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Cureus ; 11(5): e4617, 2019 May 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31312544


BACKGROUND: The prostate gland is a male sexual organ which has a number of diseases associated with it, such as prostatitis, benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), and prostatic cancer (PC). BPH is the most common neoplasm, and it causes significant urinary symptoms in adult males. According to the World Health Organization (WHO) report of 2014, out of all the cancers, PC had the fifth highest incidence in males throughout Pakistan. The purpose of this study was to determine the awareness of elderly men of Karachi regarding prostate diseases (PDs) and their attitude towards screening practices. METHOD: From September to December 2018, a cross-sectional study was performed among 450 men of Karachi older than 50 years of age. Frequencies and percentages were evaluated for categorical variables using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS), version 22 (IBM SPSS Statistics, Armonk, NY). Chi-square test was used to determine if there was any significant difference. A p-value of < 0.05 was considered significant. RESULT:  A total of 350 respondents answered the questionnaire. The mean age of the respondents was 61 years. Almost half of the population had heard about the prostate but 64% did not know any PDs, whereas 48% were aware of the increased risk of PDs in the elderly. Almost 48% of the respondents believed that age was the main cause of disorders involving the prostate. Even though the knowledge was lacking, people had an overall positive attitude. Most respondents (66%) had the attitude that all adult men must undergo prostate screening. The majority of respondents (85%) had not undergone screening of the prostate as the huge group of participants (86%) had not been advised to do it. Upon statistical testing, having heard about the prostate and undergoing prostate screening in the past (p = 0.008 and 0.024, respectively) was significantly associated with age. Having prior experience with prostate screening was also associated significantly with marital status (p < 0.001). CONCLUSION:  Respondents have inadequate knowledge about PC but a good attitude about undergoing prostate examination. It is absolutely crucial to increase information on the risks of PDs, particularly PC, and the benefits of early detection.

Cureus ; 11(4): e4467, 2019 Apr 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31249745


We describe a three-year-old male child who presented to the pediatrics out-patient department with a history of decrease in appetite, generalized weakness, on and off loose motions for one year, inability to walk and sit for eight months with a loss of neck holding for 14 days. On examination, the patient had a classic frog-shaped leg posture. X-rays of chest, skull, pelvis and long bones were performed which showed osteopenic bones, frontal bossing and multiple microfractures, which were classic for osteogenesis Imperfecta but the child did not have other salient features such as blue sclera, otosclerosis, and respiratory difficulty. The patient also had urinary complaints due to which ultrasound of kidney ureters and bladder (KUB) was performed, which showed bilateral renal calculi and grade 2 renal parenchymal changes. This case report illustrates the evaluation of the child with osteogenesis imperfecta, as well as the unique association of renal osteodystrophy and gastroenteritis with it.

Cureus ; 11(2): e4050, 2019 Feb 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31016078


Cases on concurrent infection of dengue and malaria are uncommon in Pakistan. Dengue and malaria are the two very common, mosquito-borne infections, which may have significant morbidity and mortality if not managed properly. Concurrent infections of dengue and malaria are rare due to the different habitats of its vectors and activities of different bearer mosquitoes. The first case was reported in 2005. Since then, several co-existing infections have been reported consisting of the dengue virus (DENV) and the malaria protozoans. Symptoms of each infection may be disguised by a coincident second infection, resulting in delayed treatment and severe complications. We report a case of concurrent malaria and dengue viral hemorrhagic fever in a 19-year-old male.

Dermatol Surg ; 43(3): 424-430, 2017 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28002105


BACKGROUND: Cryosurgery is the most commonly used method to treat actinic keratosis (AK). Cryosurgical methods are not standardized. OBJECTIVE: To examine differences in the spray techniques used for liquid nitrogen cryosurgery when treating AKs of the head, and the effect of these variations in technique on rates of complete clearance of AKs. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients were those from the FIELD-1 study, who received cryosurgery as per the investigators' usual practice to all AKs. This was followed by topical treatment with either vehicle gel or ingenol mebutate gel, 0.015%, after 3 weeks. The investigator recorded the average duration of cryosurgery spray used, the number of freeze-thaw cycles, and the distance from the tip of the spray device to the AK. Clearance rates were determined at Week 11. RESULTS: Less-aggressive freezing techniques were used for AKs on the face than for those on the scalp. However, higher rates of complete clearance on the face and scalp were associated with more-aggressive freezing techniques. CONCLUSION: Patients with AKs on the face receive less-aggressive cryosurgery than do patients with AKs on the scalp.

Criocirurgia , Fármacos Dermatológicos/administração & dosagem , Diterpenos/administração & dosagem , Ceratose Actínica/tratamento farmacológico , Ceratose Actínica/cirurgia , Administração Cutânea , Adolescente , Adulto , Criocirurgia/efeitos adversos , Criocirurgia/métodos , Face/cirurgia , Géis/administração & dosagem , Humanos , Ceratose Actínica/patologia , Fatores de Risco , Couro Cabeludo/cirurgia , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Resultado do Tratamento , Estados Unidos