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1.
Cureus ; 13(10): e19106, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34868757

RESUMO

Background Vaccine hesitancy has been a huge challenge in controlling preventable diseases. With the emergence of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccines, it is vital to know their acceptance rates among the masses. No comparative data is available on the current subject from Pakistan yet. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the acceptance of a potential COVID-19 vaccine among the general population and healthcare workers (HCWs) of Pakistan, along with their perceptions and barriers to acceptance. Methods An online cross-sectional study was carried out in Pakistan from December 19, 2020, to January 10, 2021, using convenience sampling. A self-administered questionnaire consisting of 31 items was distributed after informed consent. Inclusion criteria consisted of HCWs and non-HCWs (general population) aged 18 years and above, residing in Pakistan. All analyses were done using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 23.0 (IBM Corp., Armonk, NY, USA). Chi-square and T-test were used and a p-value of less than 0.05 was considered significant for all cases. Results Of the 404 respondents (n=196 general population and n=208 HCWs), 73.5% were willing to get a proven, safe, and effective COVID-19 vaccine if it was free of cost. This was reduced to only 64.3% if the vaccine was not free and had to be paid for. A total of 168 (41.6%) participants agreed to get vaccinated immediately, while 149 (36.9%) participants concurred to get it on a delayed basis. Eighty-seven (21.5%) participants refused to receive the COVID-19 vaccine, amongst which a significant majority (p<0.001) of the participants were from the general population. Doctors or scientists/scholarly journals were found to be the most trusted source of information (67.6%; n=273), while fear of unknown side effects (45.5%; n=184) was found to be the most common barrier towards COVID-19 vaccination. More than half (53.5%) participants believed that the vaccine is safe, effective, and has minimal side effects, amongst which a significantly large fraction (p<0.001) belonged to the HCWs. Conclusion The acceptance rate of a safe, effective, proven, and free COVID-19 vaccine was 73.5%. The fear of unknown side effects was the most common barrier to COVID-19 vaccine uptake. The general population demonstrated less knowledge, more false perceptions, and barriers to COVID-19 vaccine. Adequate measures should be taken to educate the masses about the COVID-19 vaccine, and its safety, and further studies are required.

2.
Cureus ; 13(4): e14428, 2021 Apr 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33996294

RESUMO

Introduction A systematic review and meta-analysis of the available randomized controlled trials (RCTs) were conducted to investigate the efficacy and safety of dotinurad in hyperuricemic patients with or without gout. Dotinurad is a novel selective urate reabsorption inhibitor (SURI) that increases uric acid excretion by selectively inhibiting urate transporter 1 (URAT1). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first meta-analysis conducted to gauge the efficacy and safety of dotinurad.  Methods Electronic databases (PubMed, the Cochrane Library, and ClinicalTrials.gov) were searched from inception till March 2, 2021, according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis statement. Randomized controlled trials comparing the efficacy and safety of dotinurad with placebo- or active (febuxostat or benzbromarone) control were included. The eligible studies were analyzed with RevMan 5.3 Software (The Nordic Cochrane Centre, Cochrane Collaboration, Copenhagen). Results Four eligible studies, consisting of 684 hyperuricemic patients were included. The number of patients who achieved serum uric acid (sUA) levels ≤ 6.0 mg/dl favoured dotinurad 1 mg group as compared to placebo group (risk ratio {RR} = 39.27, 95% onfidence interval {CI}, 5.59 to 275.65; p = 0.0002), dotinurad 2 mg group compared with placebo group (RR = 45.36, 95% CI, 6.48 to 317.38; p= 0.0001), and dotinurad 4 mg group compared with placebo group (RR = 54.16, 95% CI, 7.76 to 377.77; p < 0.0001). Conversely, there was no significant difference in the number of patients who achieved the target sUA levels between dotinurad 2 mg and active control (RR = 1.00, 95% CI, 0.92 to 1.08; p = 0.91). Moreover, the percentage change in sUA levels from baseline to final visit favoured dotinurad 1 mg vs. placebo ((RR = 36.51, 95% CI, 33.00 to 40.02; p < 0.00001), dotinurad 2 mg vs. placebo (RR = 46.70, 95% CI, 42.53 to 50.87; p < 0.00001), and dotinurad 4 mg vs. placebo (RR = 63.84, 95% CI, 60.51 to 67.16; p < 0.00001), while no significant difference was seen in dotinurad 2 mg vs. active control (RR = -0.08, 95% CI, -4.27 to 4.11; p= 0.97). Compared with active or placebo control, dotinurad 2 mg showed no significant difference in the number of events of gouty arthritis (RR= 1.31, 95% CI, 0.47 to 3.71; p = 0.60), the number patients with adverse events (RR = 1.09, 95% CI, 0.91 to 1.30; p = 0.36), and the number of patients who experienced adverse drug reactions (RR = 1.00, 95% CI, 0.68 to 1.47; p = 0.99). Conclusion Dotinurad shows significant improvement in serum uric acid levels in hyperuricemic individuals with or without gout. Its urate-lowering effect is comparable to the commonly available anti-hyperuricemic agents. Moreover, it is effective at doses 1 mg, 2 mg, and 4 mg and well-tolerated at a dose of 2 mg.

3.
Cureus ; 13(2): e13080, 2021 Feb 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33680620

RESUMO

Background  As of January 19, 2021, around two million fatalities and 68 million recoveries from coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) have been reported around the globe. The past pandemics of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and the Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) hint toward a risk of occurrence of "Long-COVID" syndrome, i.e., the persistence of post-discharge symptoms among COVID-19 survivors. With the scarcity of literature addressing post-COVID-19 manifestations and little regard for the stigma associated with this disease, survivors' rehabilitation remains widely neglected. The current study aims to assess the prevalence and characteristics of post-COVID-19 manifestations and their effect on the quality of life (QoL) of COVID-19 recovered individuals. We have also analyzed the relationship of time since the recovery of COVID-19 and its severity with the post-discharge symptoms. The stigma affiliated with the infection of SARS coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) has also been highlighted. Methodology A descriptive, cross-sectional, questionnaire-based study was conducted from September 2020 to December 2020 among 158 COVID-19 recovered patients, whose information was obtained from Dow Diagnostic Laboratory, Ojha Campus, Karachi, Pakistan. The questionnaire consisted of four sections: sociodemographic data, post-COVID-19 manifestations, questions relating to the stigma, and the QoL of the recovered COVID-19 patients. We used the EuroQol five-dimension five-level questionnaire to assess the QoL, while the modified BG Prasad Socioeconomic Classification updated for 2019 was employed to determine the socioeconomic status of the participants. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 24.0 (IBM Corp., Armonk, NY, USA). Data were presented in the form of frequencies and percentages. Results An overwhelming majority (94.9%) experienced at least one post-COVID-19 symptom, with fatigue (82.9%) being the most prevalent post-discharge manifestation. We observed a significant correlation of post-COVID-19 symptoms with gender, age, and time since recovery. COVID-19 severity was found to be significantly related to the five dimensions of the QoL. A significant difference in EuroQol Visual Analog Scale health score was observed between the participants with mild, moderate, and severe COVID-19 infection (p < 0.001). Besides, the associated stigma with SARS-CoV-2 infection was found to be more prevalent in the participants belonging to the upper class as compared to the other classes (p < 0.05). Nonetheless, we also observed a significant association of disease severity with post-COVID-19 manifestations and pre-existing comorbidities. Conclusions The long-COVID syndrome is similar to the post-discharge manifestations of the survivors of prior pandemics of SARS and MERS. Multi-disciplinary rehabilitation teams, healthcare workers, and the general population should recognize the need for systematic assessment of their recovery and further rehabilitation.

4.
Cureus ; 12(9): e10487, 2020 Sep 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33083187

RESUMO

Background Since the outbreak, healthcare systems across the globe are overcrowded with coronavirus disease (COVID-19) patients. To sustain the response towards the pandemic, many hospitals have adapted to virtual healthcare and telemedicine. Google™ has become the most widely used search engine over the years. Google Trends™ can be used to depict the public interest over a certain topic. The output of the Google Trends™ is displayed as relative search volume (RSV) which is the proportionate search volume regarding a specific topic comparative to the total search volume in a specific time and region. The primary aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between the daily reported number of new COVID-19 cases and deaths and the corresponding changes in Google Trends™ RSV of telehealth over six months. Methods A retrospective study was conducted from January 21, 2020 to July 21, 2020. About 17 countries that reported the total number of cases greater than 200,000 in the situation report of July 21, 2020 were selected to be a part of this study. The daily reported new cases and deaths globally and of the selected countries were extracted from the World Health Organization (WHO) situation reports. The combination of keywords used for obtaining the RSV data through Google Trends™ was "telehealth", "telemedicine", "mHealth", and "eHealth". These words were used with the "+" feature of Google Trends™ with "1/21/2020 to 7/21/2020" as time range, "all categories" for the category, and "web search" for the type of search. The worldwide RSV as well as the RSVs of the selected countries were obtained from the Google Trends™ website. Spearman's correlation coefficient (ρ) was used to determine the strength of the relationship between new cases or deaths and RSVs related to telehealth. Results A positive fair correlation was established between the global interest in telehealth and the new cases (ρ=0.307, p-value<0.001) and deaths (ρ=0.469, p-value<0.001) reported worldwide. The United States of America (USA), India, and Bangladesh were found to have a positive fair correlation between the public interest regarding telehealth and the emerging new COVID-19 cases and deaths. The United Kingdom (UK) and Italy demonstrated a positive poor correlation between the rising new cases or deaths and RSV. Similar statistics were noted for the daily new cases of Chile. For Turkey, a positive fair correlation between new deaths and RSV while a positive poor correlation between new cases and RSV was observed. No significant correlation was observed for the rest of the selected countries. Conclusion This study highlights the steadily rising public interest in telehealth during the COVID-19 pandemic. Telemedicine can provide the necessary remote consultation and healthcare for patients in the current situation. However, previous studies have shown that the majority of the countries are inadequately equipped for the digitization of the healthcare system. Therefore, it has become necessary to incorporate telemedicine into the healthcare system to combat any possible pandemic in the future.

5.
Cureus ; 12(8): e9894, 2020 Aug 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32968560

RESUMO

Background Menstruation is a natural physiological phenomenon, yet considered a stigmatized subject, particularly in low- and middle-income countries like Pakistan. It is seldom discussed openly, leading to flow of incorrect and incomplete knowledge. The resultant unhealthy practices not only affect the health of the menstruator but can also contribute to considerable psychosocial stress. Menstrual hygiene management (MHM) is an important facet, which is associated with a variety of practices and beliefs in different parts of the world, some of which may not be correct. Identifying these poor methods is necessary in order to rectify them. Hence, our study aimed at determining the level of knowledge, beliefs, and practices pertaining to menstruation in the general female populace of Karachi. Healthcare workers have a potential role in the dissemination of authentic knowledge and practices. Therefore, we assessed and compared the accuracy and reliability of the aforementioned parameters in them and the need for an educational intervention. Methods A descriptive, cross-sectional study was conducted on females visiting the Gynecologic and Obstetrics Outpatient Department (OPD), and healthcare workers employed at Dr. Ruth K. M. Pfau Civil Hospital Karachi and Dow University Hospital Ojha. Using non-probability convenience sampling, a self-structured questionnaire was used to collect data from 353 respondents over a duration of three months from October 2019 to January 2020. Data was tabulated in Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) version 24.0 (IBM Corp., Armonk, NY, US). In accordance with the objectives of the study, descriptive analysis was performed, and data was presented in the form of frequencies and percentages.  Results Of the 353 participants, 176 were from the general population and 177 were healthcare workers. At menarche, only 28.4% of the general population and 29.4% of healthcare workers had an idea of menses and proper placement of absorbent. Significantly lower number of females from the general population were found to be aware of tampons and menstrual cups (15.9% and 11.4% respectively) as compared to healthcare workers. For both groups, the source of knowledge was mostly their mother. The study showed that 77.8% of the general population and 66.1% of healthcare workers avoided bathing on certain days during menses, with the most common reason being that "it causes irregular flow". As compared to healthcare workers, a significantly higher number of women from the general population had restrictions of activity (53.4%) and avoided washing of groin area during menstruation (31.2%). Majority of women from the general population mentioned that they were scared when they menstruated for the first time. The most common absorbent used by respondents was pads, followed by cloth. The data showed 64.2% of females from the general population and 28.8% of healthcare workers abstained from eating certain foods. Seeking treatment for gynecological issues was not widespread among respondents. Conclusion Our study demonstrated insufficient menstrual knowledge, and consequent incorrect practices in the female population of Karachi. Destigmatizing menstruation and educating women and young girls is indispensable to overcoming this gap. At the same time, reinforcing the availability of MHM products is long overdue and is a crucial milestone towards facilitation of MHM for the women of Pakistan.

8.
Cureus ; 12(3): e7183, 2020 Mar 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32269867

RESUMO

Background Cervical carcinoma is a widespread disease of the female genital tract, for which human papillomavirus (HPV) is an utmost risk factor. Of the total global burden, the majority is endured by the developing nations of the world, mainly due to inadequate knowledge regarding the disease and ineffective measures taken for its prevention, early detection, and screening. Hence, our study aimed to determine the level of knowledge, general attitudes and perception, and prevention practices related to HPV-based cervical cancer and its socioeconomic correlates among women in Karachi, Pakistan. Methods A cross-sectional, questionnaire-based study was conducted by approaching 450 females in the out-patient department (OPD) of a tertiary care hospital in Karachi, Pakistan from June 2019 to November 2019. The modified Kuppuswamy socioeconomic scale 2018 was deployed to assess the socioeconomic status of participants, while the knowledge score of the participants was determined based on the original Bloom's cut off point. The analysis was conducted using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 24.0 (IBM Corp., Armonk, NY). Descriptive statistics were used to present the knowledge, attitude, and practice level of respondents. The respondents' knowledge, attitude, and practice scores were compared across socioeconomic and demographic variables using the chi-square test. Results Of the 388 females interviewed, 199 (51.3%) were aware of the term cervical cancer, and 68 (34.2%) knew about Pap smear as a screening test; only 80 (40.2%) women were familiar with HPV vaccination as prophylaxis against cervical cancer. The practice of screening and prevention was found to be remarkably low (2.1% and 1.8% respectively). Socioeconomic status and education level had a significant association with knowledge of cervical cancer. Although around 64% of participants had poor knowledge, 308 (79.4%) demonstrated a favorable attitude as they were willing to know more about screening and preventive practices regarding cervical carcinoma. Conclusion The majority of the participants had insufficient overall knowledge about cervical cancer, HPV, Pap smear test, and HPV vaccination, highlighting the need for mass education through health professionals and media. In addition, the government authorities should provide screening services and vaccination against HPV free of cost to promote early detection of lesions and prophylaxis against this deadly disease.

9.
J Infect Public Health ; 13(4): 644-646, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32199792

RESUMO

The outbreak of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) causing novel coronavirus-infected pneumonia (NCIP), has affected the lives of 71,429 people globally. Originating in China, the disease has a rapid progression to other countries. Research suggests remarkable genomic resemblance of 2019-nCoV with Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) which has a history of a pandemic in 2002. With evidence of nosocomial spread, a number of diligent measures are being employed to constrain its propagation. Hence, the Public Health Emergency of International Concern (PHEIC) has been established by the World Health Organization (WHO) with strategic objectives for public health to curtail its impact on global health and economy.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Animais , COVID-19 , China/epidemiologia , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/virologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Surtos de Doenças/estatística & dados numéricos , Saúde Global/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Pandemias/estatística & dados numéricos , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , SARS-CoV-2 , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/virologia , Zoonoses/epidemiologia , Zoonoses/virologia
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