Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 27
Filtrar
Filtros adicionais











Tipo de estudo
Intervalo de ano
1.
Clin Res Cardiol ; 2019 Aug 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31401672

RESUMO

AIMS: In the placebo-controlled, double-blind BOne marrOw transfer to enhance ST-elevation infarct regeneration (BOOST) 2 trial, intracoronary autologous bone marrow cell (BMC) transfer did not improve recovery of left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) at 6 months in patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) and moderately reduced LVEF. Regional myocardial perfusion as determined by adenosine stress perfusion cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (S-CMR) may be more sensitive than global LVEF in detecting BMC treatment effects. Here, we sought to evaluate (i) the changes of myocardial perfusion in the infarct area over time (ii) the effects of BMC therapy on infarct perfusion, and (iii) the relation of infarct perfusion to LVEF recovery at 6 months. METHODS AND RESULTS: In 51 patients from BOOST-2 (placebo, n = 10; BMC, n = 41), S-CMR was performed 5.1 ± 2.9 days after PCI (before placebo/BMC treatment) and after 6 months. Infarct perfusion improved from baseline to 6 months in the overall patient cohort as reflected by the semi-quantitative parameters, perfusion defect-infarct size ratio (change from 0.54 ± 0.20 to 0.43 ± 0.22; P = 0.006) and perfusion defect-upslope ratio (0.54 ± 0.23 to 0.68 ± 0.22; P < 0.001), irrespective of randomised treatment. Perfusion defect-upslope ratio at baseline correlated with LVEF recovery (r = 0.62; P < 0.001) after 6 months, with a threshold of 0.54 providing the best sensitivity (79%) and specificity (74%) (area under the curve, 0.79; 95% confidence interval, 0.67-0.92). CONCLUSION: Infarct perfusion improves from baseline to 6 months and predicts LVEF recovery in STEMI patients undergoing early PCI. Intracoronary BMC therapy did not enhance infarct perfusion in the BOOST-2 trial.

2.
Hum Gene Ther Methods ; 30(3): 102-120, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30997855

RESUMO

In cellular immunotherapies, natural killer (NK) cells often demonstrate potent antitumor effects in high-risk cancer patients. But Good Manufacturing Practice (GMP)-compliant manufacturing of clinical-grade NK cells in high numbers for patient treatment is still a challenge. Therefore, new protocols for isolation and expansion of NK cells are required. In order to attack resistant tumor entities, NK cell killing can be improved by genetic engineering using alpharetroviral vectors that encode for chimeric antigen receptors (CARs). The aim of this work was to demonstrate GMP-grade manufacturing of NK cells using the CliniMACS® Prodigy device (Prodigy) with implemented applicable quality controls. Additionally, the study aimed to define the best time point to transduce expanding NK cells with alpharetroviral CAR vectors. Manufacturing and clinical-scale expansion of primary human NK cells were performed with the Prodigy starting with 8-15.0 × 109 leukocytes (including 1.1-2.3 × 109 NK cells) collected by small-scale lymphapheresis (n = 3). Positive fraction after immunoselection, in-process controls (IPCs), and end product were quantified by flow cytometric no-wash, single-platform assessment, and gating strategy using positive (CD56/CD16/CD45), negative (CD14/CD19/CD3), and dead cell (7-aminoactinomycine [7-AAD]) discriminators. The three runs on the fully integrated manufacturing platform included immunomagnetic separation (CD3 depletion/CD56 enrichment) followed by NK cell expansion over 14 days. This process led to high NK cell purities (median 99.1%) and adequate NK cell viabilities (median 86.9%) and achieved a median CD3+ cell depletion of log -3.6 after CD3 depletion and log -3.7 after immunomagnetic CD3 depletion and consecutive CD56 selection. Subsequent cultivation of separated NK cells in the CentriCult® chamber of Prodigy resulted in approximately 4.2-8.5-fold NK cell expansion rates by adding of NK MACS® basal medium containing NK MACS® supplement, interleukin (IL)-2/IL-15 and initial IL-21. NK cells expanded for 14 days revealed higher expression of natural cytotoxicity receptors (NKp30, NKp44, NKp46, and NKG2D) and degranulation/apoptotic markers and stronger cytolytic properties against K562 compared to non-activated NK cells before automated cultivation. Moreover, expanded NK cells had robust growth and killing activities even after cryopreservation. As a crucial result, it was possible to determine the appropriate time period for optimal CAR transduction of cultivated NK cells between days 8 and 14, with the highest anti-CD123 CAR expression levels on day 14. The anti-CD123 CAR NK cells showed retargeted killing and degranulation properties against CD123-expressing KG1a target cells, while basal cytotoxicity of non-transduced NK cells was determined using the CD123-negative cell line K562. Time-lapse imaging to monitor redirected effector-to-target contacts between anti-CD123 CAR NK and KG1a showed long-term effector-target interaction. In conclusion, the integration of the clinical-scale expansion procedure in the automated and closed Prodigy system, including IPC samples and quality controls and optimal time frames for NK cell transduction with CAR vectors, was established on 48-well plates and resulted in a standardized GMP-compliant overall process.

3.
Stem Cell Res ; 35: 101394, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30772682

RESUMO

The utilization of human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) for disease modeling and drug discovery is already reality, and several first-in-man-applications as cellular therapeutics have been initiated. Implementation of good manufacturing practice (GMP)-compliant protocols for the generation of hiPSC lines is crucial to increase the application safety as well as to fulfil the legal requirements for clinical trials approval. Here we describe the development of a GMP-compatible protocol for the reprogramming of CD34+ hematopoietic stem cells from peripheral blood (CD34+ PBHSC) into hiPSCs using Sendai virus-based reprogramming vectors. Three GMP-compatible hiPSC (GMP-hiPSC) lines were manufactured and characterized under these conditions.


Assuntos
Linhagem Celular , Técnicas de Reprogramação Celular , Reprogramação Celular , Células-Tronco Pluripotentes Induzidas , Humanos , Células-Tronco Pluripotentes Induzidas/citologia , Células-Tronco Pluripotentes Induzidas/metabolismo
5.
Front Immunol ; 8: 1100, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28943878

RESUMO

Natural killer cells (NK) are essential for the elimination of resistant acute myeloid and acute lymphoblastic leukemia (AML and ALL) cells. NK cell-based immunotherapies have already successfully entered for clinical trials, but limitations due to immune escape mechanisms were identified. Therefore, we extended our established NK cell protocol by integration of the previously investigated powerful trispecific immunoligand ULBP2-aCD19-aCD33 [the so-called triplebodies (TBs)] to improve the anti-leukemic specificity of activated NK cells. IL-2-driven expansion led to strongly elevated natural killer group 2 member D (NKG2D) expressions on donor NK cells which promote the binding to ULBP2+ TBs. Similarly, CD33 expression on these NK cells could be detected. Dual-specific targeting and elimination were investigated against the B-cell precursor leukemia cell line BV-173 and patient blasts, which were positive for myeloid marker CD33 and B lymphoid marker CD19 exclusively presented on biphenotypic B/myeloid leukemia's. Cytotoxicity assays demonstrated improved killing properties of NK cells pre-coated with TBs compared to untreated controls. Specific NKG2D blocking on those NK cells in response to TBs diminished this killing activity. On the contrary, the observed upregulation of surface CD33 on about 28.0% of the NK cells decreased their viability in response to TBs during cytotoxic interaction of effector and target cells. Similar side effects were also detected against CD33+ T- and CD19+ B-cells. Very preliminary proof of principle results showed promising effects using NK cells and TBs against primary leukemic cells. In summary, we demonstrated a promising strategy for redirecting primary human NK cells in response to TBs against leukemia, which may lead to a future progress in NK cell-based immunotherapies.

6.
Hum Gene Ther ; 28(10): 897-913, 2017 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28810809

RESUMO

The administration of ex vivo expanded natural killer (NK) cells as potential antitumor effector cells appears to be suitable for effector cell-based immunotherapies in high-risk cancer patients. However, good manufacturing practice (GMP)-compliant manufacturing of clinical-grade NK cells at sufficiently high numbers represents a great challenge. Therefore, previous expansion protocols for those effector cells were improved and optimized by using newly developed culture medium, interleukin (IL)-21, and autologous feeder cells (FCs). Separation of primary human NK cells (CD56+CD3-) was carried out with the CliniMACS Prodigy® in a single process, starting with approximately 1.2 × 109 leukocytes collected by small-scale lymphapheresis or from buffy coats. Enriched NK cells were adjusted to starting cell concentrations within approximately 1 × 106 effector cells/mL and cultured in comparative expansion experiments for 14 days with IL-2 (1,000 IU/mL) in different GMP-compliant media (X-VIVO™10, CellGro®, TexMACS™, and NK MACS®). After medium optimization, beneficial effects for functionality and phenotype were investigated at the beginning of cell expansion with irradiated (25 Gy) autologous FCs at a ratio of 20:1 (feeder: NK) in the presence or absence of IL-21 (100 ng/mL). Additionally, expanded NK cells were gene modified to express chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) against CD123, a common marker for acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Cytotoxicity, degranulation, and cytokine release of transduced NK cells were determined against KG1a cells in flow cytometric analysis and fluorescent imaging. The Prodigy manufacturing process revealed high target cell viabilities (median 95.4%), adequate NK cell recovery (median 60.4%), and purity of 95.4% in regard to CD56+CD3- target cells. The process in its early phase of development led to a median T-cell depletion of log 3.5 after CD3 depletion and log 3.6 after the whole process, including CD3 depletion and CD56 enrichment steps. Manually performed experiments to test different culture media demonstrated significantly higher NK cell expansion rates and an approximately equal distribution of CD56dimCD16pos and CD56brightCD16dim&neg NK subsets on day 14 with cells cultivated in NK MACS® media. Moreover, effector cell expansion in manually performed experiments with NK MACS® containing IL-2 and irradiated autologous FCs and IL-21, both added at the initiation of the culture, induced an 85-fold NK cell expansion. Compared to freshly isolated NK cells, expanded NK cells expressed significantly higher levels of NKp30, NKp44, NKG2D, TRAIL, FasL, CD69, and CD137, and showed comparable cell viabilities and killing/degranulation activities against tumor and leukemic cell lines in vitro. NK cells used for CAR transduction showed the highest anti-CD123 CAR expression on day 3 after gene modification. These anti-CD123 CAR-engineered NK cells demonstrated improved cytotoxicity against the CD123pos AML cell line KG1a and primary AML blasts. In addition, CAR NK cells showed higher degranulation and enhanced secretion of tumor necrosis factor alpha, interferon gamma, and granzyme A and B. In fluorescence imaging, specific interactions that initiated apoptotic processes in the AML target cells were detected between CAR NK cells and KG1a. After the fully automated NK cell separation process on Prodigy, a new NK cell expansion protocol was generated that resulted in high numbers of NK cells with potent antitumor activity, which could be modified efficiently by novel third-generation, alpha-retroviral SIN vector constructs. Next steps are the integration of the manual expansion procedure in the fully integrated platform for a standardized GMP-compliant overall process in this closed system that also may include gene modification of NK cells to optimize target-specific antitumor activity.


Assuntos
Técnicas de Cultura de Células , Células Matadoras Naturais/citologia , Automação Laboratorial , Degranulação Celular/imunologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Separação Celular/métodos , Técnicas de Cocultura , Citocinas/metabolismo , Citotoxicidade Imunológica , Células Alimentadoras , Citometria de Fluxo , Expressão Gênica , Vetores Genéticos , Humanos , Interleucinas/farmacologia , Células K562 , Células Matadoras Naturais/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Matadoras Naturais/imunologia , Células Matadoras Naturais/metabolismo , Transdução Genética , Transgenes
7.
Eur Heart J ; 38(39): 2936-2943, 2017 Oct 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28431003

RESUMO

Aims: Intracoronary infusion of autologous nucleated bone marrow cells (BMCs) enhanced the recovery of left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) after ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) in the randomised-controlled, open-label BOOST trial. We reassessed the therapeutic potential of nucleated BMCs in the randomised placebo-controlled, double-blind BOOST-2 trial conducted in 10 centres in Germany and Norway. Methods and results: Using a multiple arm design, we investigated the dose-response relationship and explored whether γ-irradiation which eliminates the clonogenic potential of stem and progenitor cells has an impact on BMC efficacy. Between 9 March 2006 and 16 July 2013, 153 patients with large STEMI were randomly assigned to receive a single intracoronary infusion of placebo (control group), high-dose (hi)BMCs, low-dose (lo)BMCs, irradiated hiBMCs, or irradiated loBMCs 8.1 ± 2.6 days after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) in addition to guideline-recommended medical treatment. Change in LVEF from baseline (before cell infusion) to 6 months as determined by MRI was the primary endpoint. The trial is registered at Current Controlled Trials (ISRCTN17457407). Baseline LVEF was 45.0 ± 8.5% in the overall population. At 6 months, LVEF had increased by 3.3 percentage points in the control group and 4.3 percentage points in the hiBMC group. The estimated treatment effect was 1.0 percentage points (95% confidence interval, -2.6 to 4.7; P = 0.57). The treatment effect of loBMCs was 0.5 percentage points (-3.0 to 4.1; P = 0.76). Likewise, irradiated BMCs did not have significant treatment effects. BMC transfer was safe and not associated with adverse clinical events. Conclusion: The BOOST-2 trial does not support the use of nucleated BMCs in patients with STEMI and moderately reduced LVEF treated according to current standards of early PCI and drug therapy.


Assuntos
Transplante de Medula Óssea/métodos , Infarto do Miocárdio com Supradesnível do Segmento ST/terapia , Células da Medula Óssea/efeitos da radiação , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Raios gama , Humanos , Infusões Intralesionais , Angiografia por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea , Transplante de Células-Tronco/métodos , Células-Tronco/efeitos da radiação , Transplante Autólogo , Resultado do Tratamento , Função Ventricular Esquerda/fisiologia
8.
Front Immunol ; 7: 393, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27746781

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The infusion of enriched CMV-specific donor T-cells appears to be a suitable alternative for the treatment of drug-resistant CMV reactivation or de novo infection after both solid organ and hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Antiviral lymphocytes can be selected from apheresis products using the CliniMACS Cytokine-Capture-System® either with the well-established CliniMACS® Plus (Plus) device or with its more versatile successor CliniMACS Prodigy® (Prodigy). METHODS: Manufacturing of CMV-specific T-cells was carried out with the Prodigy and Plus in parallel starting with 0.8-1 × 109 leukocytes collected by lymphapheresis (n = 3) and using the MACS GMP PepTivator® HCMVpp65 for antigenic restimulation. Target and non-target cells were quantified by a newly developed single-platform assessment and gating strategy using positive (CD3/CD4/CD8/CD45/IFN-γ), negative (CD14/CD19/CD56), and dead cell (7-AAD) discriminators. RESULTS: Both devices produced largely similar results for target cell viabilities: 37.2-52.2% (Prodigy) vs. 51.1-62.1% (Plus) CD45+/7-AAD- cells. Absolute numbers of isolated target cells were 0.1-3.8 × 106 viable IFN-γ+ CD3+ T-cells. The corresponding proportions of IFN-γ+ CD3+ T-cells ranged between 19.2 and 95.1% among total CD3+ T-cells and represented recoveries of 41.9-87.6%. Within two parallel processes, predominantly IFN-γ+ CD3+CD8+ cytotoxic T-cells were enriched compared to one process that yielded a higher amount of IFN-γ+ CD3+CD4+ helper T lymphocytes. T-cell purity was higher for the Prodigies products that displayed a lower content of contaminating IFN-γ- T-cells (3.6-20.8%) compared to the Plus products (19.9-80.0%). CONCLUSION: The manufacturing process on the Prodigy saved both process and hands-on time due to its higher process integration and ability for unattended operation. Although the usage of both instruments yielded comparable results, the lower content of residual IFN-γ- T-cells in the target fractions produced with the Prodigy may allow for a higher dosage of CMV-specific donor T-cells without increasing the risk for graft-versus-host disease.

9.
Hum Gene Ther ; 27(10): 860-869, 2016 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27562135

RESUMO

Multiple clinical studies have demonstrated that adaptive immunotherapy using redirected T cells against advanced cancer has led to promising results with improved patient survival. The continuously increasing interest in those advanced gene therapy medicinal products (GTMPs) leads to a manufacturing challenge regarding automation, process robustness, and cell storage. Therefore, this study addresses the proof of principle in clinical-scale selection, stimulation, transduction, and expansion of T cells using the automated closed CliniMACS® Prodigy system. Naïve and central memory T cells from apheresis products were first immunomagnetically enriched using anti-CD62L magnetic beads and further processed freshly (n = 3) or split for cryopreservation and processed after thawing (n = 1). Starting with 0.5 × 108 purified CD3+ T cells, three mock runs and one run including transduction with green fluorescent protein (GFP)-containing vector resulted in a median final cell product of 16 × 108 T cells (32-fold expansion) up to harvesting after 2 weeks. Expression of CD62L was downregulated on T cells after thawing, which led to the decision to purify CD62L+CD3+ T cells freshly with cryopreservation thereafter. Most important in the split product, a very similar expansion curve was reached comparing the overall freshly CD62L selected cells with those after thawing, which could be demonstrated in the T cell subpopulations as well by showing a nearly identical conversion of the CD4/CD8 ratio. In the GFP run, the transduction efficacy was 83%. In-process control also demonstrated sufficient glucose levels during automated feeding and medium removal. The robustness of the process and the constant quality of the final product in a closed and automated system give rise to improve harmonized manufacturing protocols for engineered T cells in future gene therapy studies.


Assuntos
Terapia Genética , Selectina L/biossíntese , Linfócitos T/metabolismo , Glucose/metabolismo , Humanos , Imunoterapia Adotiva/métodos , Selectina L/genética , Selectina L/uso terapêutico , Linfócitos T/transplante , Transdução Genética
10.
Front Immunol ; 6: 543, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26579120

RESUMO

Immunosuppressive factors, such as soluble major histocompatibility complex class I chain-related peptide A (sMICA) and transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-ß1), are involved in tumor immune escape mechanisms (TIEMs) exhibited by head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCCs) and may represent opportunities for therapeutic intervention. In order to overcome TIEMs, we investigated the antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC), cytokine release and retargeted tumor infiltration of sMICA-inhibited patient NK cells expressing Fcγ receptor IIIa (FcγRIIIa, CD16a) in the presence of cetuximab, an anti-epidermal growth factor receptor (HER1) monoclonal antibody (mAb). Compared to healthy controls, relapsed HNSCC patients (n = 5), not currently in treatment revealed decreased levels of circulating regulatory NK cell subsets in relation to increased cytotoxic NK cell subpopulations. Elevated sMICA and TGF-ß1 plasma levels correlated with diminished TNFα and IFN-γ release and decreased NKG2D (natural killer group 2 member D)-dependent killing of HNSCC cells by NK cells. Incubation of IL-2-activated patient NK cells with patient plasma containing elevated sMICA or sMICA analogs (shed MICA and recombinant MICA) significantly impaired NKG2D-mediated killing by down-regulation of NKG2D surface expression. Of note, CD16 surface expression levels, pro-apoptotic and activation markers, and viability of patient and healthy donor NK cell subpopulations were not affected by this treatment. Accordingly, cetuximab restored killing activity of sMICA-inhibited patient NK cells against cetuximab-coated primary HNSCC cells via ADCC in a dose-dependent manner. Rapid reconstitution of anti-tumor recognition and enhanced tumor infiltration of treated NK cells was monitored by 24 h co-incubation of HNSCC tumor spheroids with cetuximab (1 µg/ml) and was characterized by increased IFN-γ and TNFα secretion. This data show that the impaired NK cell-dependent tumor surveillance in relapsed HNSCC patients could be reversed by the re-establishment of ADCC-mediated effector cell activity, thus supporting NK cell-based immunotherapy in combination with antineoplastic monoclonal mAbs.

11.
Oncoimmunology ; 4(11): e1055993, 2015 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26451327

RESUMO

Disseminated head-and-neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) escapes immune surveillance and thus frequently manifests as fatal disease. Here, we report on the distribution of distinct immune cell subpopulations, natural killer (NK) cell cytotoxicity and tumor immune escape mechanisms (TIEMs) in 55 HNSCC patients, either at initial diagnosis or present with tumor relapse. Compared to healthy controls, the regulatory NK cells and the ratio of pro/anti-inflammatory cytokines were decreased in HNSCC patients, while soluble major histocompatibility complex Class I chain-related peptide A (sMICA) and transforming growth factor ß1 (TGFß1) plasma levels were markedly elevated. Increased sMICA and TGFß1 concentrations correlated with tumor progression and staging characteristics in 7 follow-up HNSCC patients, with significantly elevated levels of both soluble factors from the time of initial diagnosis to that of relapse. Patient plasma containing elevated sMICA and TGFß1 markedly impaired NKG2D-dependent cytotoxicity against HNSCC cells upon incubation with patient-derived and IL-2 activated NK cells vs. those derived from healthy donors. Decreased antitumor recognition was accompanied by reduced NKG2D expression on the NK cell surface and an enhanced caspase-3 activity. In-vitro blocking and neutralization experiments demonstrated a synergistic negative impact of sMICA and TGFß1 on NK cell functionality. Although we previously showed the feasibility and safety of transfer of allogeneic donor NK cells in a prior clinical study encompassing various leukemia and tumor patients, our present results suggest the need for caution regarding the sole use of adoptive NK cell transfer. The presence of soluble NKG2D ligands in the plasma of HNSCC patients and the decreased NK cell cytotoxicity due to several factors, especially TGFß1, indicates timely depletion of these immunosuppressing molecules may promote NK cell-based immunotherapy.

12.
Front Pharmacol ; 6: 21, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25729364

RESUMO

In contrast to donor T cells, natural killer (NK) cells are known to mediate anti-cancer effects without the risk of inducing graft-versus-host disease (GvHD). In order to improve cytotoxicity against resistant cancer cells, auspicious efforts have been made with chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) expressing T- and NK cells. These CAR-modified cells express antigen receptors against tumor-associated surface antigens, thus redirecting the effector cells and enhancing tumor-specific immunosurveillance. However, many cancer antigens are also expressed on healthy tissues, potentially leading to off tumor/on target toxicity by CAR-engineered cells. In order to control such potentially severe side effects, the insertion of suicide genes into CAR-modified effectors can provide a means for efficient depletion of these cells. While CAR-expressing T cells have entered successfully clinical trials, experience with CAR-engineered NK cells is mainly restricted to pre-clinical investigations and predominantly to NK cell lines. In this review we summarize the data on CAR expressing NK cells focusing on the possible advantage using these short-lived effector cells and discuss the necessity of suicide switches. Furthermore, we address the compliance of such modified NK cells with regulatory requirements as a new field in cellular immunotherapy.

13.
J Transl Med ; 12: 336, 2014 Dec 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25510656

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The adoptive transfer of allogeneic antiviral T lymphocytes derived from seropositive donors can safely and effectively reduce or prevent the clinical manifestation of viral infections or reactivations in immunocompromised recipients after hematopoietic stem cell (HSCT) or solid organ transplantation (SOT). Allogeneic third party T-cell donors offer an alternative option for patients receiving an allogeneic cord blood transplant or a transplant from a virus-seronegative donor and since donor blood is generally not available for solid organ recipients. Therefore we established a registry of potential third-party T-cell donors (allogeneic cell registry, alloCELL) providing detailed data on the assessment of a specific individual memory T-cell repertoire in response to antigens of cytomegalovirus (CMV), Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), adenovirus (ADV), and human herpesvirus (HHV) 6. METHODS: To obtain a manufacturing license according to the German Medicinal Products Act, the enrichment of clinical-grade CMV-specific T cells from three healthy CMV-seropositive donors was performed aseptically under GMP conditions using the CliniMACS cytokine capture system (CCS) after restimulation with an overlapping peptide pool of the immunodominant CMVpp65 antigen. Potential T-cell donors were selected from alloCELL and defined as eligible for clinical-grade antiviral T-cell generation if the peripheral fraction of IFN-γ(+) T cells exceeded 0.03% of CD3(+) lymphocytes as determined by IFN-γ cytokine secretion assay. RESULTS: Starting with low concentration of IFN-γ(+) T cells (0.07-1.11%) we achieved 81.2%, 19.2%, and 63.1% IFN-γ(+)CD3(+) T cells (1.42 × 10(6), 0.05 × 10(6), and 1.15 × 10(6)) after enrichment. Using the CMVpp65 peptide pool for restimulation resulted in the activation of more CMV-specific CD8(+) than CD4(+) memory T cells, both of which were effectively enriched to a total of 81.0% CD8(+)IFN-γ(+) and 38.4% CD4(+)IFN-γ(+) T cells. In addition to T cells and NKT cells, all preparations contained acceptably low percentages of contaminating B cells, granulocytes, monocytes, and NK cells. The enriched T-cell products were stable over 72 h with respect to viability and ratio of T lymphocytes. CONCLUSIONS: The generation of antiviral CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells by CliniMACS CCS can be extended to a broad spectrum of common pathogen-derived peptide pools in single or multiple applications to facilitate and enhance the efficacy of adoptive T-cell immunotherapy.


Assuntos
Doadores de Sangue , Transplante de Células , Indústria Farmacêutica/normas , Linfócitos T/imunologia , Viroses/terapia , Adenoviridae/imunologia , Citomegalovirus/imunologia , Herpesvirus Humano 4/imunologia , Herpesvirus Humano 6/imunologia , Humanos , Imunoterapia , Controle de Qualidade , Viroses/imunologia , Viroses/virologia
14.
Indian J Dermatol ; 56(1): 87-91, 2011 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21572802

RESUMO

The primary cutaneous T-cell lymphomas (CTCL) represent a clonal T-lymphocyte proliferation infiltrating the skin. CD30(+)T-cell lymphomas present clinically as nodules with a diameter between 1 and 15 cm, mostly in elderly patients. The role of the CD30 molecule in patients suffering from T-cell lymphomas is not completely clear yet. The signal transduction pathway which includes CD30 seems to play a key role in tumor progression. In certain forms of T-cellular lymphomas, the interaction between CD30/CD30-ligand is able to provoke apoptosis of the "tumor lymphocytes". The modern conceptions of the pathogenesis of T-cell lymphomas include disorders in the pathways involved in programmed cellular death and disregulation in the expression of certain of its regulatory molecules. We are presenting an unusual case of a female patient with a primary cutaneous form of CD30(+)/ALK(-) anaplastic large T-cell lymphoma. Upon the introduction of systemic PUVA, (psoralen plus ultraviolet light radiation) combined with beam therapy, a complete remission could be noticed. Eight months later, we observed a local recurrence, which was overcome by CHOP chemotherapy (Cyclophosphamide, Hydroxydaunorubicin (Doxorubicin), Vincristin (Oncovin®), Predniso(lo)n). Six months later, new cutaneous lesions had been noticed again. A new therapeutic hope for the patients with anaplastic large CTCL is actually based on the influence of the activity of the different apoptotic pathways. Death ligands, including tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, CD95L/FasL, and TRAIL, mediate also some important safeguard mechanisms against tumor growth in patients with CD30(+) cutaneous anaplastic large T-cell lymphomas and critically contribute to lymphocyte homeostasis.

16.
Eur Heart J ; 30(24): 2978-84, 2009 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19773226

RESUMO

AIMS: We assessed whether a single intracoronary infusion of autologous bone marrow cells (BMCs) can have a sustained impact on left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) in patients after ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). In the BOne marrOw transfer to enhance ST-elevation infarct regeneration (BOOST) trial, 60 patients with STEMI and successful percutaneous coronary intervention were randomized to a control and a cell therapy group. As previously reported, BMC transfer led to an improvement of LVEF by 6.0% at 6 months (P = 0.003) and 2.8% at 18 months (P = 0.27). METHODS AND RESULTS: Left ventricular ejection fraction and clinical status were re-assessed in all surviving patients after 61 +/- 11 months. Major adverse cardiac events occurred with similar frequency in both groups. When compared with baseline, LVEF assessed by magnetic resonance imaging at 61 months decreased by 3.3 +/- 9.5% in the control group and by 2.5 +/- 11.9% in the BMC group (P = 0.30). Patients with an infarct transmurality > median appeared to benefit from BMC transfer throughout the 61-month study period (P = 0.040). CONCLUSION: A single intracoronary application of BMCs does not promote a sustained improvement of LVEF in STEMI patients with relatively preserved systolic function. It is conceivable that a subgroup of patients with more transmural infarcts may derive a sustained benefit from BMC therapy. However, this needs to be tested prospectively in a randomized trial.


Assuntos
Transplante de Medula Óssea/métodos , Infarto do Miocárdio/terapia , Adulto , Idoso , Seguimentos , Humanos , Angiografia por Ressonância Magnética , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infarto do Miocárdio/fisiopatologia , Volume Sistólico/fisiologia , Transplante Autólogo , Resultado do Tratamento , Disfunção Ventricular Esquerda/etiologia , Disfunção Ventricular Esquerda/terapia
17.
Acta Ophthalmol ; 86(2): 225-6, 2008 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17900263

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To report on the feasibility and safety of an intravitreal injection of mononuclear cells derived from autologous bone marrow. METHODS: A 43-year-old patient with very advanced atrophy of the retina and optic nerve caused by diabetic retinopathy had undergone pars plana vitrectomy with silicone oil endotamponade. Despite complete retinal attachment, vision was limited to defective light perception as a result of retinal capillary occlusion. As an ultima ratio, the patient underwent an intravitreal injection of autologous bone marrow-derived stem cells obtained by isolating mononuclear cells from 100 ml of bone marrow. RESULTS: On postoperative day 1, a cluster of injected cells was observed on the retinal surface in the inferior fundus periphery. The anterior chamber was completely filled with silicone oil, which was released transcorneally. Subsequently, intraocular pressure remained normal and the anterior chamber was free of inflammatory cells or flare. Within 1 week of the injection, visual acuity remained at light perception. There were no signs of any side-effects of the therapy, such as inflammation or infection. CONCLUSIONS: Intravitreal autologous bone marrow mononuclear cell transplantation is technically feasible.


Assuntos
Transplante de Medula Óssea , Retinopatia Diabética/cirurgia , Monócitos/transplante , Corpo Vítreo/cirurgia , Adulto , Câmara Anterior/patologia , Retinopatia Diabética/patologia , Retinopatia Diabética/fisiopatologia , Estudos de Viabilidade , Humanos , Pressão Intraocular , Monócitos/patologia , Período Pós-Operatório , Retina/patologia , Fatores de Tempo , Transplante Autólogo , Acuidade Visual
19.
Circulation ; 113(10): 1287-94, 2006 Mar 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16520413

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Intracoronary transfer of autologous bone marrow cells (BMCs) may enhance recovery of left ventricular (LV) function in patients after acute myocardial infarction (AMI). However, clinical studies addressing the effects of BMCs after AMI have covered only limited time frames ranging from 3 to 6 months. The critical question of whether BMC transfer can have a sustained impact on LV function remains unanswered. METHODS AND RESULTS: After percutaneous coronary intervention with stent implantation (PCI) of the infarct-related artery, 60 patients were randomized 1:1 to a control group with optimal postinfarction therapy and a BMC transfer group that also received an intracoronary BMC infusion 4.8+/-1.3 days after PCI. Cardiac MRI was performed 3.5+/-1.5 days, 6+/-1 months, and 18+/-6 months after PCI. BMC transfer was not associated with adverse clinical events. In the control group, mean global LV ejection fraction increased by 0.7 and 3.1 percentage points after 6 and 18 months, respectively. LV ejection fraction in the BMC transfer group increased by 6.7 and 5.9 percentage points. The difference in LVEF improvement between groups was significant after 6 months but not after 18 months (P=0.27). The speed of LV ejection fraction recovery over the course of 18 months was significantly higher in the BMC transfer group (P=0.001). CONCLUSIONS: In this study, a single dose of intracoronary BMCs did not provide long-term benefit on LV systolic function after AMI compared with a randomized control group; however, the study suggests an acceleration of LV ejection fraction recovery after AMI by BMC therapy.


Assuntos
Transplante de Medula Óssea/métodos , Vasos Coronários , Infarto do Miocárdio/terapia , Adulto , Idoso , Angioplastia Coronária com Balão , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Stents , Volume Sistólico , Sístole , Resultado do Tratamento , Função Ventricular Esquerda
20.
Toxicology ; 220(2-3): 117-25, 2006 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16473453

RESUMO

Freshly isolated human hepatocytes are considered as the gold standard for in vitro testing of drug candidates. Meanwhile also cryopreserved human hepatocyte suspensions are available. However, a drawback of these cells is the incalculability of attachment to the culture dish. Therefore, we established a technique freezing hepatocytes cultured on a collagen gel. After thawing damaged cells were removed to a certain extent by gentle washing with culture medium prior to adding an upper gel layer. The morphology of the resulting hepatocyte cultures could not be distinguished from that of non-frozen cells. However, basal activities of cytochrome P450 isoforms decreased in cryopreserved compared to non-frozen hepatocytes, as evidenced by analysis of testosterone hydroxylation (OHT) in positions 6beta, 16alpha, 2beta and 6alpha. Nevertheless, enzyme induction factors caused by 24 h incubation with 50 microM rifampicin were similar in cryopreserved and non-frozen hepatocytes. In cryopreserved hepatocytes rifampicin caused an increase in mean values of 6beta-OHT formation from 57.2 to 157.7 pmol/well/min (2.8-fold), compared to an increase from 115.8 to 269.1 pmol/well/min (2.3-fold) in non-frozen cells. Similarly, 16alpha- and 2beta-OHT showed induction factors of 2.4- and 2.3-fold in cryopreserved compared to 1.6- and 2.4-fold in non-frozen hepatocytes, respectively. In conclusion, human hepatocytes cryopreserved on collagen gels show a clear induction of CYP3A4 by rifampicin, although the basal activities are reduced compared to non-frozen cells.


Assuntos
Colágeno , Criopreservação , Sistema Enzimático do Citocromo P-450/biossíntese , Hepatócitos/enzimologia , Rifampina/farmacologia , Idoso , Técnicas de Cultura de Células , Sobrevivência Celular , Células Cultivadas , Citocromo P-450 CYP3A , Indução Enzimática , Feminino , Hepatócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Hidroxilação , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Testosterona/metabolismo
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA