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1.
J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr ; 70(2): 211-217, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31978019

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Parents have a central role in the management of children with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Alterations in parental psychological well-being may affect the patient's health-related quality of life (HRQoL). This study aimed to evaluate the correlation between maternal and paternal distress, anxiety, depression and pain catastrophizing and the HRQoL of patients with IBD. METHODS: Children with IBD ages 8 to 18 years and their parents were prospectively recruited. Children answered questionnaires on HRQoL while parents completed an assessment of distress, anxiety, depression, and pain catastrophizing. Univariate and multivariate regression models analysis were used to evaluate correlations between parental measures and patient's HRQoL and between the factors related to children health and parental psychological suffering. RESULTS: One hundred patients (45 Crohn disease, 55 ulcerative colitis), 90 mothers and 62 fathers were enrolled. Parents had high levels of distress while anxiety, depression, and pain catastrophizing levels were relatively low. Parental distress had the most substantial correlation with children's HRQoL and was associated with patients' disease activity and recent flares. On multivariate regression analysis, parental factors explained less than 20% of the variance in the children's HRQoL scores. Mothers suffered from psychological alterations more frequently than fathers, but the parental inter-rater agreement was strong in regards to distress and anxiety. CONCLUSIONS: Parental distress is high and correlates with the HRQoL of children with IBD. Interventions aimed at evaluating and managing parental distress should be considered during the management of children with IBD.

2.
Int J Med Robot ; 16(1): e2048, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31797517

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To evaluate and compare the feasibility and short-term results of laparoscopic and robotic total oesophago-gastric dissociation (TOGD) with a Roux-en-Y oesophago-jejunostomy. Minimal invasive surgery has multiple advantages in neurologically impaired patients. Robotic approach has overcome disadvantages linked to laparoscopy, in particular, referring to the surgeon fatigue. METHODS: A retrospective study comparing five laparoscopic and five robotic TOGD was conducted between February and October 2016 in Giannina Gaslini Children's Hospital and Section of Pediatric Surgery of Siena. Neurologically impaired children scheduled for TOGD were included. Age, sex, weight, symptomatology, presence of epilepsy, and preoperative X-ray contrast were considered. Operative time, hospital stay, postoperative complications, redo surgery, nutrition rehabilitation, and X-ray contrast study after 5 days and after 1 month from the intervention were recorded. RESULTS: In our series, there were no intraoperative complications, no conversions to open surgery, and no vagal lesions. In two of five robotic cases, a pyloroplasty was necessary. The median operative time was statistically longer in the robotic group. One dehiscence in the robotic group was recorded, and no dumping episodes occurred. No statistical differences in terms of complications were detected. CONCLUSION: TOGD is feasible both with laparoscopic and robotic-assisted surgery with similar results. Robotic approach is considered feasible. At the same time, high laparoscopic skills allow to reach the same results as robotic approach with shorter operative time.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31876783

RESUMO

In recent years, monogenic causes of immune dysregulation syndromes, with variable phenotypes, have been documented. Mutations in the lipopolysaccharide-responsive beige-like anchor (LRBA) protein are associated with common variable immunodeficiency, autoimmunity, chronic enteropathy, and immune dysregulation disorders. The LRBA protein prevents degradation of cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen 4 (CTLA4) protein, thus inhibiting immune responses. Both LRBA and CTLA4 deficiencies usually present with immune dysregulation, mostly characterized by autoimmunity and lymphoproliferation. In this report, we describe a patient with an atypical clinical onset of LRBA deficiency and the patient's response to abatacept, a fusion protein-drug that mimics the action of CTLA4.

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31703041

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Parents have a central role in the management of children with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Alterations in parental psychological well-being may affect the patient's health-related quality of life (HRQoL). This study aimed to evaluate the correlation between maternal and paternal distress, anxiety, depression and pain catastrophizing and the HRQoL of patients with IBD. METHODS: Children with IBD aged 8-18 years and their parents were prospectively recruited. Children answered questionnaires on HRQoL while parents completed an assessment of distress, anxiety, depression and pain catastrophizing. Univariate and multivariate regression models analysis were used to evaluate correlations between parental measures and patient's HRQoL and between the factors related to children health and parental psychological suffering. RESULTS: One hundred patients (45 Crohn's disease, 55 ulcerative colitis), 90 mothers and 62 fathers were enrolled. Parents had high levels of distress while anxiety, depression and pain catastrophizing levels were relatively low. Parental distress had the most substantial correlation with children's HRQoL and was associated with patients' disease activity and recent flares. On multivariate regression analysis, parental factors explained less than 20% of the variance in the children's HRQoL scores. Mothers suffered from psychological alterations more frequently than fathers, but the parental inter-rater agreement was strong in regards to distress and anxiety. CONCLUSIONS: Parental distress is high and correlates with the HRQoL of children with IBD. Interventions aimed at evaluating and managing parental distress should be considered during the management of children with IBD.

5.
Minerva Pediatr ; 2019 Nov 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31692311

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hirschsprung's disease (HSCR) is a frequent cause of intestinal obstruction in children and may require an enterostomy. The study aims to describe the most common enterostomy-related complications in a series of patients treated in a single Center. METHODS: A series of consecutive HSCR patients treated or followed-up at our Institution between January 1993 and December 2016 were included. Data about HSCR type, enterostomy site, duration and complications of the stoma were recorded. RESULTS: 301 patients with HSCR were followed up. 61 had ultralong forms (TCSA/TIA), 21 had long forms (L-HSCR) and 219 had classic short forms (S-HSCR). One-hundred thirty seven patients required a stoma (100% of patients with TCSA/TIA, 66.7% with L-HSCR and 28.3% with S-HSCR). We observed 64 stoma-related complications: 36 major complications and 28 minor complications. Major complications occurred more often in long forms (P=0.037). The presence of an ileostomy was statistically associated with an increased rate of complications compared to colostomy. The longer the stoma was in site, the higher the complication rate was. CONCLUSIONS: Long and ultra-long forms are associated with a longer duration of the stoma and to a major risk of stoma-related complications.

6.
Inflamm Bowel Dis ; 2019 Aug 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31375816

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Multiple monogenic disorders present as very early onset inflammatory bowel disease (VEO-IBD) or as IBD with severe and atypical features. Establishing a genetic diagnosis may change patients' management and prognosis. In this study, we describe the diagnostic approach to suspected monogenic IBD in a real clinical setting, discussing genetic and phenotypic findings and therapeutic implications of molecular diagnosis. METHODS: Information of patients with VEO-IBD and early onset IBD with severe/atypical phenotypes (EO-IBD s/a) managed between 2008-2017 who underwent a genetic workup were collected. RESULTS: Ninety-three patients were included, and 12 (13%) reached a genetic diagnosis. Candidate sequencing (CS) was performed in 47 patients (50%), and next generation sequencing (NGS) was performed in 84 patients (90%). Candidate sequencing had a good diagnostic performance only when guided by clinical features specific for known monogenic diseases, whereas NGS helped finding new causative genetic variants and would have anticipated one monogenic diagnosis (XIAP) and consequent bone marrow transplant (BMT). Patients with monogenic IBD more frequently were male (92% vs 54%; P = 0.02), had extraintestinal findings (100% vs 34%; P < 0.001), and had disease onset ≤1 month of life (25% vs 1%; P = 0.006). Genetic diagnosis impacted patient management in 11 patients (92%), 7 of whom underwent BMT. CONCLUSION: A genetic diagnosis can be established in a significant proportion of suspected monogenic IBD and has an impact on patients' management. Candidate sequencing may be deployed when clinical findings orientate toward a specific diagnosis. Next generation sequencing should be preferred in patients with nonspecific phenotypes.

7.
Nutrition ; 66: 131-141, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31276929

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of home parenteral nutrition (HPN) service in patients with benign chronic intestinal failure (CIF). METHODS: This was a 10-y retrospective, non-interventional, multicenter study conducted with adult and pediatric patients with CIF who received HPN service. We analyzed data prospectively collected from a dedicated register by HPN nurses. RESULTS: From January 2002 to December 2011 a total of 794 patients (49.7% male, median age 1 y for children and 57 y for adults) were included in the analysis. Over the 10-y period, 723 central venous catheter (CVC) complications occurred, of which 394 were infectious (54.5%), 297 were mechanical (41.1%), and 32 (3.3%) were defined as CVC-related thrombosis. The complication rate was higher in children (1.11 per patient) than in adults (0.70 per patient). During the observation period, the rates of both infectious and mechanical complications showed a global declining trend and ∼75% of patients had neither infectious nor mechanical CVC complications. HPN efficacy was evaluated in 301 patients with a minimum follow-up of 36 mo. Body mass index and Karnofsky score showed that the median growth significantly increased (P < 0.001) over baseline for adults and pediatric patients in the 0 to 2 age range. CONCLUSIONS: The use of a structured register has proved to be a key strategy for monitoring the outcomes of long-term treatment, improving time efficiency, and preventing potential malpractice. To our knowledge, this is the largest survey ever documented; the results were consistent despite the heterogeneity of the centers because of duly applied standard rules and protocols.

8.
Dig Liver Dis ; 51(11): 1551-1556, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31324473

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Data on the epidemiology and risk factors for pouchitis following restorative proctocolectomy and ileal pouch-anal anastomosis (IPAA) in pediatric patients with ulcerative colitis (UC) are scarce. AIMS: To determine incidence, risk factors and clinical outcome of pouchitis following IPAA in children. METHODS: This multicenter, retrospective cohort study, included all pediatric UC patients who underwent colectomy and IPAA from January 2010 to December 2016. RESULTS: Eighty-five patients were enrolled. During a median post-surgical period of 24.8 (range: 1.0-72.0) months following IPAA, 38 (44.7%) patients developed pouchitis, including 6 (15.8%) who developed chronic pouchitis. Kaplan-Meier survival estimates of the cumulative probability for pouchitis were 14.6% at 1 year and 27.3% and 51.5% at 2 and 5 years, respectively. Multiple Cox regression model showed that older age at colectomy (hazard ratio, HR: 0.89, p = 0.008) was a protective factor, whereas chronic active colitis as indication for surgery (HR: 4.45, p < 0.001), and a 3-stage IPAA (HR: 2.86, p = 0.028) increased the risk for pouchitis. CONCLUSIONS: Long-term risk for pouchitis is significantly high in pediatric-onset UC after IPAA. Younger age at colectomy, chronic active colitis as indication for surgery and 3-stage IPAA may increase the risk for pouchitis.

9.
United European Gastroenterol J ; 7(6): 759-766, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31316780

RESUMO

Background: Very few data regarding the use of infliximab in children with very early-onset inflammatory bowel disease (VEO-IBD) have been reported. Objective: We aimed to assess the efficacy and the safety of infliximab in children with VEO-IBD compared with older children. Methods: Children treated with infliximab were identified within the Italian IBD registry. The primary outcome was the rate of clinical remission at weeks 14 and 54. Secondary outcomes included the proportion of partial clinical response, treatment duration, and incidence of adverse events. Results: Forty-two children with VEO-IBD were compared with 130 children with IBD. Despite significantly higher infliximab withdrawals in VEO-IBD patients during induction (42.9% vs 7.7% p < 0.01), remission rates at week 14 were similar (28.6% vs 43.8%, p = 0.10). At week 54 fewer VEO-IBD children were in remission (15.8% vs 54.3%, p < 0.01). The treatment duration was shorter in VEO-IBD (median 12.0 vs 18.4 months, p < 0.01). During the induction phase, adverse events were more common in the VEO-IBD group (p < 0.01). Conclusion: Compared with older children, VEO-IBD patients have higher rates of infliximab failures, lower remission rates at one year, and more often experience adverse events during induction.

10.
Biologics ; 13: 13-21, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30655661

RESUMO

Background: Adalimumab (Ada) treatment is an available option for pediatric Crohn's disease (CD) and the published experience as rescue therapy is limited. Objectives: We investigated Ada efficacy in a retrospective, pediatric CD cohort who had failed previous infliximab treatment, with a minimum follow-up of 6 months. Methods: In this multicenter study, data on demographics, clinical activity, growth, laboratory values (CRP) and adverse events were collected from CD patients during follow-up. Clinical remission (CR) and response were defined with Pediatric CD Activity Index (PCDAI) score ≤10 and a decrease in PCDAI score of ≥12.5 from baseline, respectively. Results: A total of 44 patients were consecutively recruited (mean age 14.8 years): 34 of 44 (77%) had active disease (mean PCDAI score 24.5) at the time of Ada administration, with a mean disease duration of 3.4 (range 0.3-11.2) years. At 6, 12, and 18 months, out of the total of the enrolled population, CR rates were 55%, 78%, and 52%, respectively, with a significant decrease in PCDAI scores (P<0.01) and mean CRP values (mean CRP 5.7 and 2.4 mL/dL, respectively; P<0.01) at the end of follow-up. Steroid-free remission rates, considered as the total number of patients in CR who were not using steroids at the end of this study, were 93%, 95%, and 96% in 44 patients at 6, 12, and 18 months, respectively. No significant differences in growth parameters were detected. In univariate analysis of variables related to Ada efficacy, we found that only a disease duration >2 years was negatively correlated with final PCDAI score (P<0.01). Two serious adverse events were recorded: 1 meningitis and 1 medulloblastoma. Conclusion: Our data confirm Ada efficacy in pediatric patients as second-line biological therapy after infliximab failure. Longer-term prospective data are warranted to define general effectiveness and safety in pediatric CD patients.

11.
Eur J Med Genet ; 62(3): 198-203, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30026055

RESUMO

Magnesium (Mg2+) plays a crucial role in many biological processes especially in the brain, heart and skeletal muscle. Mg2+ homeostasis is regulated by intestinal absorption and renal reabsorption, involving a combination of different epithelial transport pathways. Mutations in any of these transporters result in hypomagnesemia with variable clinical presentations. Among these, CNNM2 is found along the basolateral membrane of distal tubular segments where it is involved in Mg2+ reabsorption. To date, heterozygous mutations in CNNM2 have been associated with a variable phenotype, ranging from isolated hypomagnesemia to intellectual disability and epilepsy. The only homozygous mutation reported so far, is responsible for hypomagnesemia associated with a severe neurological phenotype characterized by refractory epilepsy, microcephaly, severe global developmental delay and intellectual disability. Here, we report the second homozygous CNNM2 mutation (c.1642G > A,p.Val548Met) in a Moroccan patient, presenting with hypomagnesemia and severe epileptic encephalopathy. Thus, we review and discuss the phenotypic spectrum associated with CNNM2 mutations.


Assuntos
Anormalidades Múltiplas/genética , Ciclinas/genética , Epilepsia/genética , Deficiência de Magnésio/congênito , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto , Fenótipo , Anormalidades Múltiplas/patologia , Adolescente , Encéfalo/anormalidades , Epilepsia/patologia , Homozigoto , Humanos , Deficiência de Magnésio/genética , Deficiência de Magnésio/patologia , Masculino
12.
Minerva Pediatr ; 2018 Nov 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30419742

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Intrasphincteric Botulinum toxin (BoTox) injection for symptomatic postoperative anal achalasia in Hirschsprung's disease (HSCR) has found wide application in the last twenty years. The aim of this study is to describe effectiveness and functional outcome of a series of patients treated over a 10-year period. METHODS: All consecutive HSCR patients who received intrasphincteric BoTox injections between January 2007 and December 2016 were included. Demographic data and clinical features were collected. A detailed questionnaire focusing on outcome in the medium and long term was administered to all families. RESULTS: In the study period 64 intrasphincteric BoTox injections were performed in 31 patients. Completed questionnaires were returned by 27 out of 28 eligible patients (96%) reporting improvement or symptoms resolution in 16 (59%). The highest success rates were experienced by patients younger than 4, with long HSCR forms and with recurrent enterocolitis (75%, 100% and 100% of success rates, respectively). No major complications occurred. Minor complications were described by 7 patients (26%). CONCLUSIONS: Intrasphincteric BoTox injection proved to be feasible, safe and reasonably effective in children with HSCR and postoperative anal achalasia. Infants and toddlers with long HSCR forms and recurrent bouts of enterocolitis are those who would benefit most from this treatment.

13.
J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr ; 66(6): 920-925, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29315163

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of adalimumab (ADA) in children with ulcerative colitis (UC) previously treated with infliximab (IFX). METHODS: Retrospective study including children with UC from a national registry who received ADA therapy. The primary endpoint was the rate of corticosteroid-free remission at week 52. Secondary outcomes were the rate of sustained clinical remission, primary nonresponse, and loss of response at weeks 12, 30, and 52 and rate of mucosal healing and side effects at week 52. RESULTS: Thirty-two children received ADA (median age 10 ±â€Š4 years). Median disease duration before ADA therapy was 27 months. All patients received previous IFX (43% intolerant, 50% nonresponders [37.5% primary, 42.5% secondary nonresponders], 6.7% positive anti-IFX antibodies). Fifty-two weeks after ADA initiation, 13 patients (41%) were in corticosteroid-free remission. Mucosal healing occurred in 9 patients (28%) at 52 weeks. The cumulative probability of a clinical relapse-free course was 69%, 59%, and 53% at 12, 30, and 52 weeks, respectively. Ten patients (31%) had a primary failure and 5 (15%) a loss of response to ADA. No significant differences in efficacy were reported between not-responders and intolerant to IFX (P = 1.0). Overall, 19 patient (59%) maintained ADA during 52-week follow-up. Seven patients (22%) experienced an adverse event, no serious side effects were observed and none resulted in ADA discontinuation. CONCLUSIONS: Based on our data, ADA seems to be effective in children with UC, allowing to recover a significant percentage of patients intolerant or not-responding to IFX. The safety profile was good.


Assuntos
Adalimumab/uso terapêutico , Colite Ulcerativa/tratamento farmacológico , Fármacos Gastrointestinais/uso terapêutico , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Segurança do Paciente , Sistema de Registros , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento
14.
Inflamm Bowel Dis ; 23(10): 1810-1816, 2017 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28817461

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Thalidomide is an effective therapy in children with inflammatory bowel disease refractory to standard treatments, but thalidomide-induced peripheral neuropathy (TiPN) limits its long-term use. We aimed to investigate the risk factors and the outcome of TiPN in children with inflammatory bowel disease. METHODS: Within a retrospective multicenter cohort study, we evaluated prevalence and evolution of TiPN. Clinical data and candidate genetic profiles of patients with and without TiPN were compared with detect predisposing factors. RESULTS: One hundred forty-two patients were identified. TiPN was found in 72.5% of patients (38.7% clinical and instrumental alterations, 26.8% exclusive electrophysiological anomalies, and 7.0% exclusive neurological symptoms). Median TiPN-free period of treatment was 16.5 months; percentage of TiPN-free patients was 70.0% and 35.6% at 12 and 24 months of treatment, respectively. The risk of TiPN increased depending on the mean daily dose (50-99 mg/d adjusted hazard ratio 2.62; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.31-5.21; 100-149 mg/d adjusted hazard ratio 6.16; 95% CI, 20.9-13.06; >150 mg/d adjusted hazard ratio 9.57; 95% CI, 2.6-35.2). Single nucleotide polymorphisms in ICAM1 (rs1799969) and SERPINB2 (rs6103) genes were found to be protective against TiPN (odds ratio 0.15; 95% CI, 0.03-0.82 and 0.36; 95% CI, 0.14-0.88, respectively). TiPN was the cause of drug suspension in 41.8% of patients. Clinical symptoms resolved in 89.2% of cases, whereas instrumental alteration persisted in more than half of the patients during a short follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: In children with inflammatory bowel disease, TiPN is common but mild and generally reversible. Cumulative dose seems to be the most relevant risk factor, whereas polymorphisms in genes involved in neuronal inflammation may be protective.


Assuntos
Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso Periférico/induzido quimicamente , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso Periférico/genética , Talidomida/efeitos adversos , Adolescente , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Molécula 1 de Adesão Intercelular/genética , Itália , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Inibidor 2 de Ativador de Plasminogênio/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Análise de Sobrevida , Talidomida/administração & dosagem
15.
World J Gastroenterol ; 23(8): 1328-1337, 2017 Feb 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28293079

RESUMO

There are many causes of gastrointestinal bleeding (GIB) in children, and this condition is not rare, having a reported incidence of 6.4%. Causes vary with age, but show considerable overlap; moreover, while many of the causes in the pediatric population are similar to those in adults, some lesions are unique to children. The diagnostic approach for pediatric GIB includes definition of the etiology, localization of the bleeding site and determination of the severity of bleeding; timely and accurate diagnosis is necessary to reduce morbidity and mortality. To assist medical care providers in the evaluation and management of children with GIB, the "Gastro-Ped Bleed Team" of the Italian Society of Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition (SIGENP) carried out a systematic search on MEDLINE via PubMed (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/) to identify all articles published in English from January 1990 to 2016; the following key words were used to conduct the electronic search: "upper GIB" and "pediatric" [all fields]; "lower GIB" and "pediatric" [all fields]; "obscure GIB" and "pediatric" [all fields]; "GIB" and "endoscopy" [all fields]; "GIB" and "therapy" [all fields]. The identified publications included articles describing randomized controlled trials, reviews, case reports, cohort studies, case-control studies and observational studies. References from the pertinent articles were also reviewed. This paper expresses a position statement of SIGENP that can have an immediate impact on clinical practice and for which sufficient evidence is not available in literature. The experts participating in this effort were selected according to their expertise and professional qualifications.


Assuntos
Gastroenterologia/métodos , Hemorragia Gastrointestinal/diagnóstico , Hemorragia Gastrointestinal/prevenção & controle , Hemorragia Gastrointestinal/terapia , Pediatria/métodos , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Diagnóstico por Imagem , Endoscopia , Gastroenteropatias/complicações , Hemodinâmica , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Itália , Recidiva , Sociedades Médicas
16.
Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol ; 15(9): 1382-1389.e1, 2017 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28286192

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Mucosal healing, determined by endoscopic evaluation, is one of the most important prognostic markers for patients with inflammatory bowel diseases. Findings from histologic evaluation, however, could complement findings from endoscopy in assessing mucosal responses to treatment. We analyzed long-term results of children treated with thalidomide to determine the association between clinical response and histology and endoscopy findings. METHODS: We collected data from 2 multicenter trials of 70 children with refractory Crohn's disease (CD) or ulcerative colitis (UC) (2-18 years old; ileocolonic or colonic disease) given thalidomide or placebo (NCT00720538). Clinical remission and clinical response at 8 weeks were defined as a pediatric CD activity index scores 10 points or lower and a decrease of at least 50% from baseline, respectively, for patients with CD; and as a pediatric UC activity index score below 10 and a decrease of at least 20 points from baseline, respectively, for patients with UC. Patients with a clinical response to 8 weeks' treatment with thalidomide underwent endoscopic examination with biopsy collection at study weeks 12 and 52. Severity of inflammation in patients with UC was assessed by Mayo score and in patients with CD by 4-grade system. Biopsies were assessed for signs of active inflammation, erosion or ulceration, and crypt abscesses and assigned a histologic score. RESULTS: Clinical remission was observed in 42 patients (60.0%) and clinical response in 45 patients (64.2%) at Week 8. At Week 52, a total of 38 patients (54.3%) were still in clinical remission or still had a clinical response; 29 patients (41.4%) had mucosal healing, defined as complete healing of erosions or ulcerations, and 20 patients (27.7%) had histologic healing, defined as complete absence of markers of inflammation. Of patients with clinical remission or clinical response, 75.3% also had mucosal healing and 52.6% also had histologic healing. The probability of achieving mucosal healing decreased significantly with increasing values of erythrocyte sedimentation rate (adjusted odds ratio, 0.96; 95% CI, 0.93-0.98; P = .006). CONCLUSIONS: In a long-term analysis of data from 2 clinical trials of pediatric patients with CD or UC, 52 weeks' treatment with thalidomide led to clinical remission in 54.3% of patients with ileocolonic or colonic disease; of these patients, 75.3% had mucosal healing and 52.6% also had histologic healing. Further studies are needed to determine how thalidomide therapy affects long-term progression of inflammatory bowel diseases. (ClinicalTrials.gov number NCT00720538).


Assuntos
Imunossupressores/uso terapêutico , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/patologia , Talidomida/uso terapêutico , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto , Endoscopia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Histocitoquímica , Humanos , Mucosa Intestinal/patologia , Masculino , Estudos Multicêntricos como Assunto , Placebos/administração & dosagem , Estudos Prospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento
17.
Inflamm Bowel Dis ; 23(4): 628-634, 2017 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28296824

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Early-onset inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is generally aggressive, with a high probability of complications and need of surgery. Despite the introduction of highly effective biological drugs, treatment with azathioprine continues to be important even for early-onset IBD; however, in these patients azathioprine response seems to be reduced. This study evaluated azathioprine doses, metabolite concentrations, and their associations with patients' age in children with IBD treated at 6 tertiary pediatric referral centers. METHODS: Azathioprine doses, metabolites, and clinical effects were assessed after at least 3 months of therapy in 17 early-onset (age < 6 yr, cases) and 51 nonearly-onset (aged > 12 and <18 yrs, controls) patients with IBD. Azathioprine dose was titrated on therapeutic efficacy (response and adverse effects). Azathioprine metabolites and thiopurine methyltransferase activity were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography with ultra violet-vis detection (HPLC-UV) methods. RESULTS: Frequency of patients in remission was similar among early-onset and control groups, respectively (82% and 84%, P value = 0.72). Early-onset patients required higher doses of azathioprine (median 2.7 versus 2.0 mg·kg·d, P value = 1.1 × 10). Different doses resulted in comparable azathioprine active thioguanine nucleotide metabolite concentrations (median 263 versus 366 pmol/8 × 10 erythrocytes, P value = 0.41) and methylmercaptopurine nucleotide concentrations (median 1455 versus 1532 pmol/8 × 10 erythrocytes, P value = 0.60). Lower ratios between thioguanine nucleotide metabolites and azathioprine doses were found in early-onset patients (median 98 versus 184 pmol/8 × 10 erythrocytes·mg·kg·d, P value = 0.017). Interestingly, early-onset patients presented also higher thiopurine methyltransferase activity (median 476 versus 350 nmol methylmercaptopurine/mg hemoglobin/h, P-value = 0.046). CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrated that patients with early-onset IBD present increased inactivating azathioprine metabolism, likely because of elevated activity of the enzyme thiopurine methyltransferase.


Assuntos
Antimetabólitos/farmacocinética , Azatioprina/farmacocinética , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/tratamento farmacológico , Adolescente , Idade de Início , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Eritrócitos/metabolismo , Feminino , Nucleotídeos de Guanina/sangue , Humanos , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/sangue , Masculino , Mercaptopurina/análogos & derivados , Mercaptopurina/sangue , Metiltransferases/sangue , Tioguanina/sangue
18.
J Laparoendosc Adv Surg Tech A ; 27(5): 550-555, 2017 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28135121

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Around 70% of children with neurodisability (ND) present pharyngeal neuromuscular incoordination and severe gastroesophageal reflux disease (GORD). METHODS: This is a pilot study with the Robotic-assisted minimally invasive total esophagogastric dissociation (TOGD). RESULTS: We included 4 patients, 2 males and 2 females, with ND and severe GORD refractory to medical treatment. CONCLUSIONS: Pharmacological management of GORD is often unsuccessful and antireflux surgery is common, but it has a high failure rate with symptom recurrence, requiring re-do surgery. TOGD is a good option for these patients.


Assuntos
Procedimentos Cirúrgicos do Sistema Digestório/métodos , Refluxo Gastroesofágico/cirurgia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Robóticos/métodos , Adolescente , Criança , Feminino , Refluxo Gastroesofágico/etiologia , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso/complicações , Projetos Piloto
19.
Inflamm Bowel Dis ; 22(7): 1647-54, 2016 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27271489

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We aimed at describing the efficacy of azathioprine (AZA) in pediatric ulcerative colitis, comparing the outcomes of early (0-6 months) versus late (6-24 months) initiation of therapy. METHODS: Children with ulcerative colitis treated with AZA within 24 months of diagnosis were included. Corticosteroid (CS)-free remission and mucosal healing (MH), assessed by endoscopy or fecal calprotectin, at 12 months were the primary outcomes. Patients were also compared for CS-free remission and MH, need for treatment escalation or surgery, number of hospitalizations, and adverse events during a 24-month follow-up. RESULTS: A total of 121 children entered the study (median age 10.5 ± 4.0 years, 59% girls). Seventy-six (63%) started AZA between 0 and 6 months (early group) and 45 (37%) started between 6 and 24 months (late group). Seventy-five percent and 53% of patients in the early and late group, respectively, received CS at the diagnosis (P = 0.01). CS-free remission at 1 year was achieved by 30 (50%) of the early and 23 (57%) of the late patients (P = 0.54). MH occurred in 37 (37%) patients at 1 year, with no difference between the 2 groups (33% early, 42% late; P = 0.56). No difference was found for the other outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: Introduction of AZA within 6 months of diagnosis seems not more effective than later treatment to achieve CS-free remission in pediatric ulcerative colitis. MH does not depend on the timing of AZA initiation; however, because of the incomplete comparability of the 2 groups at the diagnosis and the use of fecal calprotectin as a surrogate marker of MH, our results should be further confirmed by prospective studies.


Assuntos
Azatioprina/uso terapêutico , Colite Ulcerativa/tratamento farmacológico , Imunossupressores/uso terapêutico , Cicatrização , Adolescente , Corticosteroides/uso terapêutico , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Colectomia/estatística & dados numéricos , Colite Ulcerativa/cirurgia , Fezes/química , Feminino , Humanos , Mucosa Intestinal , Complexo Antígeno L1 Leucocitário/análise , Masculino , Sistema de Registros , Indução de Remissão , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Fatores de Tempo
20.
J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr ; 63(2): 259-64, 2016 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26756875

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Autoimmune liver disease is reported in up to 7.8% of children with inflammatory bowel disease. A distinct inflammatory bowel disease phenotype has been suggested in adults and in small pediatric cohorts. The aim of the study was to evaluate the features of inflammatory bowel disease associated with autoimmune liver diseases and to analyze the characteristics of the liver disease. METHODS: Information on patients was obtained from the Italian Pediatric Inflammatory Bowel Disease Registry. Data of patients with and without autoimmune liver disease were compared. RESULTS: Autoimmune liver disease was detected in 6.8% of the 677 patients enrolled and was significantly associated with the diagnosis of ulcerative colitis (83%), with pancolonic involvement (84%), and with perinuclear antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody positivity (41%) (all Ps < 0.05). Autoimmune liver disease was defined as sclerosing cholangitis in 61% of the patients and as an overlap syndrome in 33%. Concomitant intra- and extrahepatic biliary involvement was reported in 61% of cases, whereas exclusive extrahepatic lesions were reported in 21%. Hepatobiliary complications were observed in 9% of the patients during follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: Autoimmune liver disease, especially sclerosing cholangitis, was significantly more common in patients with extensive ulcerative colitis. Although complications are relatively rare in the pediatric age, monitoring is recommended.


Assuntos
Colangite Esclerosante/diagnóstico , Colangite Esclerosante/etiologia , Colite Ulcerativa/complicações , Doença de Crohn/complicações , Hepatite Autoimune/diagnóstico , Hepatite Autoimune/etiologia , Adolescente , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Análise Multivariada , Razão de Chances , Sistema de Registros , Fatores de Risco
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