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Cureus ; 12(8): e9894, 2020 Aug 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32968560


Background Menstruation is a natural physiological phenomenon, yet considered a stigmatized subject, particularly in low- and middle-income countries like Pakistan. It is seldom discussed openly, leading to flow of incorrect and incomplete knowledge. The resultant unhealthy practices not only affect the health of the menstruator but can also contribute to considerable psychosocial stress. Menstrual hygiene management (MHM) is an important facet, which is associated with a variety of practices and beliefs in different parts of the world, some of which may not be correct. Identifying these poor methods is necessary in order to rectify them. Hence, our study aimed at determining the level of knowledge, beliefs, and practices pertaining to menstruation in the general female populace of Karachi. Healthcare workers have a potential role in the dissemination of authentic knowledge and practices. Therefore, we assessed and compared the accuracy and reliability of the aforementioned parameters in them and the need for an educational intervention. Methods A descriptive, cross-sectional study was conducted on females visiting the Gynecologic and Obstetrics Outpatient Department (OPD), and healthcare workers employed at Dr. Ruth K. M. Pfau Civil Hospital Karachi and Dow University Hospital Ojha. Using non-probability convenience sampling, a self-structured questionnaire was used to collect data from 353 respondents over a duration of three months from October 2019 to January 2020. Data was tabulated in Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) version 24.0 (IBM Corp., Armonk, NY, US). In accordance with the objectives of the study, descriptive analysis was performed, and data was presented in the form of frequencies and percentages.  Results Of the 353 participants, 176 were from the general population and 177 were healthcare workers. At menarche, only 28.4% of the general population and 29.4% of healthcare workers had an idea of menses and proper placement of absorbent. Significantly lower number of females from the general population were found to be aware of tampons and menstrual cups (15.9% and 11.4% respectively) as compared to healthcare workers. For both groups, the source of knowledge was mostly their mother. The study showed that 77.8% of the general population and 66.1% of healthcare workers avoided bathing on certain days during menses, with the most common reason being that "it causes irregular flow". As compared to healthcare workers, a significantly higher number of women from the general population had restrictions of activity (53.4%) and avoided washing of groin area during menstruation (31.2%). Majority of women from the general population mentioned that they were scared when they menstruated for the first time. The most common absorbent used by respondents was pads, followed by cloth. The data showed 64.2% of females from the general population and 28.8% of healthcare workers abstained from eating certain foods. Seeking treatment for gynecological issues was not widespread among respondents. Conclusion Our study demonstrated insufficient menstrual knowledge, and consequent incorrect practices in the female population of Karachi. Destigmatizing menstruation and educating women and young girls is indispensable to overcoming this gap. At the same time, reinforcing the availability of MHM products is long overdue and is a crucial milestone towards facilitation of MHM for the women of Pakistan.

J Infect Public Health ; 13(4): 644-646, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32199792


The outbreak of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) causing novel coronavirus-infected pneumonia (NCIP), has affected the lives of 71,429 people globally. Originating in China, the disease has a rapid progression to other countries. Research suggests remarkable genomic resemblance of 2019-nCoV with Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) which has a history of a pandemic in 2002. With evidence of nosocomial spread, a number of diligent measures are being employed to constrain its propagation. Hence, the Public Health Emergency of International Concern (PHEIC) has been established by the World Health Organization (WHO) with strategic objectives for public health to curtail its impact on global health and economy.

Betacoronavirus , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Animais , COVID-19 , China/epidemiologia , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/virologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Surtos de Doenças/estatística & dados numéricos , Saúde Global/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Pandemias/estatística & dados numéricos , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , SARS-CoV-2 , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/virologia , Zoonoses/epidemiologia , Zoonoses/virologia