 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19131152

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effectiveness of sodium sulfinate salt co-initiators on the degree of conversion (DC) of dual-cured cementing systems [combination of bonding agent (BA) and resin cement (RC)] when the activating light is attenuated or not available. METHODS: Two 5th generation products [Prime&Bond NT Dual-Cure/Calibra (Dentsply), and Excite DSC/Variolink II (Ivoclar/Vivadent)] were applied, either with or without co-initiators (sodium sulfinate salts) added to the bonding agents, to the surface of a horizontal attenuated-total-reflectance unit, and were polymerized using one of four conditions: self-cure (SC), or direct light exposure (DLE/XL3000/3M) through a glass slide or through pre-cured resin discs (shades A2 or A4/2mm-thick) (Z250/3M-ESPE). Real-time infrared spectra were obtained after placing components (uncured) and during 10 min (cured) (16 scans at 2 cm(-1), FTS-40/Digilab/Bio-Rad) to obtain polymerization kinetics. DC and maximum rate of polymerization (Rpmax) were calculated using standard techniques of observing changes in aliphatic-to-aromatic peak ratios pre- and post-curing. Data (n=5) were analyzed by two-way ANOVA and Tukey's test (p=0.05). RESULTS: The addition of co-initiators increased the DC in most of the groups. No significant difference in DC was observed between Prime Bond NT Dual-Cure/Calibra and its version without co-initiator using the DLE curing mode. All DLE groups exhibited the highest DC after 10 min. No significant difference in DC was observed between A2 and A4 pre-cured overlay groups. The SC groups exhibited lower DC than the light-activated groups regardless of the presence of co-initiator. Use of co-initiators increased the Rpmax only in the SC groups. The A2 and A4 groups exhibited lower Rpmax than DLE groups, regardless of the presence of co-initiator. CONCLUSION: The detrimental effects of light attenuation on the DC were not avoided by inclusion of sodium sulfinate salts, despite their ability to eliminate the chemical incompatibility between acidic monomers and self-curing components.


Assuntos
Adesivos/química , Cimentos de Resina/química , Autocura de Resinas Dentárias/métodos , Ácidos Sulfínicos/química , Restaurações Intracoronárias , Luz , Metacrilatos/química , Transição de Fase , Ácidos Polimetacrílicos/química
14.
J Dent ; 36(6): 418-26, 2008 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18395315

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effects of different curing conditions on the degree of conversion (DC) of dual-cured cementing systems [combination of bonding agent (BA) and resin cement (RC)] using infrared spectroscopy. METHODS: Four fourth generation products [Scotchbond Multipurpose Plus/RelyX (3M ESPE), Optibond/Nexus 2 (Kerr), All Bond2/Duolink (Bisco), and Bond-It!/Lute-It! (Pentron)], and three fifth generation materials [Bond1/Lute-It! (Pentron), Prime&Bond NT Dual-Cure/Calibra (Dentsply), and Optibond Solo Dual Cure/Nexus 2 (Kerr)] were applied to the surface of a horizontal attenuated-total-reflectance unit, and were polymerized using one of four conditions: self-cure (SC), direct light exposure through glass slide (DLE, XL3000/3M ESPE) or through pre-cured resin discs (shades A2;A4/2mm thick/Z250/3M ESPE). Infrared spectra of the uncured cementing systems were recorded immediately after application to the ATR, after the system was light-cured or left to self-cure, and spectra were obtained 5 and 10 min later. DC was calculated using standard techniques of observing changes in aliphatic-to-aromatic peak ratios pre- and post-curing. Data (n=5) were analyzed by two-way repeated measures ANOVA and Tukey's test (p=0.05). RESULTS: Changes in aliphatic-to-aromatic peak ratios before and after placing RC onto the BA demonstrated that a combined layer was created. All groups exhibited higher DC after 10 min than after 5 min, except the DLE group of Bond-it!/Lute-it!. No significant differences in DC were observed among light-activated groups regardless of the resin disc shade in three of the four fourth generation cementing systems. The SC groups exhibited lower DC than the DLE groups for both fourth and fifth generation products either after 5 or 10 min. CONCLUSION: The chemistry of the bonding interface changed when RCs were applied to uncured BAs. The presence of an indirect restoration can decrease the DC of some cementing systems and the self-curing mode leads to lower DC than the light-activating one.


Assuntos
Colagem Dentária , Cimentos de Resina , Análise de Variância , Análise do Estresse Dentário , Restaurações Intracoronárias , Teste de Materiais , Transição de Fase , Cimentos de Resina/química , Cimentos de Resina/efeitos da radiação , Espectrofotometria Infravermelho
15.
Photomed Laser Surg ; 26(2): 91-7, 2008 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18307394

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to compare the in vitro effects of the Er:YAG laser, an ultrasonic system, and manual curette on dentine root surface by roughness and micro-morphological analysis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty-six flattened bovine roots were randomly assigned to one of the following groups: group 1 (n = 12): Er:YAG laser (2940 nm), 120 mJ/pulse, 10 Hz, 8.4 J/cm2; group 2 (n = 12): ultrasonic system; and group 3 (n = 12): manual curette. The mean surface roughness (Ra) of each sample was measured using a profilometer before and after the treatments. The micro-morphology of the treated and untreated (control) root surfaces was evaluated with scanning electron microscopy (SEM) at 50x and 1000x magnification. RESULTS: Analysis with the profilometer showed that for equal times of instrumentation, the smoothest surfaces were produced by the Er:YAG laser and the ultrasonic system, followed by the curette (p < 0.05). Morphological analyses demonstrated that treatment with the Er:YAG laser produced some areas with an irregular surface, craters, and ablation of the intertubular dentin. The smear layer was removed and dentine tubules were opened by both curettes and the ultrasonic system. The micro-morphology of the dentine root surface after ultrasonic treatment, however, demonstrated randomly distributed areas cratering. CONCLUSION: All instruments increased the roughness of the dentine root surface after treatment; however, the curette produced rougher surfaces than the other devices. SEM analysis revealed distinct root surface profiles produced by the three devices.


Assuntos
Curetagem/instrumentação , Raspagem Dentária/instrumentação , Dentina/efeitos da radiação , Lasers de Estado Sólido , Raiz Dentária/efeitos da radiação , Terapia por Ultrassom/instrumentação , Animais , Bovinos , Dentina/cirurgia , Dentina/ultraestrutura , Propriedades de Superfície/efeitos da radiação , Técnicas de Cultura de Tecidos , Raiz Dentária/cirurgia , Raiz Dentária/ultraestrutura
16.
J Prosthet Dent ; 97(2): 99-106, 2007 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17341378

RESUMO

STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM: The effectiveness of bond strength using dual-polymerizing cementing systems ([DCSs] defined as the combination of dual-polymerizing bonding agents and resin cements) used with indirect restorations has not been evaluated when used solely with the autopolymerizing mode. PURPOSE: This study evaluated the in vitro microtensile bond strength (MTBS) of fourth- and fifth-generation DCSs with indirect composite restorations either light polymerized or autopolymerized. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Occlusal dentin surfaces of 48 human third molars were exposed and flattened. Teeth were assigned to 8 groups (n=6) according to the DCS and polymerizing modes: All-Bond2/Duolink (AB2), Optibond/Nexus2 (OPT), Bond1/Lute-it (B1), and Optibond Solo Dual Cure/Nexus2 (SOLO). Bonding agents were applied to dentin surfaces and left in the unpolymerized state. Resin cements were applied to prepolymerized resin discs (2 mm thick/Z250), which were subsequently bonded to the dentin surfaces. The restored teeth were light polymerized according to manufacturers' instructions (PP/XL 3000) or allowed to autopolymerize (AP). Restored teeth were stored in water at 37 degrees C for 24 hours and were both mesio-distally and bucco-lingually sectioned to obtain multiple bonded beams (1.2 mm2 of cross-sectional area). Each specimen was tested in tension at a crosshead speed of 0.6 mm/min until failure. Data (MPa) were analyzed by 2-way analysis of variance and the Tukey post hoc test (alpha=.05). Failure patterns of tested specimens were analyzed using scanning electron microscopy. RESULTS: The mean (SD) MTBS values (MPa) were: AB2/PP: 36.9 (6.5); AB2/AP: 32.7 (7.3); B1/PP: 38.2 (7.0); B1/AP: 13.0 (4.2); SOLO/PP: 33.2 (7.2); SOLO/AP: 23.4 (3.4); OPT/PP: 30.8 (7.5); OPT/AP: 13.1 (5.8). The AP groups showed significantly lower MTBS than the PP groups (P<.0001), except for AB2, which showed no difference between polymerization modes (P=.2608). CONCLUSION: The autopolymerizing mode of some dual-polymerizing cement systems may not be effective in promoting bond strength.


Assuntos
Colagem Dentária/métodos , Falha de Restauração Dentária , Adesivos Dentinários/química , Dente Serotino/química , Análise de Variância , Análise do Estresse Dentário/métodos , Humanos , Luz , Resistência à Tração
17.
J Biomed Mater Res B Appl Biomater ; 71(1): 90-8, 2004 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-15368232

RESUMO

This study evaluated the nanoleakage patterns in bonded interfaces using two single-step, self-etching adhesives (Adper Prompt-AD, and One-up Bond F-OB), two two-step, self-etching primers (Clearfil SE Bond-CF, and Unifil Bond-UB), and one two-step, total-etch adhesive (Single Bond-SB). Dentin surfaces were bonded with the adhesive systems and stored in water at 37 degrees C for 1 week and 6 months. After storage periods, teeth were sectioned into 0.8 mm-thick slabs, coated with nail varnish except for the bonded interfaces, and immersed in ammoniacal AgNO(3) for 24 h. After immersion in photodeveloping solution, bonded sections were prepared and observed under a SEM using the backscattered electron mode. Undemineralized, unstained, epoxy resin-embedded sections were prepared for TEM. Nanoleakage patterns were qualitatively compared between periods. Nanoleakage was observed in all bonded specimens at both periods. CF and UB presented silver deposits predominantly restricted to the thin (0.5 microm) hybrid layer (HL) at both periods. Although no evident differences were observed in the nanoleakage pattern of UB at 7 days and 6 months, CF presented enlarged areas of silver impregnation after 6 months. SB presented accumulation of silver particles mostly within the HL at 7 days, which was intensified after 6 months. AD and OB presented massive silver accumulation within the HL and the overlying adhesive layer. No evident differences were noticed between storage periods. Silver impregnation increased for all adhesive systems from 7 days to 6 months, except for UB.


Assuntos
Adesivos , Dente Pré-Molar/ultraestrutura , Materiais Dentários , Humanos , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Propriedades de Superfície , Extração Dentária
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