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1.
Enferm. infecc. microbiol. clín. (Ed. impr.) ; 37(3): 151-159, mar. 2019. graf, tab
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-181298

RESUMO

Background: The GESIDA/National AIDS Plan expert panel recommended preferred regimens (PR), alternative regimens (AR) and other regimens (OR) for antiretroviral treatment (ART) as initial therapy in HIV-infected patients for 2018. The objective of this study was to evaluate the costs and the efficiency of initiating treatment with PR and AR. Methods: Economic assessment of costs and efficiency (cost-effectiveness) based on decision tree analyses. Effectiveness was defined as the probability of reporting a viral load <50 copies/mL at week 48, in an intention-to-treat analysis. Cost of initiating treatment with an ART regimen was defined as the costs of ART and its consequences (adverse effects, changes of ART regimen, and drug-resistance studies) over the first 48 weeks. The payer perspective (National Health System) was applied considering only differential direct costs: ART (official prices), management of adverse effects, studies of resistance, and HLA B*5701 testing. The setting was Spain and the costs correspond to those of 2018. A deterministic sensitivity analysis was conducted, building three scenarios for each regimen: base case, most favourable and least favourable. Results: In the base-case scenario, the cost of initiating treatment ranges from 6788 euros for TAF/FTC/RPV (AR) to 10,649 euros for TAF/FTC + RAL (PR). The effectiveness varies from 0.82 for TAF/FTC + DRV/r (AR) to 0.91 for TAF/FTC+DTG (PR). The efficiency, in terms of cost-effectiveness, ranges from 7814 to 12,412 euros per responder at 48 weeks, for ABC/3TC/DTG (PR) and TAF/FTC + RAL (PR), respectively. Conclusion: Considering ART official prices, the most efficient regimen was ABC/3TC/DTG (PR), followed by TAF/FTC/RPV (AR) and TAF/FTC/EVG/COBI (AR)


Introducción El panel de expertos de GESIDA/Plan Nacional del Sida ha recomendado pautas preferentes (PP), pautas alternativas (PA) y otras pautas (OP) para el tratamiento antirretroviral (TAR) como terapia de inicio en pacientes infectados por VIH para 2018. El objetivo de este estudio es evaluar los costes y la eficiencia de iniciar tratamiento con PP y PA. Métodos: Evaluación económica de costes y eficiencia (coste/eficacia) mediante construcción de árboles de decisión. Se definió eficacia como la probabilidad de tener carga viral <50 copias/ml en la semana 48 en análisis por intención de tratar. Se definió coste de iniciar tratamiento con una pauta como los costes del TAR y de todas sus consecuencias (efectos adversos, cambios de pauta y estudio de resistencias) que se producen en las siguientes 48 semanas. Se utilizó la perspectiva del Sistema Nacional de Salud, considerando solo costes directos diferenciales: TAR (a precio oficial), manejo de efectos adversos, estudios de resistencias y determinación de HLA-B*5701. El ámbito es España, con costes de 2018. Se realizó un análisis de sensibilidad determinista construyendo 3 escenarios para cada pauta: basal, más favorable y más desfavorable. Resultados: En el escenario basal, los costes de iniciar tratamiento oscilaron entre 6.788 para TAF/FTC/RPV (PA) y 10.649 para TAF/FTC+RAL (PP). La eficacia osciló entre 0,82 para TAF/FTC+DRV/r (PA) y 0,91 para TAF/FTC+DTG (PP). La eficiencia, en términos de coste/eficacia, osciló entre 7.814 y 12.412 por respondedor a las 48 semanas, para ABC/3TC/DTG (PP) y TAF/FTC+RAL (PP), respectivamente. Conclusión: Considerando el precio oficial del TAR, la pauta más eficiente fue ABC/3TC/DTG (PP), seguida de TAF/FTC/RPV (PA) y AF/FTC/EVG/COBI (PA)


Assuntos
Humanos , Adulto , Antirretrovirais/economia , Antirretrovirais/uso terapêutico , Análise Custo-Benefício , HIV , Fármacos Anti-HIV/uso terapêutico
2.
Lancet ; 2018 Nov 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30420123

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Effective two-drug regimens could decrease long-term drug exposure and toxicity with HIV-1 antiretroviral therapy (ART). We therefore aimed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of a two-drug regimen compared with a three-drug regimen for the treatment of HIV-1 infection in ART-naive adults. METHODS: We conducted two identically designed, multicentre, double-blind, randomised, non-inferiority, phase 3 trials: GEMINI-1 and GEMINI-2. Both studies were done at 192 centres in 21 countries. We included participants (≥18 years) with HIV-1 infection and a screening HIV-1 RNA of 500 000 copies per mL or less, and who were naive to ART. We randomly assigned participants (1:1) to receive a once-daily two-drug regimen of dolutegravir (50 mg) plus lamivudine (300 mg) or a once-daily three-drug regimen of dolutegravir (50 mg) plus tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (300 mg) and emtricitabine (200 mg). Both drug regimens were administered orally. We masked participants and investigators to treatment assignment: dolutegravir was administered as single-entity tablets (similar to its commercial formulation, except with a different film colour), and lamivudine tablets and tenofovir disoproxil fumarate and emtricitabine tablets were over-encapsulated to visually match each other. Primary endpoint was the proportion of participants with HIV-1 RNA of less than 50 copies per mL at week 48 in the intention-to-treat-exposed population, using the Snapshot algorithm and a non-inferiority margin of -10%. Safety analyses were done on the safety population. GEMINI-1 and GEMINI-2 are registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, numbers NCT02831673 and NCT02831764, respectively. FINDINGS: Between July 18, 2016, and March 31, 2017, 1441 participants across both studies were randomly assigned to receive either the two-drug regimen (n=719) or three-drug regimen (n=722). At week 48 in the GEMINI-1 intention-to-treat-exposed population, 320 (90%) of 356 participants receiving the two-drug regimen and 332 (93%) of 358 receiving the three-drug regimen achieved plasma HIV-1 RNA of less than 50 copies per mL (adjusted treatment difference -2·6%, 95% CI -6·7 to 1·5); in GEMINI-2, 335 (93%) of 360 in the two-drug regimen and 337 (94%) of 359 in the three-drug regimen achieved HIV-1 RNA of less than 50 copies per mL (adjusted treatment difference -0·7%, 95% CI -4·3 to 2·9), showing non-inferiority at a -10% margin in both studies (pooled analysis: 655 [91%] of 716 in the two-drug regimen vs 669 [93%] of 717 in the three-drug regimen; adjusted treatment difference -1·7%, 95% CI -4·4 to 1·1). Numerically, more drug-related adverse events occurred with the three-drug regimen than with the two-drug regimen (169 [24%] of 717 vs 126 [18%] of 716); few participants discontinued because of adverse events (16 [2%] in the three-drug regimen and 15 [2%] in the two-drug regimen). Two deaths were reported in the two-drug regimen group of GEMINI-2, but neither was considered to be related to the study medication. INTERPRETATION: The non-inferior efficacy and similar tolerability profile of dolutegravir plus lamivudine to a guideline-recommended three-drug regimen at 48 weeks in ART-naive adults supports its use as initial therapy for patients with HIV-1 infection. FUNDING: ViiV Healthcare.

3.
Enferm. infecc. microbiol. clín. (Ed. impr.) ; 36(8): 517-522, oct. 2018. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-176811

RESUMO

La fiebre hemorrágica de Crimea-Congo afecta a más de 30 países de África, Asia, Europa oriental y Oriente Medio, con una creciente incidencia durante los últimos años, especialmente en Europa. Sin un tratamiento específico eficaz, las medidas terapéuticas de soporte son fundamentales, así como disponer de un centro con los medios adecuados para garantizar la seguridad de los trabajadores. La monitorización analítica es esencial para el manejo de la trombocitopenia, la coagulopatía grave o el fallo hepático. La atención a los pacientes con fiebre hemorrágica de Crimea-Congo debe llevarse a cabo en Unidades de Aislamiento de Alto Nivel, capaces de aplicar procedimientos de biocontención que eviten la transmisión nosocomial a través de fluidos infectados o accidentes con material contaminado. En caso de exposiciones de alto riesgo podría plantearse la administración precoz de ribavirina


Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever has been reported in more than 30 countries in Africa, Asia, the Middle East and Eastern Europe, with an increasing incidence in recent years, especially in Europe. Because no specific treatments have demonstrated efficacy, supportive treatment is essential, as well as the provision of a centre with the appropriate means to guarantee the safety of its healthcare professionals. Laboratory monitoring of thrombocytopenia, severe coagulopathy or liver failure is of critical importance. Patients with Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever should be admitted to High Level Isolation Units where appropriate biocontainment procedures can prevent nosocomial transmission through infected fluids or accidents with contaminated material. In case of high-risk exposures, early administration of ribavirin should be considered


Assuntos
Humanos , Febre Hemorrágica da Crimeia/terapia , Prognóstico
4.
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29884455

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The GESIDA/National AIDS Plan expert panel recommended preferred regimens (PR), alternative regimens (AR) and other regimens (OR) for antiretroviral treatment (ART) as initial therapy in HIV-infected patients for 2018. The objective of this study was to evaluate the costs and the efficiency of initiating treatment with PR and AR. METHODS: Economic assessment of costs and efficiency (cost-effectiveness) based on decision tree analyses. Effectiveness was defined as the probability of reporting a viral load <50copies/mL at week 48, in an intention-to-treat analysis. Cost of initiating treatment with an ART regimen was defined as the costs of ART and its consequences (adverse effects, changes of ART regimen, and drug-resistance studies) over the first 48 weeks. The payer perspective (National Health System) was applied considering only differential direct costs: ART (official prices), management of adverse effects, studies of resistance, and HLA B*5701 testing. The setting was Spain and the costs correspond to those of 2018. A deterministic sensitivity analysis was conducted, building three scenarios for each regimen: base case, most favourable and least favourable. RESULTS: In the base-case scenario, the cost of initiating treatment ranges from 6788 euros for TAF/FTC/RPV (AR) to 10,649 euros for TAF/FTC+RAL (PR). The effectiveness varies from 0.82 for TAF/FTC+DRV/r (AR) to 0.91 for TAF/FTC+DTG (PR). The efficiency, in terms of cost-effectiveness, ranges from 7814 to 12,412 euros per responder at 48 weeks, for ABC/3TC/DTG (PR) and TAF/FTC+RAL (PR), respectively. CONCLUSION: Considering ART official prices, the most efficient regimen was ABC/3TC/DTG (PR), followed by TAF/FTC/RPV (AR) and TAF/FTC/EVG/COBI (AR).

5.
Enferm. infecc. microbiol. clín. (Ed. impr.) ; 36(5): 268-276, mayo 2018. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-176567

RESUMO

Introduction: GESIDA and the Spanish National AIDS Plan panel of experts have recommended preferred (PR), alternative (AR) and other regimens (OR) for antiretroviral therapy (ART) as initial therapy in HIV-infected patients for 2017. The objective of this study was to evaluate the costs and the efficiency of initiating treatment with PR and AR. Methods: Economic assessment of costs and efficiency (cost-efficacy) based on decision tree analyses. Efficacy was defined as the probability of reporting a viral load <50copies/mL at week 48, in an intention-to-treat analysis. Cost of initiating treatment with an ART regimen was defined as the costs of ART and its consequences (adverse effects, changes of ART regimen and drug resistance studies) during the first 48 weeks. The payer perspective (National Health System) was applied considering only differential direct costs: ART (official prices), management of adverse effects, resistance studies and HLA B*5701 screening. The setting was Spain and the costs correspond to those of 2017. A deterministic sensitivity analysis was conducted, building three scenarios for each regimen: base case, most favourable and least favourable. Results: In the base case scenario, the cost of initiating treatment ranged from 6882 euro for TFV/FTC/RPV (AR) to 10,904 euros for TFV/FTC + RAL (PR). The efficacy varied from 0.82 for TFV/FTC + DRV/p (AR) to 0.92 for TAF/FTC/EVG/COBI (PR). The efficiency, in terms of cost-efficacy, ranged from 7923 to 12,765 euros per responder at 48 weeks, for ABC/3TC/DTG (PR) and TFV/FTC + RAL (PR), respectively. Conclusion: Considering ART official prices, the most efficient regimen was ABC/3TC/DTG (PR), followed by TFV/FTC/RPV (AR) and TAF/FTC/EVG/COBI (PR)


Introducción: El panel de expertos de GESIDA/Plan Nacional del Sida ha recomendado pautas preferentes (PP), pautas alternativas (PA) y otras pautas (OP) para el tratamiento antirretroviral (TARV) como terapia de inicio en pacientes infectados por VIH para 2017. El objetivo de este estudio es evaluar los costes y la eficiencia de iniciar tratamiento con PP y PA. Métodos: Evaluación económica de costes y eficiencia (coste/eficacia) mediante construcción de árboles de decisión. Se definió eficacia como la probabilidad de tener carga viral < 50 copias/mL en la semana 48 en análisis por intención de tratar. Se definió coste de iniciar tratamiento con una pauta como los costes del TARV y de todas sus consecuencias (efectos adversos, cambios de pauta y estudio de resistencias) que se producen en las siguientes 48 semanas. Se utilizó la perspectiva del Sistema Nacional de Salud, considerando solo costes directos diferenciales: TARV (a precio oficial), manejo de efectos adversos, estudios de resistencias y determinación de HLA B*5701. El ámbito es España, con costes de 2017. Se realizó un análisis de sensibilidad determinista construyendo 3 escenarios para cada pauta: basal, más favorable y más desfavorable. Resultados: En el escenario basal, los costes de iniciar tratamiento oscilaron entre 6.882 euros para TFV/FTC/RPV (PA) y 10.904 euros para TFV/FTC + RAL (PP). La eficacia osciló entre 0,82 para TFV/FTC + DRV/p (PA) y 0,92 para TAF/FTC/EVG/COBI (PP). La eficiencia, en términos de coste/eficacia, osciló entre 7.923 y 12.765 euros por respondedor a las 48 semanas, para ABC/3TC/DTG (PP) y TFV/FTC + RAL (PP), respectivamente. Conclusión: Considerando el precio oficial del TARV, la pauta más eficiente fue ABC/3TC/DTG (PP), seguida de TFV/FTC/RPV (PA) y TAF/FTC/EVG/COBI (PP)


Assuntos
Humanos , Adulto , Custos de Medicamentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Análise Custo-Benefício , Terapia Antirretroviral de Alta Atividade/economia , Fármacos Anti-HIV/administração & dosagem , Fármacos Anti-HIV/economia , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Espanha , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Medicina Baseada em Evidências
6.
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-170107

RESUMO

Introduction: A considerable increase of imported Zika virus (ZIKV) infection has been reported in Europe in the last year. This is the result of the large outbreak of the disease in the Americas, along with the increase in the numbers of travellers and immigrants arriving from ZIKV endemic areas. Methods: A descriptive study was conducted in the Tropical Medicine Unit of Hospital La Paz-Carlos III in Madrid on travellers returning from an endemic area for ZIKV from January to April 2016. Demographic, clinical and microbiological data were analyzed. Results: A total of 185 patients were screened for ZIKV (59.9% women, median age of 37.7±10.3 years). Main purpose of the travel was tourism to Colombia, Brazil, and México. Just under three-quarters (73%) were symptomatic, mostly with fever and headache. A total of 13 patients (7% of those screened) were diagnosed with ZIKV infections, of which four of them were pregnant. All of them were symptomatic patients, the majority immigrants, and mainly from Colombia. Diagnostic tests were based on positive neutralization antibodies (8 cases, 61.6%) and a positive RT-PCR in different organic fluids (7 cases, 53.8%) The four infected pregnant women underwent a neurosonography every 3 weeks, and no alterations were detected. RT-PCR in amniotic fluid was performed in three of them, with negative results. One of the children has already been born healthy. Conclusions: Our cases series represents the largest cohort of imported ZIKV to Spain described until now. Clinicians must increase awareness about the progression of the ZIKV outbreak and the affected areas so that they can include Zika virus infection in their differential diagnosis for travellers from those areas (AU)


Introducción: En el último año se ha registrado un importante aumento de casos de infección por virus Zika (ZIKV) importados en Europa. Este hecho es un reflejo de la epidemia que actualmente se está produciendo en las Américas, así como del aumento del número de viajeros e inmigrantes que proceden de zonas endémicas. Métodos: Estudio descriptivo de los viajeros retornados de área endémica para ZIKV en la Unidad de Medicina Tropical del Hospital La Paz-Carlos III en Madrid, de enero a abril de 2016. Se recogieron y analizaron datos demográficos, clínicos y microbiológicos. Resultados: Se cribaron para ZIKV un total de 185 pacientes (59,9% mujeres, mediana de edad de 37,7±10,3 años). El propósito por el que habían realizado el viaje fue por turismo a Colombia, Brasil y México. El 73% de los inicialmente cribados presentaron síntomas, fundamentalmente fiebre y cefalea. Se diagnosticó infección por ZIKV a 13 pacientes (7% de los cribados); 4 de ellos eran gestantes. Todos los casos con infección confirmada estaban sintomáticos, y la mayoría eran inmigrantes colombianos. El diagnóstico se basó en la presencia de anticuerpos neutralizantes positivos (8 casos, 61,6%) y RT-PCR positiva en diferentes fluidos orgánicos (7 casos, 53,8%). A las 4 gestantes infectadas se les realizó neurosonografía fetal seriada cada 3 semanas, no detectándose alteraciones en ninguna de ellas. En 3 casos se realizó RT-PCR en líquido amniótico, que fue negativo. Uno de los niños ha nacido, y está completamente sano. Conclusiones: Nuestra serie representa la cohorte más grande de infección por ZIKV importada en España hasta la fecha. Los clínicos deben estar alerta sobre la evolución de la epidemia del ZIKV y las zonas a las que afecta, para poder incluir la infección por ZIKV dentro del diagnóstico diferencial de viajeros que regresan de esas áreas (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infecção por Zika virus/epidemiologia , Infecção por Zika virus/prevenção & controle , Doenças Endêmicas/prevenção & controle , Medicina de Viagem/métodos , Infecções por Arbovirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Arbovirus/microbiologia , Infecção por Zika virus/microbiologia , Espanha/epidemiologia , Medicina de Viagem/história , Medicina de Viagem/tendências , Infecções por Arbovirus/epidemiologia , Arbovirus/isolamento & purificação , Estudos Retrospectivos
7.
Enferm Infecc Microbiol Clin ; 36(5): 268-276, 2018 05.
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28532596

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: GESIDA and the Spanish National AIDS Plan panel of experts have recommended preferred (PR), alternative (AR) and other regimens (OR) for antiretroviral therapy (ART) as initial therapy in HIV-infected patients for 2017. The objective of this study was to evaluate the costs and the efficiency of initiating treatment with PR and AR. METHODS: Economic assessment of costs and efficiency (cost-efficacy) based on decision tree analyses. Efficacy was defined as the probability of reporting a viral load <50copies/mL at week 48, in an intention-to-treat analysis. Cost of initiating treatment with an ART regimen was defined as the costs of ART and its consequences (adverse effects, changes of ART regimen and drug resistance studies) during the first 48 weeks. The payer perspective (National Health System) was applied considering only differential direct costs: ART (official prices), management of adverse effects, resistance studies and HLA B*5701 screening. The setting was Spain and the costs correspond to those of 2017. A deterministic sensitivity analysis was conducted, building three scenarios for each regimen: base case, most favourable and least favourable. RESULTS: In the base case scenario, the cost of initiating treatment ranged from 6882 euro for TFV/FTC/RPV (AR) to 10,904 euros for TFV/FTC+RAL (PR). The efficacy varied from 0.82 for TFV/FTC+DRV/p (AR) to 0.92 for TAF/FTC/EVG/COBI (PR). The efficiency, in terms of cost-efficacy, ranged from 7923 to 12,765 euros per responder at 48 weeks, for ABC/3TC/DTG (PR) and TFV/FTC+RAL (PR), respectively. CONCLUSION: Considering ART official prices, the most efficient regimen was ABC/3TC/DTG (PR), followed by TFV/FTC/RPV (AR) and TAF/FTC/EVG/COBI (PR).

8.
Enferm Infecc Microbiol Clin ; 36(1): 4-8, 2018 01.
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27743683

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: A considerable increase of imported Zika virus (ZIKV) infection has been reported in Europe in the last year. This is the result of the large outbreak of the disease in the Americas, along with the increase in the numbers of travellers and immigrants arriving from ZIKV endemic areas. METHODS: A descriptive study was conducted in the Tropical Medicine Unit of Hospital La Paz-Carlos III in Madrid on travellers returning from an endemic area for ZIKV from January to April 2016. Demographic, clinical and microbiological data were analyzed. RESULTS: A total of 185 patients were screened for ZIKV (59.9% women, median age of 37.7±10.3 years). Main purpose of the travel was tourism to Colombia, Brazil, and México. Just under three-quarters (73%) were symptomatic, mostly with fever and headache. A total of 13 patients (7% of those screened) were diagnosed with ZIKV infections, of which four of them were pregnant. All of them were symptomatic patients, the majority immigrants, and mainly from Colombia. Diagnostic tests were based on positive neutralization antibodies (8 cases, 61.6%) and a positive RT-PCR in different organic fluids (7 cases, 53.8%) The four infected pregnant women underwent a neurosonography every 3 weeks, and no alterations were detected. RT-PCR in amniotic fluid was performed in three of them, with negative results. One of the children has already been born healthy. CONCLUSIONS: Our cases series represents the largest cohort of imported ZIKV to Spain described until now. Clinicians must increase awareness about the progression of the ZIKV outbreak and the affected areas so that they can include Zika virus infection in their differential diagnosis for travellers from those areas.

9.
J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr ; 77(1): 102-109, 2018 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28991888

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The differential effects of commonly prescribed combined antiretroviral therapy (cART) regimens on AIDS-defining neurological conditions (neuroAIDS) remain unknown. SETTING: Prospective cohort studies of HIV-positive individuals from Europe and the Americas included in the HIV-CAUSAL Collaboration. METHODS: Individuals who initiated a first-line cART regimen in 2004 or later containing a nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor backbone and either atazanavir, lopinavir, darunavir, or efavirenz were followed from cART initiation until death, lost to follow-up, pregnancy, the cohort-specific administrative end of follow-up, or the event of interest, whichever occurred earliest. We evaluated 4 neuroAIDS conditions: HIV dementia and the opportunistic infections toxoplasmosis, cryptococcal meningitis, and progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy. For each outcome, we estimated hazard ratios for atazanavir, lopinavir, and darunavir compared with efavirenz via a pooled logistic model. Our models were adjusted for baseline demographic and clinical characteristics. RESULTS: Twenty six thousand one hundred seventy-two individuals initiated efavirenz, 5858 initiated atazanavir, 8479 initiated lopinavir, and 4799 initiated darunavir. Compared with efavirenz, the adjusted HIV dementia hazard ratios (95% confidence intervals) were 1.72 (1.00 to 2.96) for atazanavir, 2.21 (1.38 to 3.54) for lopinavir, and 1.41 (0.61 to 3.24) for darunavir. The respective hazard ratios (95% confidence intervals) for the combined end point were 1.18 (0.74 to 1.88) for atazanavir, 1.61 (1.14 to 2.27) for lopinavir, and 1.36 (0.74 to 2.48) for darunavir. The results varied in subsets defined by calendar year, nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor backbone, and age. CONCLUSION: Our results are consistent with an increased risk of neuroAIDS after initiating lopinavir compared with efavirenz, but temporal changes in prescribing trends and confounding by indication could explain our findings.


Assuntos
Complexo AIDS Demência/epidemiologia , Infecções Oportunistas Relacionadas com a AIDS/epidemiologia , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/tratamento farmacológico , Leucoencefalopatia Multifocal Progressiva/epidemiologia , Meningite Criptocócica/epidemiologia , Toxoplasmose/epidemiologia , Adulto , Américas/epidemiologia , Sulfato de Atazanavir/uso terapêutico , Benzoxazinas/uso terapêutico , Estudos de Coortes , Darunavir/uso terapêutico , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Feminino , Inibidores da Protease de HIV/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Lopinavir/uso terapêutico , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Inibidores da Transcriptase Reversa/uso terapêutico
10.
Enferm Infecc Microbiol Clin ; 36(8): 517-522, 2018 10.
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28669587

RESUMO

Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever has been reported in more than 30 countries in Africa, Asia, the Middle East and Eastern Europe, with an increasing incidence in recent years, especially in Europe. Because no specific treatments have demonstrated efficacy, supportive treatment is essential, as well as the provision of a centre with the appropriate means to guarantee the safety of its healthcare professionals. Laboratory monitoring of thrombocytopenia, severe coagulopathy or liver failure is of critical importance. Patients with Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever should be admitted to High Level Isolation Units where appropriate biocontainment procedures can prevent nosocomial transmission through infected fluids or accidents with contaminated material. In case of high-risk exposures, early administration of ribavirin should be considered.

11.
J Infect Dis ; 216(suppl_9): S847-S850, 2017 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29207001

RESUMO

Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) drug resistance genotyping is recommended to help in the selection of antiretroviral therapy and to prevent virologic failure. There are several ultrasensitive assays able to detect HIV-1 drug-resistance minority variants (DRMVs) not detectable by standard population sequencing-based HIV genotyping assays. Presence of these DRMVs has been shown to be clinically relevant, but its impact does not appear to be uniform across drug classes. In this review, we summarize key evidence for the clinical impact of DRMVs across drug classes for both antiretroviral treatment-naive and antiretroviral treatment-experienced patients, and highlight areas where more supporting evidence is needed.


Assuntos
Fármacos Anti-HIV/uso terapêutico , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , HIV-1/genética , Farmacorresistência Viral/genética , Infecções por HIV/virologia , HIV-1/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Falha de Tratamento
12.
Enferm. infecc. microbiol. clín. (Ed. impr.) ; 35(2): 88-99, feb. 2017. graf, tab
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-162048

RESUMO

Introduction: GESIDA and the AIDS National Plan panel of experts suggest preferred (PR), alternative (AR), and other regimens (OR) for antiretroviral treatment (ART) as initial therapy in HIV-infected patients for the year 2016. The objective of this study is to evaluate the costs and the efficacy of initiating treatment with these regimens. Methods: Economic assessment of costs and efficiency (cost/efficacy) based on decision tree analyses. Efficacy was defined as the probability of reporting a viral load <50copies/mL at week 48 in an intention-to-treat analysis. Cost of initiating treatment with an ART regimen was defined as the costs of ART and its consequences (adverse effects, changes of ART regimen, and drug resistance studies) during the first 48 weeks. The payer perspective (National Health System) was applied, only taking into account differential direct costs: ART (official prices), management of adverse effects, studies of resistance, and HLA B*5701 testing. The setting is Spain and the costs correspond to those of 2016. A sensitivity deterministic analysis was conducted, building three scenarios for each regimen: base case, most favourable, and least favourable. Results: In the base case scenario, the cost of initiating treatment ranges from 4663 Euros for 3TC+LPV/r (OR) to 10,894 Euros for TDF/FTC+RAL (PR). The efficacy varies from 0.66 for ABC/3TC+ATV/r (AR) and ABC/3TC+LPV/r (OR), to 0.89 for TDF/FTC+DTG (PR) and TDF/FTC/EVG/COBI (AR). The efficiency, in terms of cost/efficacy, ranges from 5280 to 12,836 Euros per responder at 48 weeks, for 3TC+LPV/r (OR), and RAL+DRV/r (OR), respectively. Conclusion: Despite the overall most efficient regimen being 3TC+LPV/r (OR), among the PR and AR, the most efficient regimen was ABC/3TC/DTG (PR). Among the AR regimes, the most efficient was TDF/FTC/RPV (AU)


Introducción: El panel de expertos de GESIDA/Plan Nacional del Sida ha recomendado pautas preferentes (PP), pautas alternativas (PA) y otras pautas (OP) para el tratamiento antirretroviral (TARV) como terapia de inicio en pacientes infectados por VIH para 2016. El objetivo de este estudio es evaluar los costes y la eficiencia de iniciar tratamiento con estas pautas. Métodos: Evaluación económica de costes y eficiencia (coste/eficacia) mediante construcción de árboles de decisión. Se definió eficacia como la probabilidad de tener carga viral <50copias/ml en la semana 48 en análisis por intención de tratar. Se definió coste de iniciar tratamiento con una pauta como los costes del TARV y de todas sus consecuencias (efectos adversos, cambios de pauta y estudio de resistencias) que se producen en las siguientes 48 semanas. Se utilizó la perspectiva del Sistema Nacional de Salud, considerando solo costes directos diferenciales: TARV (a precio oficial), manejo de efectos adversos, estudios de resistencias y determinación de HLA B*5701. El ámbito es España, con costes de 2016. Se realizó análisis de sensibilidad determinista construyendo 3 escenarios para cada pauta: basal, más favorable y más desfavorable. Resultados: En el escenario basal, los costes de iniciar tratamiento oscilaron entre 4.663euros para 3TC+LPV/r (OP) y 10.894euros para TDF/FTC+RAL (PP). La eficacia osciló entre 0,66 para ABC/3TC+ATV/r (PA) y ABC/3TC+LPV/r (OP), y 0,89 para TDF/FTC+DTG (PP) y TDF/FTC/EVG/COBI (PA). La eficiencia, en términos de coste/eficacia, osciló entre 5.280 y 12.836euros por respondedor a las 48 semanas, para 3TC+LPV/r (OP) y RAL+DRV/r (OP), respectivamente. Conclusión: Aunque globalmente la pauta más eficiente fue 3TC+LPV/r (OP), considerando solamente las PP y las PA, la pauta más eficiente fue ABC/3TC/DTG (PP). De las PA, la más eficiente fue TDF/FTC/RPV (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Fármacos Anti-HIV/uso terapêutico , Terapia Antirretroviral de Alta Atividade/estatística & dados numéricos , Antirretrovirais/uso terapêutico , Análise Custo-Benefício , Custos de Medicamentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Tempo para o Tratamento/estatística & dados numéricos , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/prevenção & controle
13.
AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses ; 33(1): 29-32, 2017 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27250802

RESUMO

To assess the efficacy and safety of maraviroc (MVC) administered once-daily in routine clinical practice. A retrospective multicenter study (27 centers in Spain) was conducted. Data were collected from the records of patients starting a regimen with MVC. Laboratory and clinical data were recorded every 3 months the first year and every 6 months thereafter. Data are presented as median and interquartile range. Among 667 patients treated with MVC, 142 (21.3%) received MVC once-daily: 108 (76.1%), 150 mg and 34 (23.9%), and 300 mg. Age was 47 (42-45) years, there were 76.1% men, and 81 (57%) patients had baseline HIV-RNA <50 copies/mL. Viral tropism was R5 in 118 (83.1%) patients. Reasons for prescribing MVC: salvage therapy (36.6%), drug toxicity (31.2%), simplification (16.9%), and immunodiscordant response (7.1%). Median follow-up was 13 (9-16) months. In 95.8%, a PI/r was part of the regimen (67% on dual therapy). At months 12 and 24, 73.3% and 68.2% of patients had HIV-RNA <50 copies/mL, respectively (p = .041 and p < .001 vs. baseline). CD4+ cell count increased by a median of 52 (-36,135) and 84 (-9.5,180) cells/mm3 at 12 and 24 months, respectively (p < .001 and p = .039 vs. baseline). Twenty-five (17.6%) patients discontinued MVC: virologic failure (6), medical decision (5), and other reasons (14). Two patients presented grade 3 adverse events (hypertransaminasemia, hypertriglyceridemia) without the need for MVC withdrawal, whereas MVC was discontinued in two patients due to gastrointestinal toxicity. In routine clinical practice, MVC once-daily combined with at least PI/r was virologically effective and well tolerated in a high percentage of pretreated patients.


Assuntos
Antagonistas dos Receptores CCR5/administração & dosagem , Antagonistas dos Receptores CCR5/efeitos adversos , Cicloexanos/administração & dosagem , Cicloexanos/efeitos adversos , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Triazóis/administração & dosagem , Triazóis/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Contagem de Linfócito CD4 , Efeitos Colaterais e Reações Adversas Relacionados a Medicamentos/epidemiologia , Efeitos Colaterais e Reações Adversas Relacionados a Medicamentos/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Maraviroc , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , RNA Viral/sangue , Estudos Retrospectivos , Espanha , Resultado do Tratamento , Carga Viral
14.
Enferm Infecc Microbiol Clin ; 35(2): 88-99, 2017 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27459919

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: GESIDA and the AIDS National Plan panel of experts suggest preferred (PR), alternative (AR), and other regimens (OR) for antiretroviral treatment (ART) as initial therapy in HIV-infected patients for the year 2016. The objective of this study is to evaluate the costs and the efficacy of initiating treatment with these regimens. METHODS: Economic assessment of costs and efficiency (cost/efficacy) based on decision tree analyses. Efficacy was defined as the probability of reporting a viral load <50copies/mL at week 48 in an intention-to-treat analysis. Cost of initiating treatment with an ART regimen was defined as the costs of ART and its consequences (adverse effects, changes of ART regimen, and drug resistance studies) during the first 48 weeks. The payer perspective (National Health System) was applied, only taking into account differential direct costs: ART (official prices), management of adverse effects, studies of resistance, and HLA B*5701 testing. The setting is Spain and the costs correspond to those of 2016. A sensitivity deterministic analysis was conducted, building three scenarios for each regimen: base case, most favourable, and least favourable. RESULTS: In the base case scenario, the cost of initiating treatment ranges from 4663 Euros for 3TC+LPV/r (OR) to 10,894 Euros for TDF/FTC+RAL (PR). The efficacy varies from 0.66 for ABC/3TC+ATV/r (AR) and ABC/3TC+LPV/r (OR), to 0.89 for TDF/FTC+DTG (PR) and TDF/FTC/EVG/COBI (AR). The efficiency, in terms of cost/efficacy, ranges from 5280 to 12,836 Euros per responder at 48 weeks, for 3TC+LPV/r (OR), and RAL+DRV/r (OR), respectively. CONCLUSION: Despite the overall most efficient regimen being 3TC+LPV/r (OR), among the PR and AR, the most efficient regimen was ABC/3TC/DTG (PR). Among the AR regimes, the most efficient was TDF/FTC/RPV.


Assuntos
Fármacos Anti-HIV/economia , Fármacos Anti-HIV/uso terapêutico , Análise Custo-Benefício , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por HIV/economia , Humanos , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Espanha
15.
Open Forum Infect Dis ; 3(3): ofw136, 2016 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27703997

RESUMO

Background. Because most infections caused by carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE) begin during hospitalization, there are limited data about community-onset (CO) infections caused by CPE. Our aim is to describe the frequency of CO infections caused by CPE as well as the clinical features of CO bloodstream infections (CO-BSIs). Methods. This study includes retrospective case series of CO infections caused by CPE in a tertiary hospital from January 2010 to July 2014. Any clinical sample with a positive culture for CPE that had been ordered by primary care doctors or by doctors at the emergency room (ER) were classified as CO. Epidemiological and microbiological features of CO cases were assessed as were clinical features of CO-BSIs. Results. Of 780 clinical samples with CPE, 180 were requested at the ER or by primary care doctors (22.9%), 150 of which were produced by Klebsiella pneumoniae (83.3%). The blaOXA-48 gene was detected in 149 isolates (82.8%) followed by the blaVIM gene, 29 (16.1%). Sixty-one patients (33.9%) had a prior history of CPE infection/colonization. Thirty-four of the 119 (28.6%) patients without prior history of CPE infection/colonization did not fulfill Friedman criteria for healthcare-associated infections (HAIs). Considering previous hospitalization of up to 12 months as a criterion for defining HAI, only 16 (13.4%) cases were identified as community-acquired infections. The most frequent positive sample was urine (133 of 180; 73.9%). Twenty-one (11.7%) patients had a BSI, 9 of them secondary to urinary tract infections (42.9%). Thirty-day crude mortality among patients with BSI was 23.8% (5 of 21). Conclusions. Community-onset infections caused by CPE are an important subgroup of all CPE infections. The urinary tract is the main source. Bloodstream infections accounted for more than 10% of the cases.

16.
Enferm. infecc. microbiol. clín. (Ed. impr.) ; 34(8): 516.e1-516.e18, oct. 2016. tab
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-156256

RESUMO

Despite the huge advance that antiretroviral therapy represents for the prognosis of infection by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), opportunistic infections (OIs) continue to be a cause of morbidity and mortality in HIV-infected patients. OIs often arise because of severe immunosuppression resulting from poor adherence to antiretroviral therapy, failure of antiretroviral therapy, or unawareness of HIV infection by patients whose first clinical manifestation of AIDS is an OI. The present article updates our previous guidelines on the prevention and treatment of various OIs in HIV-infected patients, namely, infections by parasites, fungi, viruses, mycobacteria, and bacteria, as well as imported infections. The article also addresses immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (AU)


A pesar del gran avance que ha supuesto el tratamiento antirretroviral (TAR) para el pronóstico de la infección por el VIH, las infecciones oportunistas (IO) continúan siendo causa de morbilidad y mortalidad en estos pacientes. Ello ocurre en muchos casos debido a la inmunodepresión grave, bien ante la falta de adherencia al TAR, el fracaso del mismo o el desconocimiento de la existencia de la infección por el VIH en pacientes que comienzan con una IO. El presente artículo actualiza las recomendaciones de prevención y tratamiento de diferentes infecciones en pacientes con infección por VIH: parasitarias, fúngicas, víricas, micobacterianas, bacterianas e importadas, además del síndrome de reconstitución inmune (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Infecções por HIV/complicações , Infecções Oportunistas Relacionadas com a AIDS/prevenção & controle , Antirretrovirais/uso terapêutico , Avaliação de Resultado de Ações Preventivas , Coinfecção/epidemiologia , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/complicações , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/tratamento farmacológico , Padrões de Prática Médica
17.
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-156257

RESUMO

Opportunistic infections continue to be a cause of morbidity and mortality in HIV-infected patients. They often arise because of severe immunosuppression resulting from poor adherence to antiretroviral therapy, failure of antiretroviral therapy, or unawareness of HIV infection by patients whose first clinical manifestation of AIDS is an opportunistic infection. The present article is an executive summary of the document that updates the previous recommendations on the prevention and treatment of opportunistic infections in HIV-infected patients, namely, infections by parasites, fungi, viruses, mycobacteria, and bacteria, as well as imported infections. The article also addresses immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome. This document is intended for all professionals who work in clinical practice in the field of HIV infection (AU)


Las infecciones oportunistas siguen siendo una causa importante de morbi mortalidad en pacientes con infección por VIH. Ello ocurre en muchos casos debido a la inmunodepresión grave, bien ante la falta de adherencia al tratamiento antirretroviral, el fracaso del mismo o el desconocimiento de la existencia de la infección por el VIH en pacientes que comienzan con una infección oportunista. Este artículo es un resumen del documento de consenso que actualiza las recomendaciones previas de GESIDA respecto a la prevención y el tratamiento de las diferentes infecciones oportunistas en pacientes infectados por VIH: parasitarias, fúngicas, víricas, micobacterianas, bacterianas e importadas, además del síndrome de reconstitución inmune. Está dirigido a los profesionales que trabajan en la práctica clínica en el campo del VIH, con el objetivo de facilitarles una atención de calidad en la prevención y tratamiento de estas infecciones (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Infecções por HIV/complicações , Infecções Oportunistas Relacionadas com a AIDS/prevenção & controle , Antirretrovirais/uso terapêutico , Coinfecção/epidemiologia , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/complicações , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/tratamento farmacológico , Padrões de Prática Médica
18.
Enferm. infecc. microbiol. clín. (Ed. impr.) ; 34(7): 452-460, ago.-sept. 2016. ilus, gaf, tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-155490

RESUMO

El primer brote conocido de virus ebola ocurrió en 1976, y desde entonces habían sido comunicados otros 24 brotes esporádicos circunscritos a África Central que nunca sobrepasaron los 425 afectados. El brote actual de ebola de África Occidental es el mayor de la historia, ha afectado a 28.220 personas y ha causado 11.291 muertos hasta la fecha. La magnitud de la epidemia ha producido una alarma mundial. Por primera vez se han atendido pacientes en países fuera de África y se han producido casos secundarios en España y en Estados Unidos. La epidemia actual ha hecho avanzar el conocimiento sobre la epidemiología, la clínica, las manifestaciones de laboratorio y la virología de la enfermedad por virus ebola. Por primera vez se han utilizado tratamientos experimentales y se han producido grandes avances en el desarrollo de vacunas. En el presente artículo revisamos estos avances en el conocimiento de la enfermedad por virus ebola (AU)


The first known Ebola outbreak occurred in 1976. Since then, 24 limited outbreaks had been reported in Central Africa, but never affecting more than 425 persons. The current outbreak in Western Africa is the largest in history with 28,220 reported cases and 11,291 deaths. The magnitude of the epidemic has caused worldwide alarm. For the first time, evacuated patients were treated outside Africa, and secondary cases have occurred in Spain and the United States. Since the start of the current epidemic, our knowledge about the epidemiology, clinical picture, laboratory findings, and virology of Ebola virus disease has considerably expanded. For the first time, experimental treatment has been tried, and there have been spectacular advances in vaccine development. A review is presented of these advances in the knowledge of Ebola virus disease (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Doença pelo Vírus Ebola/epidemiologia , Vacinas contra Ebola , Ebolavirus/patogenicidade , Padrões de Prática Médica , Doença pelo Vírus Ebola/tratamento farmacológico
19.
Enferm. infecc. microbiol. clín. (Ed. impr.) ; 34(6): 361-371, jun-jul. 2016. ilus, tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-153734

RESUMO

Introduction: GESIDA and the AIDS National Plan panel of experts suggest a preferred (PR), alternative (AR) and other regimens (OR) for antiretroviral treatment (ART) as initial therapy in HIV-infected patients for 2015. The objective of this study is to evaluate the costs and the effectiveness of initiating treatment with these regimens. Methods: Economic assessment of costs and effectiveness (cost/effectiveness) based on decision tree analyses. Effectiveness was defined as the probability of reporting a viral load <50 copies/mL at week 48, in an intention-to-treat analysis. Cost of initiating treatment with an ART regimen was defined as the costs of ART and its consequences (adverse effects, changes of ART regimen, and drug resistance studies) during the first 48 weeks. The payer perspective (National Health System) was applied, only taking into account differential direct costs: ART (official prices), management of adverse effects, studies of resistance, and HLA B*5701 testing. The setting is Spain and the costs correspond to those of 2015. A deterministic sensitivity analysis was conducted, building three scenarios for each regimen: base case, most favourable and least favourable. Results: In the base case scenario, the cost of initiating treatment ranges from 4663 Euros for 3TC + LPV/r (OR) to 10,902 Euros for TDF/FTC + RAL (PR). The effectiveness varies from 0.66 for ABC/3TC + ATV/r (AR) and ABC/3TC + LPV/r (OR), to 0.89 for TDF/FTC + DTG (PR) and TDF/FTC/EVG/COBI (AR). The efficiency, in terms of cost/effectiveness, ranges from 5280 to 12,836 Euros per responder at 48 weeks, for 3TC + LPV/r (OR) and RAL + DRV/r (OR), respectively. Conclusion: The most efficient regimen was 3TC + LPV/r (OR). Among the PR and AR, the most efficient regimen was TDF/FTC/RPV (AR). Among the PR regimes, the most efficient was ABC/3TC + DTG (AU)


Introducción: El panel de expertos de GESIDA/Plan Nacional del Sida ha recomendado pautas preferentes (PP), pautas alternativas (PA) y otras pautas (OP) para el tratamiento antirretroviral como terapia de inicio en pacientes infectados por VIH para 2015. El objetivo de este estudio es evaluar los costes y la eficiencia de iniciar tratamiento con estas pautas. Métodos: Evaluación económica de costes y eficiencia (coste/eficacia) mediante construcción de árboles de decisión. Se definió eficacia como la probabilidad de tener carga viral <50 copias/mL en la semana 48 en análisis por intención de tratar. Se definió coste de iniciar tratamiento con una pauta como los costes del tratamiento antirretroviral y de todas sus consecuencias (efectos adversos, cambios de pauta y estudio de resistencias) que se producen en las siguientes 48 semanas. Se utilizó la perspectiva del Sistema Nacional de Salud, considerando solo costes directos diferenciales: tratamiento antirretroviral (a precio oficial), manejo de efectos adversos, estudios de resistencias y determinación de HLA B*5701. El ámbito es España, con costes de 2015. Se realizó análisis de sensibilidad determinista construyendo 3 escenarios para cada pauta: basal, más favorable y más desfavorable. Resultados: En el escenario basal, los costes de iniciar tratamiento oscilaron entre 4.663 euros para 3TC + LPV/r (OP) y 10.902 euros para TDF/FTC + RAL (PP). La eficacia osciló entre 0,66 para ABC/3TC + ATV/r (PA) y ABC/3TC + LPV/r (OP), y 0,89 para TDF/FTC + DTG (PP) y TDF/FTC/EVG/COBI (PA). La eficiencia, en términos de coste/eficacia, osciló entre 5.280 y 12.836 euros por respondedor a las 48 semanas, para 3TC + LPV/r (OP) y RAL + DRV/r (OP), respectivamente. Conclusión: La pauta más eficiente fue 3TC + LPV/r (OP). Entre las PP o PA, la pauta más eficiente fue TDF/FTC/RPV (PA). De las PP, la más eficiente fue ABC/3TC + DTG (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Terapia Antirretroviral de Alta Atividade , Antirretrovirais/uso terapêutico , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Análise Custo-Benefício/estatística & dados numéricos , Carga Viral
20.
Enferm Infecc Microbiol Clin ; 34(8): 517-23, 2016 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27056581

RESUMO

Opportunistic infections continue to be a cause of morbidity and mortality in HIV-infected patients. They often arise because of severe immunosuppression resulting from poor adherence to antiretroviral therapy, failure of antiretroviral therapy, or unawareness of HIV infection by patients whose first clinical manifestation of AIDS is an opportunistic infection. The present article is an executive summary of the document that updates the previous recommendations on the prevention and treatment of opportunistic infections in HIV-infected patients, namely, infections by parasites, fungi, viruses, mycobacteria, and bacteria, as well as imported infections. The article also addresses immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome. This document is intended for all professionals who work in clinical practice in the field of HIV infection.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/complicações , Infecções Oportunistas/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções Oportunistas/prevenção & controle , Infecções Oportunistas Relacionadas com a AIDS/prevenção & controle , Infecções Bacterianas/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções Bacterianas/prevenção & controle , Coinfecção/tratamento farmacológico , Coinfecção/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Síndrome Inflamatória da Reconstituição Imune/diagnóstico , Síndrome Inflamatória da Reconstituição Imune/tratamento farmacológico , Síndrome Inflamatória da Reconstituição Imune/prevenção & controle , Micoses/tratamento farmacológico , Micoses/prevenção & controle , Doenças Parasitárias/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças Parasitárias/prevenção & controle , Viroses/tratamento farmacológico , Viroses/prevenção & controle
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