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1.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 68(41): 928-933, 2019 Oct 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31622286

RESUMO

Each year, tobacco use is responsible for approximately 8 million deaths worldwide, including 7 million deaths among persons who use tobacco and 1.2 million deaths among nonsmokers exposed to secondhand smoke (SHS) (1). Approximately 80% of the 1.1 billion persons who smoke tobacco worldwide reside in low- and middle-income countries (2,3). The World Health Organization's (WHO's) Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) provides the foundation for countries to implement and manage tobacco control through the MPOWER policy package,* which includes monitoring tobacco use, protecting persons from SHS, warning them about the danger of tobacco, and enforcing bans on tobacco advertising, promotion, or sponsorship (tobacco advertising) (4). CDC analyzed data from 11 countries that completed two or more rounds of the Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS) during 2008-2017. Tobacco use and tobacco-related behaviors that were assessed included current tobacco use, SHS exposure, thinking about quitting because of warning labels, and exposure to tobacco advertising. Across the assessed countries, the estimated percentage change in tobacco use from the first round to the most recent round ranged from -21.5% in Russia to 1.1% in Turkey. Estimated percentage change in SHS exposure ranged from -71.5% in Turkey to 72.9% in Thailand. Estimated percentage change in thinking about quitting because of warning labels ranged from 77.4% in India to -33.0% in Turkey. Estimated percentage change in exposure to tobacco advertising ranged from -66.1% in Russia to 44.2% in Thailand. Continued implementation and enforcement of proven tobacco control interventions and strategies at the country level, as outlined in MPOWER, can help reduce tobacco-related morbidity and mortality worldwide (3,5,6).


Assuntos
Saúde Global/estatística & dados numéricos , Uso de Tabaco/epidemiologia , Uso de Tabaco/psicologia , Adulto , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos
2.
Tob Induc Dis ; 17: 11, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31582922

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Hardened smokers are those who do not want to quit, or find it very difficult to quit. This study assessed the prevalence and predictors of hardened smokers in 19 low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). METHODS: We used nationally representative data from 19 LMICs that conducted the Global Adult Tobacco Survey during 2009-2013. Our analysis is restricted to adults aged ≥25 years. Hardened smokers were defined as daily smokers who smoked for 5 or more years, and who reported the following: no quit attempt in the past year that lasted 24 or more hours; no interest in quitting, or not planning to quit in the next year; and currently smoked within 30 minutes after waking. For each country, the prevalence of hardened smokers was analyzed by sex, age, residence (urban or rural), educational attainment, wealth index, and knowledge of the danger of smoking. Multivariable logistic regression was used to assess predictors of hardened smoking. RESULTS: Prevalence of hardened smokers among adults (aged ≥25 years) ranged from 1.1% (Panama) to 14.3% (Russia). Among current smokers (aged ≥25 years), the proportion of hardened smokers ranged from 7.5% (Mexico) to 38.4% (Romania). Adjusted odds of hardened smokers were significantly higher for males (9 of 19 countries), smokers aged 65 years or older (12 of 19 countries), adults with lower educational attainment (9 of 19 countries), and no knowledge of the danger of smoking (8 of 19 countries). CONCLUSIONS: The spectrum of smokers in the LMICs includes hardened smokers and prevalence varies across population groups. Full implementation of proven tobacco control strategies could reduce hardened smoking in LMICs.

3.
Tob Prev Cessat ; 5: 5, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30793066

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: We assessed self-reported receipt of help or advice to stop smoking among current tobacco smoking students enrolled in school. METHODS: Using cross-sectional data collected between 2012-2015 from the Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS), and representing the latest year for which data were collected, we calculated prevalence of receipt of help or advice to stop smoking among current tobacco smoking students aged 13-15 years from 56 countries. The sources of help or advice assessed in the GYTS were: 1) from a program or professional, 2) from a friend, and 3) from a family member. Overall response rates ranged from 60.3% in Nicaragua to 99.2% in Sudan. The analytic sample size ranged from 55 in Gabon to 950 in Bulgaria. RESULTS: In 53 of the 56 assessed countries, more than half of current tobacco smoking students received help or advice to quit from either a program or professional, friend, or family member (range=39.9% San Marino to 96.9% Timor-Leste). From a friend or family member only, the range was 37.2% Bahamas to 69.9% Montenegro, and from a program or professional only, the range was 3.7% Latvia to 34.2% Togo. CONCLUSIONS: Family and friends are the most common sources of help or advice to quit smoking among current tobacco smoking students in the GYTS countries assessed, while programs and professionals were the least common. The use of evidence-based measures is critical to prevent and reduce tobacco use among youth and to ensure they are receiving appropriate help or advice to quit.

4.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 67(38): 1072-1076, 2018 Sep 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30260941

RESUMO

Each year, tobacco use causes approximately 7 million deaths worldwide, including approximately 6 million among tobacco users and an estimated 890,000 among nonsmokers exposed to secondhand smoke (1). Tobacco use is a leading preventable cause of disease globally and has been determined to cause adverse health outcomes such as coronary heart disease, stroke, and multiple types of cancer, including lung cancer (2-4). Approximately 80% of the world's 1.1 billion tobacco smokers reside in low- and middle-income countries (4). Some persons do not fully understand the health risks associated with tobacco smoking (5-9), and studies have indicated that increasing knowledge about the adverse health effects of smoking can contribute to decreases in smoking, increases in cessation attempts, and increases in successful cessation (3,7,10). CDC analyzed 2008-2016 Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS) data from 28 countries to assess tobacco smoking prevalence, quit attempts, and knowledge about tobacco smoking risks among persons aged ≥15 years. Across countries, the median prevalence of tobacco smoking was 22.5%, and a median of 42.5% of tobacco smokers had made a quit attempt in the preceding 12 months. The median prevalences of knowing that tobacco smoking causes stroke, heart attack, and lung cancer were 73.6%, 83.6%, and 95.2%, respectively. Implementation of proven tobacco control interventions, including strategies that increase knowledge about the health risks posed by tobacco use, might help to reduce tobacco use and tobacco-related disease, including heart disease, stroke, and lung cancer (3-5).


Assuntos
Saúde Global/estatística & dados numéricos , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar/estatística & dados numéricos , Fumar/epidemiologia , Fumar/psicologia , Adulto , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Prevalência , Risco
5.
J Adolesc Health ; 62(5): 532-538, 2018 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29422436

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to use individual-level data to examine the relationship between e-cigarette minimum legal sale age (MLSA) laws and cigarette smoking among U.S. adolescents, adjusting for e-cigarette use. METHODS: In 2016 and 2017, we regressed (logistic) current (past 30-day) cigarette smoking (from 2009-2014 National Youth Tobacco Surveys [NYTS]) on lagged (laws enacted each year counted for the following year) and unlagged (laws enacted January-June counted for that year) state e-cigarette MLSA laws prohibiting sales to youth aged <18 or <19 years (depending on the state). Models were adjusted for year and individual- (e-cigarette and other tobacco use, sex, race/ethnicity, and age) and state-level (smoke-free laws, cigarette taxes, medical marijuana legalization, income, and unemployment) covariates. RESULTS: Cigarette smoking was not significantly associated with lagged MLSA laws after adjusting for year (odds ratio [OR] = .87, 95% confidence interval [CI]: .73-1.03; p = .10) and covariates (OR = .85, .69-1.03; p = .10). Unlagged laws were significantly and negatively associated with cigarette smoking (OR = .84, .71-.98, p = .02), but not after adjusting for covariates (OR = .84, .70-1.01, p = .07). E-cigarette and other tobacco use, sex, race/ethnicity, age, and smoke-free laws were associated with cigarette smoking (p <.05). Results unadjusted for e-cigarette use and other tobacco use yielded a significant negative association between e-cigarette MLSA laws and cigarette smoking (lagged: OR = .78, .64-.93, p = .01; unlagged: OR = .80, .68-.95, p = .01). CONCLUSIONS: After adjusting for covariates, state e-cigarette MLSA laws did not affect youth cigarette smoking. Unadjusted for e-cigarette and other tobacco use, these laws were associated with lower cigarette smoking.


Assuntos
Fumar Cigarros/epidemiologia , Comércio/legislação & jurisprudência , Vaping/legislação & jurisprudência , Adolescente , Adulto , Sistemas Eletrônicos de Liberação de Nicotina/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
7.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 66(20): 533-537, 2017 May 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28542119

RESUMO

Tobacco use is the world's leading cause of preventable morbidity and mortality, resulting in nearly 6 million deaths each year (1). Smoked tobacco products, such as cigarettes and cigars, are the most common form of tobacco consumed worldwide (2), and most tobacco smokers begin smoking during adolescence (3). The health benefits of quitting are greater for persons who stop smoking at earlier ages; however, quitting smoking at any age has health benefits (4). CDC used the Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS) data from 61 countries across the six World Health Organization (WHO) regions from 2012 to 2015 to examine the prevalence of current tobacco smoking and desire to quit smoking among students aged 13-15 years. Across all 61 countries, the median current tobacco smoking prevalence among students aged 13-15 years was 10.7% (range = 1.7%, Sri Lanka to 35.0%, Timor-Leste). By sex, the median current tobacco smoking prevalence was 14.6% among males (range = 2.9%, Tajikistan to 61.4%, Timor-Leste) and 7.5% among females (range = 1.6%, Tajikistan to 29.0%, Bulgaria). In the majority of countries assessed, the proportion of current tobacco smokers who desired to quit smoking exceeded 50%. These findings could be used by country level tobacco control programs to inform strategies to prevent and reduce youth tobacco use (1,4).


Assuntos
Saúde Global/estatística & dados numéricos , Motivação , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar/psicologia , Fumar/epidemiologia , Estudantes/psicologia , Adolescente , Feminino , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Masculino , Prevalência , Fumar/psicologia , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos
10.
Pediatrics ; 137(5)2016 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27244815

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) use among US students increased significantly during 2011 to 2014. We examined the association between e-cigarette advertisement exposure and current e-cigarette use among US middle school and high school students. METHODS: Data came from the 2014 National Youth Tobacco Survey (n = 22 007), a survey of students in grades 6 through 12. The association between current e-cigarette use and exposure to e-cigarette advertisements via 4 sources (Internet, newspapers/magazines, retail stores, and TV/movies) was assessed. Three advertising exposure categories were assessed: never/rarely, sometimes, and most of the time/always. Separate logistic regression models were used to measure the association, adjusting for gender, race/ethnicity, grade, and other tobacco use. RESULTS: Compared with students who reported exposure to e-cigarette advertisements never/rarely, the odds of current e-cigarette use were significantly (P < .05) greater among those reporting exposure sometimes and most of the time/always, respectively, as follows: Internet (adjusted odds ratio: middle school, 1.44 and 2.91; high school, 1.49, and 2.02); newspapers/magazines (middle school, 0.93 [not significant] and 1.87; high school, 1.26 and 1.71); retail stores (middle school, 1.78 and 2.34; high school, 1.37, and 1.91); and TV/movies (middle school, 1.25 [not significant] and 1.80; high school, 1.24 and 1.54). CONCLUSIONS: E-cigarette advertisement exposure is associated with current e-cigarette use among students; greater exposure is associated with higher odds of use. Given that youth use of tobacco in any form is unsafe, comprehensive tobacco prevention and control strategies, including efforts to reduce youth exposure to advertising, are critical to prevent all forms of tobacco use among youth.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente , Sistemas Eletrônicos de Liberação de Nicotina/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Humanos , Internet , Meios de Comunicação de Massa , Estados Unidos
11.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 65(14): 361-7, 2016 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27077789

RESUMO

Tobacco use is the leading cause of preventable disease and death in the United States; if current smoking rates continue, 5.6 million Americans aged <18 years who are alive today are projected to die prematurely from smoking-related disease. Tobacco use and addiction mostly begin during youth and young adulthood. CDC and the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) analyzed data from the 2011-2015 National Youth Tobacco Surveys (NYTS) to determine the prevalence and trends of current (past 30-day) use of seven tobacco product types (cigarettes, cigars, smokeless tobacco, electronic cigarettes [e-cigarettes], hookahs [water pipes used to smoke tobacco], pipe tobacco, and bidis [small imported cigarettes wrapped in a tendu leaf]) among U.S. middle (grades 6-8) and high (grades 9-12) school students. In 2015, e-cigarettes were the most commonly used tobacco product among middle (5.3%) and high (16.0%) school students. During 2011-2015, significant increases in current use of e-cigarettes and hookahs occurred among middle and high school students, whereas current use of conventional tobacco products, such as cigarettes and cigars decreased, resulting in no change in overall tobacco product use. During 2014-2015, current use of e-cigarettes increased among middle school students, whereas current use of hookahs decreased among high school students; in contrast, no change was observed in use of hookahs among middle school students, use of e-cigarettes among high school students, or use of cigarettes, cigars, smokeless tobacco, pipe tobacco, or bidis among middle and high school students. In 2015, an estimated 4.7 million middle and high school students were current tobacco product users, and, therefore, continue to be exposed to harmful tobacco product constituents, including nicotine. Nicotine exposure during adolescence, a critical period for brain development, can cause addiction, might harm brain development, and could lead to sustained tobacco product use among youths. Comprehensive and sustained strategies are warranted to prevent and reduce the use of all tobacco products among U.S. youths.


Assuntos
Fumar/epidemiologia , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Masculino , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
12.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 64(52): 1403-8, 2016 Jan 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26741522

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) use has increased considerably among U.S. youths since 2011. Tobacco use among youths in any form, including e-cigarettes, is unsafe. Tobacco product advertising can persuade youths to start using tobacco. CDC analyzed data from the 2014 National Youth Tobacco Survey to estimate the prevalence of e-cigarette advertisement exposure among U.S. middle school and high school students. METHODS: The 2014 National Youth Tobacco Survey, a school-based survey of middle school and high school students in grades 6-12, included 22,007 participants. Exposure to e-cigarette advertisements (categorized as "sometimes," "most of the time," or "always") was assessed for four sources: retail stores, Internet, TV and movies, and newspapers and magazines. Weighted exposure estimates were assessed overall and by school type, sex, race/ethnicity, and grade. RESULTS: In 2014, 68.9% of middle and high school students (18.3 million) were exposed to e-cigarette advertisements from at least one source. Among middle school students, exposure was highest for retail stores (52.8%), followed by Internet (35.8%), TV and movies (34.1%), and newspapers and magazines (25.0%). Among high school students, exposure was highest for retail stores (56.3%), followed by Internet (42.9%), TV and movies (38.4%), and newspapers and magazines (34.6%). Among middle school students, 23.4% reported exposure to e-cigarette advertising from one source, 17.4% from two sources, 13.7% from three sources, and 11.9% from four sources. Among high school students, 21.1% reported exposure to e-cigarette advertising from one source, 17.0% from two sources, 14.5% from three sources, and 18.2% from four sources. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS FOR PUBLIC HEALTH PRACTICE: Approximately seven in 10 U.S. middle and high school students were exposed to e-cigarette advertisements in 2014. Exposure to e-cigarette advertisements might contribute to increased use of e-cigarettes among youths. Multiple approaches are warranted to reduce youth e-cigarette use and exposure to e-cigarette advertisements, including efforts to reduce youth access to settings where tobacco products, such as e-cigarettes, are sold, and regulation of youth-oriented e-cigarette marketing.


Assuntos
/estatística & dados numéricos , Sistemas Eletrônicos de Liberação de Nicotina , Instituições Acadêmicas/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Criança , Sistemas Eletrônicos de Liberação de Nicotina/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Inquéritos e Questionários , Estados Unidos
13.
Am J Prev Med ; 50(4): 528-534, 2016 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26549502

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: National data indicate that the prevalence of non-cigarette tobacco product use is highest among young adults; however, little is known about their openness to use these products in the future and associated risk factors. This study sought to characterize openness to using non-cigarette tobacco products and associated factors among U.S. young adults. METHODS: In 2014, National Adult Tobacco Survey data (2012-2013) were analyzed to characterize openness to using the following tobacco products among all young adults aged 18-29 years (N=5,985): cigars; electronic cigarettes ("e-cigarettes"); hookah; pipe tobacco; chew, snuff, or dip; snus; and dissolvables. Among those who were not current users of each product, multivariable logistic regression was used to examine associations between demographics, cigarette smoking status, lifetime use of other non-cigarette products, perceived harm and addictiveness of smoking, and receipt of tobacco industry promotions and openness to using each product. RESULTS: Among all young adults, openness to using non-cigarette tobacco products was greatest for hookah (28.2%); e-cigarettes (25.5%); and cigars (19.1%). In multivariable analyses, which included non-current users of each product, non-current ever, current, and former smokers were more likely than never smokers to be open to using most examined products, as were men and adults aged 18-24 years. Receipt of tobacco industry promotions was associated with openness to using e-cigarettes; chew, snuff, or dip; and snus. CONCLUSIONS: There is substantial openness to trying non-cigarette tobacco products among U.S. young adults. Young adults are an important population to consider for interventions targeting non-cigarette tobacco product use.


Assuntos
Sistemas Eletrônicos de Liberação de Nicotina/estatística & dados numéricos , Produtos do Tabaco/estatística & dados numéricos , Uso de Tabaco/epidemiologia , Tabaco sem Fumaça/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Sistemas Eletrônicos de Liberação de Nicotina/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Sexuais , Inquéritos e Questionários , Indústria do Tabaco/organização & administração , Uso de Tabaco/psicologia , Estados Unidos , Adulto Jovem
14.
Am J Prev Med ; 50(2): 226-9, 2016 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26687190

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Electronic nicotine delivery system (ENDS) use has increased rapidly in the U.S. in recent years. The availability and use of ENDS raise new issues for public health practice and tobacco regulation, as it is unknown whether patterns of ENDS use enhance, deter, or have no impact on combustible tobacco product use. This study assessed past-month, lifetime, and frequency of ENDS use among current, former, and never adult cigarette smokers. METHODS: Data were analyzed from the 2014 Styles, a national consumer-based probability-based web panel survey of U.S. adults aged ≥18 years (n=4,269) conducted during June and July. Lifetime ENDS users were defined as those who reported having used ENDS ≥1 day in their lifetime. Past-month ENDS users were defined as those who reported using ENDS in the past 30 days. RESULTS: In 2014, overall lifetime and past-month ENDS use was 14.1% and 4.8%, respectively. By smoking status, 49.5% of current, 14.7% of former, and 4.1% of never cigarette smokers had used ENDS in their lifetime, whereas 20.6% of current, 4.0% of former, and 0.8% of never smokers used ENDS in the past month. Among current and former cigarette smokers who ever used ENDS, 44.1% and 44.7% reported using ENDS >10 days in their lifetime, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Because the effect ENDS use has on combustible tobacco products use is unknown, and lifetime and past-month ENDS use is more common among current than former or never smokers, continued surveillance of ENDS use among adults is critical to programs and policies.


Assuntos
Sistemas Eletrônicos de Liberação de Nicotina/estatística & dados numéricos , Fumar/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
15.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 64(38): 1061-5, 2015 Oct 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26422781

RESUMO

The use of tobacco products during adolescence increases the risk for adverse health effects and lifelong nicotine addiction. In 2014, an estimated 4.6 million middle and high school students were current users of any tobacco product, of whom an estimated 2.2 million were current users of two or more types of tobacco products. Symptoms of nicotine dependence are increased for multiple tobacco product users compared with single-product users. CDC and the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) analyzed data from the 2014 National Youth Tobacco Survey (NYTS) to determine how frequently (the number of days in the preceding 30 days) U.S. middle school (grades 6­8) and high school (grades 9­12) students used cigarettes, e-cigarettes, cigars, and smokeless tobacco products. Among current users (≥1 day during the preceding 30 days) in high school, frequent use (≥20 days during the preceding 30 days) was most prevalent among smokeless tobacco users (42.0%), followed by cigarette smokers (31.6%), e-cigarette users (15.5%), and cigar smokers (13.1%); a similar pattern was observed for those who used during all 30 days. Among current users in middle school, frequent use was greatest among smokeless tobacco users (29.2%), followed by cigarette smokers (20.0%), cigar smokers (13.2%) and e-cigarette users (11.8%). Current use of two or more types of tobacco products was common, even among students who used tobacco products 1­5 days during the preceding 30 days: 77.3% for cigar smokers, 76.9% for cigarette smokers, 63.4% for smokeless tobacco users, and 54.8% for e-cigarettes users. Preventing youths from initiating the use of any tobacco product is important to tobacco use prevention and control strategies in the United States. Monitoring the frequency and patterns of tobacco use among youths, including the use of two or more tobacco products, is important to inform evidence-based interventions to prevent and reduce all forms of tobacco use among youths.


Assuntos
Sistemas Eletrônicos de Liberação de Nicotina/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudantes/psicologia , Produtos do Tabaco/estatística & dados numéricos , Uso de Tabaco/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Instituições Acadêmicas/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
16.
PLoS One ; 10(8): e0134734, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26308217

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Youth are exposed to many types of protobacco influences, including smoking in movies, which has been shown to cause initiation. This study investigates associations between different channels of protobacco media and susceptibility to smoking cigarettes, cigarette experimentation, and current tobacco use among US middle and high school students. METHODS: By using data from the 2012 National Youth Tobacco Survey, structural equation modeling was performed in 2013. The analyses examined exposure to tobacco use in different channels of protobacco media on smoking susceptibility, experimentation, and current tobacco use, accounting for perceived peer tobacco use. RESULTS: In 2012, 27.9% of respondents were never-smokers who reported being susceptible to trying cigarette smoking. Cigarette experimentation increased from 6.3% in 6th grade to 37.1% in 12th grade. Likewise, current tobacco use increased from 5.2% in 6th grade to 33.2% in 12th grade. Structural equation modeling supported a model in which current tobacco use is associated with exposure to static advertising through perception of peer use, and by exposure to tobacco use depicted on TV and in movies, both directly and through perception of peer use. Exposure to static advertising appears to directly increase smoking susceptibility but indirectly (through increased perceptions of peer use) to increase cigarette experimentation. Models that explicitly incorporate peer use as a mediator can better discern the direct and indirect effects of exposure to static advertising on youth tobacco use initiation. CONCLUSIONS: These findings underscore the importance of reducing youth exposure to smoking in TV, movies, and static advertising.


Assuntos
Meios de Comunicação de Massa , Fumar/psicologia , Adolescente , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Infuência dos Pares , Instituições Acadêmicas , Inquéritos e Questionários , Estados Unidos
17.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 64(14): 381-5, 2015 Apr 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25879896

RESUMO

Tobacco use and addiction most often begin during youth and young adulthood. Youth use of tobacco in any form is unsafe. To determine the prevalence and trends of current (past 30-day) use of nine tobacco products (cigarettes, cigars, smokeless tobacco, e-cigarettes, hookahs, tobacco pipes, snus, dissolvable tobacco, and bidis) among U.S. middle (grades 6-8) and high school (grades 9-12) students, CDC and the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) analyzed data from the 2011-2014 National Youth Tobacco Surveys (NYTS). In 2014, e-cigarettes were the most commonly used tobacco product among middle (3.9%) and high (13.4%) school students. Between 2011 and 2014, statistically significant increases were observed among these students for current use of both e-cigarettes and hookahs (p<0.05), while decreases were observed for current use of more traditional products, such as cigarettes and cigars, resulting in no change in overall tobacco use. Consequently, 4.6 million middle and high school students continue to be exposed to harmful tobacco product constituents, including nicotine. Nicotine exposure during adolescence, a critical window for brain development, might have lasting adverse consequences for brain development, causes addiction, and might lead to sustained tobacco use. For this reason, comprehensive and sustained strategies are needed to prevent and reduce the use of all tobacco products among youths in the United States.


Assuntos
Fumar/epidemiologia , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Masculino , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
18.
Nicotine Tob Res ; 17(2): 228-35, 2015 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25143298

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) use is increasing rapidly, and the impact on youth is unknown. We assessed associations between e-cigarette use and smoking intentions among US youth who had never smoked conventional cigarettes. METHODS: We analyzed data from the nationally representative 2011, 2012, and 2013 National Youth Tobacco Surveys of students in grades 6-12. Youth reporting they would definitely not smoke in the next year or if offered a cigarette by a friend were defined as not having an intention to smoke; all others were classified as having positive intention to smoke conventional cigarettes. Demographics, pro-tobacco advertisement exposure, ever use of e-cigarettes, and ever use of other combustibles (cigars, hookah, bidis, kreteks, and pipes) and noncombustibles (chewing tobacco, snuff, dip, snus, and dissolvables) were included in multivariate analyses that assessed associations with smoking intentions among never-cigarette-smoking youth. RESULTS: Between 2011 and 2013, the number of never-smoking youth who used e-cigarettes increased 3-fold, from 79,000 to more than 263,000. Intention to smoke conventional cigarettes was 43.9% among ever e-cigarette users and 21.5% among never users. Ever e-cigarette users had higher adjusted odds for having smoking intentions than never users (adjusted odds ratio = 1.70, 95% confidence interval = 1.24-2.32). Those who ever used other combustibles, ever used noncombustibles, or reported pro-tobacco advertisement exposure also had increased odds for smoking intentions. CONCLUSION: In 2013, more than a quarter million never-smoking youth used e-cigarettes. E-cigarette use is associated with increased intentions to smoke cigarettes, and enhanced prevention efforts for youth are important for all forms of tobacco, including e-cigarettes.


Assuntos
Sistemas Eletrônicos de Liberação de Nicotina/estatística & dados numéricos , Intenção , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar/estatística & dados numéricos , Fumar/psicologia , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Serviços de Saúde do Adolescente , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Serviços de Saúde Escolar , Inquéritos e Questionários , Estados Unidos
19.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 63(45): 1021-6, 2014 Nov 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25393220

RESUMO

Tobacco use is the leading preventable cause of disease and death in the United States, and nearly all tobacco use begins during youth and young adulthood. Among U.S. youths, cigarette smoking has declined in recent years; however, the use of some other tobacco products has increased, and nearly half of tobacco users use two or more tobacco products. CDC analyzed data from the 2013 National Youth Tobacco Survey to determine the prevalence of ever (at least once) and current (at least 1 day in the past 30 days) use of one or more of 10 tobacco products (cigarettes, cigars, hookahs, smokeless tobacco, electronic cigarettes [e-cigarettes], pipes, snus, bidis, kreteks, and dissolvable tobacco) among U.S. middle school (grades 6-8) and high school (grades 9-12) students. In 2013, 22.9% of high school students reported current use of any tobacco product, and 12.6% reported current use of two or more tobacco products; current use of combustible products (i.e., cigarettes, cigars, pipes, bidis, kreteks, and/or hookahs) was substantially greater (20.7%) than use of other types of tobacco. Also, 46.0% of high school students reported having ever tried a tobacco product, and 31.4% reported ever trying two or more tobacco products. Among middle school students, 3.1% reported current use of cigars, and 2.9% reported current use of cigarettes, with non-Hispanic black students more than twice as likely to report current use of cigars than cigarettes. Monitoring the prevalence of the use of all available tobacco products, including new and emerging products, is critical to support effective population-based interventions to prevent and reduce tobacco use among youths as part of comprehensive tobacco prevention and control programs.


Assuntos
Fumar/epidemiologia , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Masculino , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
20.
Am J Prev Med ; 47(2 Suppl 1): S36-52, 2014 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25044194

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Increasing diversity of the tobacco product landscape, including electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes), hookah, snus, and dissolvable tobacco products (dissolvables), raises concerns about the public health impact of these non-conventional tobacco products among youth. PURPOSE: This study assessed awareness, ever use, and current use of non-conventional tobacco products among U.S. students in 2012, overall and by demographic and tobacco use characteristics. METHODS: Data from the 2012 National Youth Tobacco Survey, a nationally representative survey of U.S. middle and high school students, were analyzed in 2013. Prevalence of awareness, ever use, and current use of e-cigarettes, hookah, snus, and dissolvables were calculated overall and by sex, school level, race/ethnicity, and conventional tobacco product use, including cigarettes, cigars, or smokeless tobacco (chewing tobacco, snuff, or dip). RESULTS: Overall, 50.3% of students were aware of e-cigarettes; prevalence of ever and current use of e-cigarettes was 6.8% and 2.1%, respectively. Awareness of hookah was 41.2% among all students, and that of ever and current use were 8.9% and 3.6%, respectively. Overall awareness; ever; and current use of snus (32%, 5.3%, 1.7%, respectively) and dissolvables (19.3%, 2.0%, 0.7%, respectively) were generally lower than those of e-cigarettes or hookah. Conventional tobacco product users were more likely to be aware of and to use non-conventional tobacco products. CONCLUSIONS: Many U.S. students are aware of and use non-conventional tobacco products. Evidence-based interventions should be implemented to prevent and reduce all tobacco use among youth.


Assuntos
Fumar/epidemiologia , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Produtos do Tabaco/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Conscientização , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Coleta de Dados , Sistemas Eletrônicos de Liberação de Nicotina/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Prevalência , Saúde Pública , Tabaco sem Fumaça/estatística & dados numéricos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
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